4,385,453 results match your criteria united states

New partition based measures for data compatibility and information gain.

Stat Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

It is of great practical importance to compare and combine data from different studies in order to carry out appropriate and more powerful statistical inference. We propose a partition based measure to quantify the compatibility of two datasets using their respective posterior distributions. We further propose an information gain measure to quantify the information increase (or decrease) in combining two datasets. Read More

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The natural history of insomnia: Does sleep extension differentiate between those that do and do not develop chronic insomnia?

J Sleep Res 2021 Apr 14:e13342. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Northumbria Center for Sleep Research, Northumbria University, Newcastle, UK.

According to the "3P model" of insomnia, the variable that mediates the transition from acute insomnia (AI) to chronic insomnia is "sleep extension" (the behavioural tendency to expand sleep opportunity to compensate for sleep loss). In the present analysis, we sought to evaluate how time in bed (TIB) varies relative to the new onset of AI and chronic insomnia. A total of 1,248 subjects were recruited as good sleepers (GS). Read More

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Minimal Residual Disease in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Augenklinik der LMU, Klinikum der Universität München, München, Germany.

With the advent of long-acting anti-vascular endothelial growth factor substances, "healing of AMD (age-related macular degeneration)" might be easily assumed due to prolonged treatment intervals. Adoption of the oncological concept of minimal residual disease for quiescent choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions might enhance the importance of continued monitoring, and spur research into the core of the disease, i.e. Read More

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Utility of Epilepsy Surgery in Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Neurology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

Resection of an epileptogenic focus improves seizure control in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. There is little data available on usefulness of epilepsy surgery in childhood cancer survivors with drug-resistant epilepsy. To learn about seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in childhood cancer survivors, we retrospectively reviewed charts of 42 children who were referred to an epilepsy center for surgical evaluation. Read More

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Potential Risk Factors for Autism in Children Requiring Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Brazil.

Background:  The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is complex and involves the interplay of genetic and environmental factors.

Aim:  We sought to identify potential prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal risk factors for ASD in a unique population of children who had perinatal complications and required care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods:  This prospective cohort study included 73 patients discharged from a NICU who received long-term follow-up at the largest children's hospital in Brazil. Read More

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Uptake of an Integrated Electronic Questionnaire System in Community Pediatric Clinics.

Appl Clin Inform 2021 Mar 14;12(2):310-319. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

UPMC Children's Community Pediatrics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

Objective:  The study aimed to evaluate an integrated electronic questionnaire system implementation in outpatient community pediatric practices on workflow, completion rates, and recorded scores.

Methods:  We evaluated the implementation and outcomes of an integrated electronic questionnaire system at 45 community pediatric practices that used standardized questionnaires to screen for autism, depression, and substance use and to measure asthma control. Electronic health record (EHR) data for all well child visits were extracted for the 3 months before and after implementation. Read More

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U.S. COVID-19 State Government Public Dashboards: An Expert Review.

Appl Clin Inform 2021 Mar 14;12(2):208-221. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

CATALYST-The Center for the Advancement of Team Science, Analytics, and Systems Thinking, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

Background:  In the United States, all 50 state governments deployed publicly viewable dashboards regarding the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to track and respond to the pandemic. States dashboards, however, reflect idiosyncratic design practices based on their content, function, and visual design and platform. There has been little guidance for what state dashboards should look like or contain, leading to significant variation. Read More

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Cerebrovascular tone and resistance measures differ between healthy control and patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage: exploratory analyses from the BREATHE-ICH study.

Physiol Meas 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

Objective: Cerebral autoregulation impairment in acute neurovascular disease is well described. The recent BREATHE-ICH study demonstrated improvements in dynamic cerebral autoregulation, by hypocapnia generated by hyperventilation, in the acute period following intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). This exploratory analysis of the BREATHE-ICH dataset aims to examine the differences in hypocapnic responses between healthy controls and patients with ICH, and determine whether haemodynamic indices differ between baseline and hypocapnic states. Read More

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Mathematical modeling of chemotaxis guided amoeboid cell swimming.

Wang Qixuan Wu Hao

Phys Biol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Conte A325, 120 Governors Drive, Amherst, Massachusetts, 01003, UNITED STATES.

Cells and microorganisms adopt various strategies to migrate in response to different environmental stimuli. To date, many modeling research has focused on the crawling-based Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd) cells migration induced by chemotaixs, yet recent experimental results reveal that even without adhesion or contact to a substrate, Dd cells can still swim to follow chemoattractant signals. In this paper, we develop a modeling framework to investigate the chemotaxis induced amoeboid cell swimming dynamics. Read More

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Topological plasmonic waveguides in triharmonic metal gratings.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Schuster Building, Brunswick Street, Manchester, M13 9TX, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

We study topological surface-plasmon-polaritons at optical frequencies in tri-harmonic diffraction gratings formed at a metal-dielectric interface. The latter are shown to well approximate a bipartite Kronig-Penney model. Topologically protected localised modes are then predicted to occur at the edges of the grating and at defects formed by the combination of two mirror antisymmetric corrugations, whose bulk invariant is a step-wise varying Zak phase in both cases. Read More

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Risk factors for loss to follow-up of persons who inject drugs enrolled at syringe services programs in Kentucky.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Apr 10;95:103255. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

KADAP Income Reinvestment Program (KIRP), Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Kentucky, United States.

Background: Syringe services programs (SSP) are an effective strategy to reduce blood-borne infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in persons who inject drugs (PWID). The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency and risk factors for loss to follow-up (LTFU) in PWID enrolled at SSPs in Kentucky.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted which included data of PWID enrolled at 32 SSP. Read More

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Direct conjugation of fluorescent quantum dots with E. coli via surface-displayed histidine-containing peptides.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Apr 1;203:111730. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory, Biotechnology Branch, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD, 20783, United States.

Biocompatible approaches to labeling bacteria with fluorescent nanoparticles are essential in order to create living bacterial bioconjugates for imaging, biosensors, medicine, and other applications. Herein we report the direct conjugation of carboxyl quantum dots (QDs) with E. coli outer membrane via surface-displayed binding peptides. Read More

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Improved methods for targeting epigenetic reader domains of acetylated and methylated lysine.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2021 Apr 11;63:132-144. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Center for Integrative Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, United States. Electronic address:

Responsible for interpreting histone post-translational modifications, epigenetic reader proteins have emerged as novel therapeutic targets for a wide range of diseases. Chemical probes have been critical in enabling target validation studies and have led to translational advances in cancer and inflammation-related pathologies. Here, we present the most recently reported probes of reader proteins that recognize acylated and methylated lysine. Read More

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Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets vertically grown on self-supported titanium dioxide/nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber film for effective hydrogen peroxide decomposition and "memory catalysis".

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 27;596:384-395. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (ChEE), University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012, United States. Electronic address:

A self-supporting catalyst consisting of 1D/2D vertical molybdenum disulfide@titanium dioxide/nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (MoS@TiO/NCNFs) was prepared and tested. It showed efficient hydrogen peroxide (HO) decomposition to generate hydroxyl radical (OH) and degradation of various pollutants under solar irradiation. The contribution of the increase in MoS edges for decomposing HO was 0. Read More

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Alternating fast and slow chest compression rates during CPR improved hemodynamics.

Resuscitation 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Cardiac Rhythm Management Lab, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL, United States.

Introduction: Mechanical chest compression devices allow for variation in chest compression (CCs) characteristics from moment to moment, enabling therapy that is not feasible for manual CCs. Effects of varying compressions over time have not been studied. In a randomized trial in an experimental model of prolonged cardiac arrest, we compared time-varying CPR (TVCPR), alternating between 100 and 200 compressions per minute (cpm) every 6seconds, to guidelines CPR (Control). Read More

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United States Burden of Melanoma and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer from 1990 to 2019.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 3230 Eden Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45267, US.

Background: Skin cancer is the most common cancer worldwide.

Objective: To evaluate burden of skin cancer in the US from 1990 to 2019.

Methods: Age-standardized incidence, prevalence, disability adjusted life years (DALY) and mortality rates from skin cancer in the US were evaluated from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019. Read More

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COVID-19 and children's health in the United States: consideration of physical and social environments during the pandemic.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 11:111160. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, Buffalo NY, 14214.

Public health measures necessary to counteract the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have resulted in dramatic changes in the physical and social environments within which children grow and develop. As our understanding of the pathways for viral exposure and associated health outcomes in children evolves, it is critical to consider how changes in the social, cultural, economic, and physical environments resulting from the pandemic could affect the development of children. This review article considers the environments and settings that create the backdrop for children's health in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic, including current threats to child development that stem from: A) change in exposures to environmental contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, disinfectants, air pollution and the built environment; B) changes in food environments resulting from adverse economic repercussion of the pandemic and limited reach of existing safety nets; C) limited access to children's educational and developmental resources; D) changes in the social environments at the individual and household levels, and their interplay with family stressors and mental health; E) social injustice and racism. Read More

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Vision-Targeted Health-Related Quality-of-life Survey for Evaluating Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery: Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery qualify-of-life survey.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Purpose: To develop a vision-targeted health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) instrument for patients with glaucoma who are candidates for minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS).

Design: Development of a health-related quality-of-life instrument.

Participants: Twelve practicing ophthalmologists and 41 glaucoma patients. Read More

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Compensating for a shifting world: evolving reference frames of visual and auditory signals across three multimodal brain areas.

J Neurophysiol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University.

Stimulus locations are detected differently by different sensory systems, but ultimately they yield similar percepts and behavioral responses. How the brain transcends initial differences to compute similar codes is unclear. We quantitatively compared the reference frames of two sensory modalities, vision and audition, across three interconnected brain areas involved in generating saccades, namely the frontal eye fields (FEF), lateral and medial parietal cortex (M/LIP), and superior colliculus (SC). Read More

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-Halamine Polypropylene Nonwoven Fabrics with Rechargeable Antibacterial and Antiviral Functions for Medical Applications.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, California 95616, United States.

Embedding medical and hygiene products with regenerable antimicrobial functions would have significant implications for limiting pathogen contaminations and reducing healthcare-associated infections. Herein, we demonstrate a scalable and industrially feasible methodology to fabricate chlorine rechargeable melt-blown polypropylene (PP) nonwoven fabrics, which have been widely used in hygienic and personal protective products, via a combination of a melt reactive extrusion process and melt-blown technique. Methacrylamide (MAM) was employed as a precursor of halamine monomers and covalently grafted onto the PP backbone to form polypropylene-grafted methacrylamide (PP-g-MAM), which could be chlorinated, yielding biocidal acyclic halamines. Read More

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X-ray Fiber Diffraction and Computational Analyses of Stacked Hexads in Supramolecular Polymers: Insight into Self-Assembly in Water by Prospective Prebiotic Nucleobases.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400, United States.

Aqueous solutions of equimolar mixtures of 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP) and carboxylic acid substituted cyanuric acid (CyCo6 or 4MeCyCo6) monomers self-assemble into gel-forming supramolecular polymers. Macroscopic fibers drawn from these mixtures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to determine their molecular structures. Computational methods were used to explore the intrinsic intermolecular interactions that contribute to the structure and stability of these assemblies. Read More

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Isolation and Reactivity of Uranyl Superoxide.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Northern Iowa, Physics, UNITED STATES.

The high radiation field associated with spent nuclear fuel (U(IV)O 2 ) pellets produces an array of reactive radical species that impact the corrosion and formation of secondary alteration phases. Dioxygen radicals are important as radiolysis products, but the interaction between these reactive oxygen species and U(VI)O 2 2+ and its effects on the resultant alteration phases is unclear. Herein, we report the first example of a U(VI) superoxide compound and explore its reactivity in the environments relevant to the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Read More

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Statistical inference for the difference between two maximized Youden indices obtained from correlated biomarkers.

Biom J 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Statistics, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Currently, there is global interest in deriving new promising cancer biomarkers that could complement or substitute the conventional ones. Clinical decisions can often be based on the cutoff that corresponds to the maximized Youden index when maximum accuracy drives decisions. When more than one classification criteria are measured within the same individuals, correlated measurements arise. Read More

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Magnetic resonance detection of gas microbubbles via hyperCEST: a path toward a dual modality contrast agent.

Chemphyschem 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

UNC-Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Physics & Astronomy, UNITED STATES.

Gas microbubbles are an established clinical ultrasound contrast agent. They could also become a powerful MR intravascular contrast agent, but their low susceptibility-induced contrast requires high circulating concentrations or the addition of exogenous paramagnetic nanoparticles for MR detection. In order to detect clinical in vivo concentrations of raw microbubbles via MR, an alternative detection scheme must be used. Read More

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Adiposity and pathogen exposure: An investigation of response to iron supplementation and hypothesized predictors in anemic pre-school-aged children living in a dual burden environment.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: Peruvians are experiencing rapid dietary and lifestyle changes, resulting in a phenomenon known as the "dual burden of disease." A common manifestation of the dual burden in individuals is the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia. Despite recent initiatives introduced to address these concerns, rates continue to be public health concerns. Read More

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Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium NRRL-B2354 on whole chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

J Food Prot 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Arkansas Fayetteville Dept of Food Science UNITED STATES Fayetteville AR (479) 575-6919.

Intervention technologies for inactivating Salmonella in whole chia seeds are currently limited. The determination of the thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella o n chia seeds and selection of an appropriate nonpathogenic surrogate will provide a knowledge foundation for selecting and optimizing thermal pasteurization processes for chia seeds. In this study, chia seed samples from three separate production lots were inoculated with a five strain Salmonella cocktail or Enterococcus faecium NRRL-B2354 and equilibrated to 0. Read More

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Relationship of growth conditions to desiccation tolerance of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes.

J Food Prot 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

US Food and Drug Administration Research Microbiologist Division of Food Processing Science and Technology 6502 S Archer Rd UNITED STATES Bedford Park IL 60501 708-924-0635.

Growth on solid media as sessile cells is believed to increase the desiccation tolerance of Salmonella enterica . However, the reasons behind increased resistance have not been well explored. In addition, the same effect has not been examined for other foodborne pathogens such as pathogenic Escherichia coli or Listeria monocytogenes . Read More

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High circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 reduces the risk of renal cell carcinoma: a Mendelian randomization study.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Departments of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States.

Insulin and insulin-like growth factors play important roles in carcinogenesis. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) have been linked to cancer susceptibility. The associations of circulating IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 with the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are inconsistent. Read More

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Survival of Salmonella and Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Changes in Indigenous Microbiota During Fermentation of Kombucha Made from Home-brewing Kits.

J Food Prot 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Georgia Center for Food Safety 1109 Experiment St. UNITED STATES Griffin GA 30223-1797.

Survival and growth of Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in kombucha prepared from four brands of commercially available kombucha kits intended for use by home brewers were investigated. Changes in microbiota responsible for fermentation were also determined. An initial population of Salmonella (6. Read More

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