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An Approach to Drug-Induced Liver Injury from the Geriatric Perspective.

Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2021 Apr 12;23(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Liver Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Purpose Of Review: With its high variability in both presentation and severity, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a complex condition increasingly confronting all providers. DILI has an even more muddled presentation among the geriatric population due to age-related changes in liver physiology and biochemistry as well as polypharmacy common in the geriatric population.

Recent Findings: Most cases of DILI are idiosyncratic and unpredictable. Read More

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Can mechanical forces attune heterotypic cell-cell communications?

Authors:
Bipul R Acharya

J Biomech 2021 Apr 2;121:110409. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, USA. Electronic address:

Heterotypic cell lineages relentlessly exchange biomechanical signals among themselves in metazoan organs. Hence, cell-cell communications are pivotal for organ physiology and pathogenesis. Every cell lineage of an organ responds differently to a specific signal due to its unique receptibility and signal interpretation capacity. Read More

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First Movers in Molecular Detection: Case Comparison on Harnessing Research and Development, Industry, and Entrepreneurship.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 25;8:639440. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

MRIGlobal, Gaithersburg, MD, United States.

The current unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic underscores the importance of diagnostic assays in health security preparedness and readiness. Advancing new technologies for rapid molecular detection of high consequence infectious pathogens is an ongoing challenge that requires ingenuity and vision. Sustainment of a robust supply chain for materials and the logistics of timely product delivery further challenge diagnostic kit and device manufacturers. Read More

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The Intertwined Evolution and Development of Sutures and Cranial Morphology.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:653579. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Centre for Craniofacial and Regenerative Biology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Phenotypic variation across mammals is extensive and reflects their ecological diversification into a remarkable range of habitats on every continent and in every ocean. The skull performs many functions to enable each species to thrive within its unique ecological niche, from prey acquisition, feeding, sensory capture (supporting vision and hearing) to brain protection. Diversity of skull function is reflected by its complex and highly variable morphology. Read More

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Post-operative Rehabilitation for Scapular Muscle Reattachment: A Case Report.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2021 Apr 1;16(2):527-538. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

University of Kentucky.

Background And Purpose: Scapular muscle detachment is a rare orthopedic problem that has been described in the literature in patients following traumatic events involving traction, direct trauma, or a motor vehicle accident. The purpose of this case report is to describe the post-operative rehabilitation following scapular muscle reattachment surgery. Unique to this case report is the patient's perspective, an orthopedic physical therapist with 25 years of experience. Read More

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Wheat straw: A natural remedy against different maladies.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 27;9(4):2335-2344. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

University of The Gambia Serrekunda Gambia.

In millennia, much attention has been paid toward agro-industrial waste which consists of lignin and cellulosic biomass. In this perspective, biomass waste which consists of lignocellulosic mass is an inexpensive, renewable, abundant that provides a unique natural resource for large-scale and cost-effective bioenergy collection. In this current scenario, efforts are directed to briefly review the agro-industrial lignocellulosic biomass as a broad spectrum of numerous functional ingredients, its utilization, and respective health benefits with special to wheat straw. Read More

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Specialized Plant Growth Chamber Designs to Study Complex Rhizosphere Interactions.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:625752. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Climate and Ecosystem Sciences, Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States.

The rhizosphere is a dynamic ecosystem shaped by complex interactions between plant roots, soil, microbial communities and other micro- and macro-fauna. Although studied for decades, critical gaps exist in the study of plant roots, the rhizosphere microbiome and the soil system surrounding roots, partly due to the challenges associated with measuring and parsing these spatiotemporal interactions in complex heterogeneous systems such as soil. To overcome the challenges associated with study of rhizosphere interactions, specialized plant growth chamber systems have been developed that mimic the natural growth environment. Read More

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Single cell dual-omics reveals the transcriptomic and epigenomic diversity of cardiac non-myocytes.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.

Aims: The precise cellular identity and molecular features of non-myocytes (nonCM) in a mammalian heart at a single cell level remain elusive. Depiction of epigenetic landscape with transcriptomic signatures using the latest single-cell multi-omics has the potential to unravel the molecular programs underlying the cellular diversity of cardiac non-myocytes. Here, we characterized the molecular and cellular features of cardiac nonCM populations in the adult murine heart at the single cell level. Read More

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A robotic system for spine surgery positioning and pedicle screw placement.

Int J Med Robot 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, China.

Background: In recent years, surgeons have explored minimally invasive methods of percutaneous pedicle screw implantation, which can effectively reduce human injury. This paper presents an accurate and efficient positioning method and robot system for percutaneous needle placement under c-arm fluoroscopy.

Methods: A simple five degree of freedom (DOF) robot with an unique end-effector is designed to perform perspective calibration and image space registration. Read More

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Interleukin-1 and Systemic Sclerosis: Getting to the Heart of Cardiac Involvement.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:653950. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, and Division of Rheumatology AOUC, Florence, Italy.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is rare, severe connective tissue disease characterized by endothelial and vascular damage, immune activation, and resulting in inflammation and fibrosis of skin and internal organs, including the heart. SSc is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Cardiac involvement is frequent in SSc patients, even though often asymptomatic at early stages, and represents one of the major causes of SSc-related mortality. Read More

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Role of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids in Healthy Metabolism: A Clinical Perspective.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Biomedical Science and Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address:

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) serve not only as an energy source but also regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. The unique transport and rapid metabolism of MCFAs provide additional clinical benefits over other substrates such as long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and have prompted interest in the use of MCFAs for treating metabolic and neurological disorders. This review focuses on the metabolic role of MCFAs in modulating cellular signaling and regulating key circulating metabolites and hormones. Read More

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Chemical Insights into Interfacial Effects in Inorganic Nanomaterials.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 8:e2006159. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Preparation Technology of Nanomaterials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

The interfaces between inorganic functional nanomaterials and their surface modifiers play important roles in determining their chemical and physical properties. In numerous situations, interfaces created by organic ligands or secondary inorganic components on inorganic nanomaterials induce significant effects to promote their performances. However, it still remains challenging to understand those interfacial effects at the molecular level. Read More

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Printable Off-On Thermoswitchable Fluorescent Materials for Programmable Thermally Controlled Full-Color Displays and Multiple Encryption.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 7:e2008055. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Thermoswitchable fluorescent materials (TFMs) have received special attention due to their unique fluorescent colorimetric responses to temperature. Conventional TFMs generally display unicolor with switching from one color to another, showing unprintable and unsatisfied performances. These limitations greatly hinder their development and expansion toward advanced applications. Read More

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A perspective on adverse health outcomes after breast cancer treatment in women with spinal cord injury.

Spinal Cord 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Aging women face increased risks of both breast cancer and spinal cord injury (SCI). Unique treatment challenges for this population warrant consideration. Despite advances in breast cancer treatments, significant adverse health outcomes continue to occur. Read More

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Ethics simulation in nursing education: Nursing students' experiences.

Authors:
Leena Honkavuo

Nurs Ethics 2021 Apr 8:969733021994188. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Åbo Akademi University, Finland.

Background: Ethics stimulation in nursing education focuses on human, non-technical factors in a clinical reality. Simulation as a teaching method began in the 1930s with flight simulators. In the beginning of the 1990s, simulations developed further in tandem with other technological and digital inventions, including touchscreen and three-dimensional anatomical models. Read More

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Anesthetic Management of the Pregnant Patient: Part 1.

Authors:
Jaimin Shin

Anesth Prog 2021 Mar;68(1):52-62

Dental Anesthesiology, NYU Langone-Brooklyn, New York.

As delays in the age for a mother's first pregnancy continue to trend upward globally, particularly in developed countries, many pregnant patients are increasingly educated on the importance of obtaining dental care throughout their pregnancies. Guidelines set forth by the American Dental Association and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists highlight the importance of dental treatment for optimizing maternal-fetal health across all trimesters, especially for emergent dental issues. The pregnant dental patient undergoes significant physiologic remodeling unique to each trimester, which may complicate treatment. Read More

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The many actions of insulin in skeletal muscle, the paramount tissue determining glycemia.

Cell Metab 2021 Apr;33(4):758-780

Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

As the principal tissue for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, skeletal muscle is a primary driver of whole-body glycemic control. Skeletal muscle also uniquely responds to muscle contraction or exercise with increased sensitivity to subsequent insulin stimulation. Insulin's dominating control of glucose metabolism is orchestrated by complex and highly regulated signaling cascades that elicit diverse and unique effects on skeletal muscle. Read More

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From infection niche to therapeutic target: the intracellular lifestyle of .

Microbiology (Reading) 2021 Apr;167(4)

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

(Mtb) is an obligate human pathogen killing millions of people annually. Treatment for tuberculosis is lengthy and complicated, involving multiple drugs and often resulting in serious side effects and non-compliance. Mtb has developed numerous complex mechanisms enabling it to not only survive but replicate inside professional phagocytes. Read More

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Role of iron and iron-related proteins in mesenchymal stem cells: Cellular and clinical aspects.

Authors:
Kosha J Mehta

J Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Centre for Education, King's College London, London, UK.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are located in various tissues where these cells show niche-dependent multilineage differentiation and secrete immunomodulatory molecules to support numerous physiological processes. Due to their regenerative and reparative properties, MSCs are extremely valuable for cell-based therapy in tackling several pathological conditions including COVID-19. Iron is essential for MSC processes but iron-loading, which is common in several chronic conditions, hinders normal MSC functionality. Read More

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Short Communication: Combining Ethics With Efficiency-Israel Defense Forces Experience in Clinical Trials During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic.

J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics 2021 Apr 5:15562646211007220. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Medical Corps, 108377Israel Defense Forces, Tel Aviv, Israel.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, first reported in China, soon spread worldwide, has evolved into one of the most complex global public health crises the world has encountered in the last several decades. Conducting military medical research is vital to study the unique influences of military service conditions on soldiers' health and to improve the medical response in various emergency periods. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps maintains an Institutional Review Board (IRB) which reviews clinical studies conducted within the IDF. Read More

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Pathophysiology of Neurogenic Obesity After Spinal Cord Injury.

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2021 ;27(1):1-10

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have a unique physiology characterized by sarcopenia, neurogenic osteoporosis, neurogenic anabolic deficiency, sympathetic dysfunction, and blunted satiety associated with their SCI, all of which alter energy balance and subsequently body composition. The distinct properties of "neurogenic obesity" place this population at great risk for metabolic dysfunction, including systemic inflammation, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the relationship between neurogenic obesity and the metabolic syndrome after SCI, highlighting the mechanisms associated with adipose tissue pathology and those respective comorbidities. Read More

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January 2021