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Sirt3 increases CNPase enzymatic activity through deacetylation and facilitating substrate accessibility.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 27;571:181-187. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

Myocardial 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) metabolizes a nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate to a nucleoside 2'-phosphate. Recently, the roles of CNPase in the pathophysiological processes of heart failure have emerged. The mitochondrial acylome subjected to SIRT3 regulation give us comprehensive understanding of acylation modifications to a vast array of protein targets, and the list of acetylated mitochondrial proteins is still growing. Read More

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Lithium effects on Hippocampus volumes in patients with bipolar disorder.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 18;294:521-526. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Lithium is one of the most effective medications for bipolar disorder episode prevention, but its mechanism of action is still largely unknown. The hippocampus is a subcortical cerebral structure involved in the formation of emotional responses, cognition and various primitive functions, altered during affective episodes. Deviations in the anatomy or physiology of the hippocampus would partially explain the symptomatology of bipolar subjects, and restoration may reflect treatment response. Read More

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Long-term low-dose oxytetracycline potentially leads to neurobehavioural changes.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 27;223:112546. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Infectious Disease, Xinhua Children's Hospital, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Trace levels of oxytetracycline (OTC)-a veterinary antibiotic and feed additive-are widespread in the environment. Studies revealed that OTC potentially impairs thyroid function, which may affect neurobehaviour; however, the impact of exposure to environmental concentrations of OTC on adult neurobehaviour is unknown. In this study, the effects of OTC on zebrafish after 30-day exposure were investigated. Read More

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Platelet alloimmunization is associated with low grade chronic histiocytic intervillositis - A new link to a rare placental lesion?

Placenta 2021 Jul 23;112:89-96. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Women's Health and Perinatology Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Introduction: Maternal alloimmunization against human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a has been implied to mediate both reduced birth weight and chronic placental inflammation. Fetal growth restriction is associated with different types of chronic inflammation in the placenta, mainly chronic histiocytic intervillositis and chronic villitis. The aim of this prospective study was to do a systematic examination of placentas from HPA-1a alloimmunized pregnancies, with focus on the histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of variants of chronic inflammation. Read More

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Amphiregulin stimulates human chorionic gonadotropin expression by inducing ERK1/2-mediated ID3 expression in trophoblast cells.

Placenta 2021 Jul 23;112:73-80. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Henan Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a dimer consisting of an α subunit and a β subunit which is encoded by the CGB gene and is unique to hCG. hCG is a hormone mainly synthesized by syncytiotrophoblast cells in the placenta, plays a critical role in stimulating progesterone production that is necessary for maintaining normal pregnancy in the early stage. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase family which has been shown to regulate various physiological and pathological events. Read More

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Are We Underestimating the Morbidity of Single Rib Fractures?

J Surg Res 2021 Jul 27;268:174-180. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic and Esophageal Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106; Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106.

Purpose: Previous studies suggest that patients with multiple rib fractures have poor outcomes, but it is unknown how isolated single rib fractures (SRF) are associated with morbidity or mortality. We hypothesized that patients with poor outcomes after SRF can be identified by demographics and comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to model adverse outcome after single rib fractures. Read More

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Label-free proteomics of spermatozoa identifies candidate protein markers of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.

Reprod Biol 2021 Jul 27;21(3):100539. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India. Electronic address:

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects a large number of couples worldwide, increasing their mental and financial burdens. While female factors that contribute to RPL have been studied extensively, the role of male factors is largely unknown, and approximately 40 % RPL cases remain unexplained despite thorough clinical examinations. These cases are clinically termed as idiopathic RPL (iRPL). Read More

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Day-to-day variability in motor threshold during rTMS treatment for depression: Clinical implications.

Brain Stimul 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Division of Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 02215, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: When repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used to treat medication refractory depression, the treatment pulse intensity is individualized according to motor threshold (MT). This measure is often acquired only on the first day of treatment, as per the protocol currently approved by Food and Drug Administration.

Objective: Here, we aimed to assess daily MT variability across an rTMS treatment course and simulate the effects of different schedules of MT assessment on treatment intensity. Read More

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Hypoxia modifies calcium handling in the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Jul 27:111042. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, Bamfield, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Hagfishes may encounter low dissolved oxygen in their natural habitats, a consequence of association with hypoxic sediments and their feeding behaviour. In teleost fish, hypoxia exposure decreases ion uptake, speculated to be a mechanism for energy conservation. Although hagfishes osmoconform, they do regulate extracellular fluid concentrations of divalent cations such as calcium. Read More

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Comparative genomics of Leishmania isolates from Brazil confirms the presence of Leishmania major in the Americas.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address:

Leishmania (Leishmania) major is an important agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, having as a vector sandflies belonging to the genus Phlebotomus. Although this species has been described as restricted to the Old World, parasites similar to L. major have been isolated from South American patients who have never traveled abroad. Read More

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Association of transportation noise with sleep during the first year of life: A longitudinal study.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 27:111776. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, University Children's Hospital Zurich and Childhood Research Center, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Study Objectives: During infancy, adequate sleep is crucial for physical and neurocognitive development. In adults and children, night-time noise exposure is associated with sleep disturbances. However, whether and to what extent infants' sleep is affected, is unknown. Read More

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TRIM8 modulates the EWS/FLI oncoprotein to promote survival in Ewing sarcoma.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA; Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Fusion-transcription factors (fusion-TFs) represent a class of driver oncoproteins that are difficult to therapeutically target. Recently, protein degradation has emerged as a strategy to target these challenging oncoproteins. The mechanisms that regulate fusion-TF stability, however, are generally unknown. Read More

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Insights into the vision of the deepest-living fish through proteomic analysis of the eye.

Proteomics 2021 Jul 30:e2100118. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya, 572000, China.

No sunlight can reach the hadal trench, but some fishes dwelling there still have apparent eye morphology. However, whether they are capable of sensing light remains unknown. In this study, the eyes of the dominant hadal endemic snailfish Pseudoliparis swirei from the Mariana Trench were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Read More

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Morphofunctional programming of microglia requires distinct roles of type II myosins.

Glia 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (I3S), Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The ramified morphology of microglia and the dynamics of their membrane protrusions are essential for their functions in central nervous system development, homeostasis, and disease. Although their ability to change and control shape critically depends on the actin and actomyosin cytoskeleton, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we systematically analyzed the actomyosin cytoskeleton and regulators downstream of the small GTPase RhoA in the control of microglia shape and function. Read More

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The Small GTPase OsRac1 Forms Two Distinct Immune Receptor Complexes Containing the PRR OsCERK1 and the NLR Pit.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara 630-0192, Japan.

Plants employ two different types of immune receptors, cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and intracellular nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs), to cope with pathogen invasion. Both immune receptors often share similar downstream components and responses but it remains unknown whether a PRR and an NLR assemble into the same protein complex or two distinct receptor complexes. We have previously found that the small GTPase OsRac1 plays key roles in the signaling of OsCERK1, a PRR for fungal chitin, and of Pit, an NLR for rice blast fungus, and associates directly and indirectly with both of these immune receptors. Read More

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Effects of cloransulam-methyl and diclosulam on soil nitrogen and carbon cycle-related microorganisms.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 12;418:126395. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, 61 Daizong Road, Taian 271018, China. Electronic address:

Cloransulam-methyl and diclosulam are applied to soybean fields to control broad-leaved weeds. These herbicides have become a focus of attention because of their low application dose and high-efficiency advantages. However, the effects of these two herbicides on soil microorganisms are unknown. Read More

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Development and application of diffusive gradients in thin-films for in situ sampling of the bitterest chemical - denatonium benzoate in waters.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 12;418:126393. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Environmental Research Institute/School of Environment, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Denatonium benzoate (DB), a commonly used bitter agent in numerous products, has recently been recognized as a waterborne contaminant due to concern about its potential persistence, mobility and toxicity (PMT). However, its occurrence, levels and fate in global aquatic environments are largely unknown. In this study, a new sampling method, based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) with mixed-mode cation exchange (MCX) as the binding agent, was developed for measuring DB in waters. Read More

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Structural basis for molecular recognition of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor by selected bisphenols.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 22;793:148558. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, PR China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China; School of Environment, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou 310012, PR China. Electronic address:

Complicated ligand-dependent signaling pathways of bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues involve not only intranuclear estrogen receptor but also membrane receptor G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). However, the structural basis for molecular recognition of GPER by the environmental chemicals remains unknown. To reveal the structural dependence of GPER recognition by bisphenols, a systematic molecular dynamics simulation study was performed for selected bisphenols with different electron hybrid orbitals and substituents on their C atoms connecting two phenol rings. Read More

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Trends and Variation in the Use of Observation Stays at Children's Hospitals.

J Hosp Med 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Surgical Outcomes Quality Improvement Center, Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Observation status could improve efficiency of healthcare resource use but also might shift financial burdens to patients and hospitals. Although the use of observation stays has increased for adult patient populations, the trends are unknown among hospitalized children.

Objective: The goal of this study was to describe recent trends in observation stays for pediatric populations at children's hospitals. Read More

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Catalytic Mechanism of Butane Anaerobic Oxidation for Alkyl-coenzyme M Reductase.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, SJTU-Yale Joint Center for Biostatistics, National Experimental Teaching Center for Life Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Methane is among the most potent of the greenhouse gases, which plays a key role in global climate change. As an excellent carbon and energy source, methane can be utilized by anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea and aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria. The previous work shows that an anaerobic thermophilic enrichment culture composed of dense consortia of archaea and bacteria apparently uses partly similar pathways to oxidize the C4 hydrocarbon butane. Read More

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Comparison of PROMIS Computerized Adaptive Testing versus Fixed Short Forms in Juvenile Myositis.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Objective: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ) measures can be administered via computerized adaptive testing (CAT) or fixed short forms (FSF), but the empirical benefits of CAT versus FSF are unknown in juvenile myositis (JM). This study assesses if PROMIS CAT is feasible, precise, correlated with FSF, and less prone to respondent burden and floor/ceiling effects than FSF in JM.

Methods: Patients 8-17 yo (self-report and parent proxy) and parents of patients 5-7 yo (only parent proxy) completed PROMIS Fatigue, Pain Interference, Upper Extremity Function, Mobility, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms measures. Read More

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Health Care Utilization Before and After the "Muslim Ban" Executive Order Among People Born in Muslim-Majority Countries and Living in the US.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2118216. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.

Importance: The health effects of restrictive immigration and refugee policies targeting individuals from Muslim-majority countries are largely unknown.

Objective: To analyze whether President Trump's 2017 executive order 13769, "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States" (known as the "Muslim ban" executive order) was associated with changes in health care utilization by people born in targeted nations living in the US.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients treated at Minneapolis-St. Read More

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The Association between Baseline Eye Tracking Performance and Concussion Assessments in High School Football Players.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 Jul;98(7):826-832

Significance: Concussions are complex injuries that require a multifaceted testing battery. Vision impairments are common after concussion, but it is unknown exactly how eye tracking may be affected after injury and how it is associated with other clinical concussion assessments.

Purpose: This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between eye tracking performance (BOX score) and other common concussion evaluations, (2) identify if eye tracking adds novel information that augments baseline concussion evaluations, and (3) examine the effect of age, concussion history, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on eye tracking and other ophthalmological measures. Read More

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Psychological outcomes amongst family medicine healthcare professionals during COVID-19 outbreak: A cross-sectional study in Croatia.

Eur J Gen Pract 2021 Dec;27(1):184-190

Private Family Physician Office, Department of Family Medicine, Zagreb University School of Medicine, School of Public Health 'Andrija Štampar', Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) in family medicine (FM) in Croatia work in a demanding environment caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Besides particular circumstances in healthcare, an unknown virus, social distancing, and homeschooling, the capital was hit with the earthquake during the lockdown.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the influence of demographic characteristics, professional differences, medical history, and specific stressors on the psychological outcomes. Read More

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December 2021

Limited resources restrict the provision of adequate neonatal respiratory care in the countries of Africa.

Acta Paediatr 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Mbuya Nehanda Maternity Hospital.

Aim: Over two thirds of newborn deaths occur in Africa and South Asia and respiratory failure is a major contributor of these deaths. The exact availability of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and surfactant in Africa is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the availability of newborn respiratory care treatments in the countries of Africa. Read More

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Galectin‑3 blockade suppresses the growth of cetuximab‑resistant human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Oct 30;24(4). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Surgery, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050011, P.R. China.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancer associated with high mortality (accounting for 3.1/100,000 deaths per year in Brazil in 2013) and a high frequency of amplification in the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab leads to drug resistance in patients with OSCC due to unknown mechanisms. Read More

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October 2021

Multiple neuronal networks coordinate mechanosensory behavior.

Elife 2021 Jul 30;10. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, United States.

is an emerging model organism for neuroscience due to its small size, transparency, genetic tractability, and regenerative nervous system; however, fundamental properties of its sensorimotor behaviors remain unknown. Here, we use microfluidic devices combined with fluorescent calcium imaging and surgical resectioning to study how the diffuse nervous system coordinates 's mechanosensory response. Mechanical stimuli cause animals to contract, and we find this response relies on at least two distinct networks of neurons in the oral and aboral regions of the animal. Read More

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From farm to fork: colistin voluntary withdrawal in Portuguese farms reflected in decreasing occurrence of mcr-1-carrying Enterobacteriaceae from chicken meat.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

UCIBIO - Unidade de Ciências Biomoleculares Aplicadas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto. Porto., Portugal.

Expansion of mcr-carrying Enterobacteriaceae (MCR-E) is a well-recognized problem affecting animals, humans and the environment. Ongoing global control actions involve colistin restrictions among food-animal production, but their impact on poultry-derived products is largely unknown, justifying comprehensive farm-to-fork studies. Occurrence of MCR-E among 53 chicken-meat batches supplied from 29 Portuguese farms shortly after colistin withdrawal was evaluated. Read More

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Head Circumference within the Normal Range and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Preterm Infants.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Center for Women's Reproductive Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Objective:  We sought to determine if variation in head circumference (HC) within the range of normal (5th-10th and 90th-95th percentile) is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes (NDO), which defined as mild or moderate delay by Bayley II psychometrics (BSID-II).

Study Design:  This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial assessing the benefits of magnesium for the prevention of cerebral palsy. Fetuses with a normal HC at birth defined as within 5th to 95th percentile were included. Read More

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Variation in surgical treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis in Canada: surgeon assessment of stability and impact on treatment.

Eur Spine J 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Controversy exists regarding the optimal surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DS). Not all DS patients are the same, and the degree to which inherent stability may dictate treatment is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the variability in surgical approach relative to surgeon classified stability. Read More

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