8,610 results match your criteria union legislation

Overview of Slovenian Control Programmes for Cattle Diseases Not Regulated by the European Union.

Front Vet Sci 2021 9;8:674515. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Clinic for Reproduction and Large Animals-Section for Ruminants, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The European Union (EU) regulates the control of cattle diseases listed in categories A and B of the Animal Health Law (AHL). However, the control of other cattle diseases that have no, or limited EU regulation, is left to each member state. Slovenia has five control programmes (CPs) for non-EU regulated cattle diseases: bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), bluetongue and anthrax. Read More

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Attred: Attribute Based Resource Discovery for IoT.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 10;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Institute of Data Science, Cloud Computing and IT Security, Furtwangen University of Applied Science, 78120 Furtwangen, Germany.

While the number of devices connected together as the Internet of Things (IoT) is growing, the demand for an efficient and secure model of resource discovery in IoT is increasing. An efficient resource discovery model distributes the registration and discovery workload among many nodes and allow the resources to be discovered based on their attributes. In most cases this discovery ability should be restricted to a number of clients based on their attributes, otherwise, any client in the system can discover any registered resource. Read More

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Disparities in Methods Used to Determine Microplastics in the Aquatic Environment: A Review of Legislation, Sampling Process and Instrumental Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 17;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Centre for Advanced and Innovative Technologies, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Plastic particles smaller than 5 mm, i.e., microplastics, have been detected in a number of environments. Read More

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Establishment of a national DNA database in the Republic of Serbia: Legal aspects and implications for the future.

Med Sci Law 2021 Jul 14:258024211023635. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Law, University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies, Serbia.

Forensic DNA databases have been established in the vast majority of European countries and represent an essential personal identification instrument in the criminal justice system. The implementation of suitable legislation and accompanying legal practice is an imperative to ensure sensible use of the DNA repository, without interfering with the rights, freedoms and privacy of individuals and their families. Thus, the complex matter of DNA databank effectiveness and intrusiveness is a delicate balancing act, which has resulted in diverse database governing regimes among different countries. Read More

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Do pesticides promote or hinder sustainability in agriculture? The challenge of sustainable use of pesticides in modern agriculture.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 30;795:148625. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Laboratory of Pesticide Science, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece; Department of Plant Science, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada. Electronic address:

Sustainable agriculture aims to meet the food needs of the growing world population while ensuring minimal impact on the environment and humans as well as productivity. Although pesticides represent the backbone of the agri-food sector in its endeavor to secure food production their application is perceived by many as an obstacle towards the achievement of sustainability; the main concerns are linked with their adverse effects on human health and the environment. Τhis review aims to present the status of chemical plant protection and provide insights into the use of pesticides within the context of sustainable agriculture. Read More

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From wastewater to fertilizer products: Alternative paths to mitigate phosphorus demand in European countries.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 24;284:131258. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

University of Coimbra, CIEPQPF, Department of Chemical Engineering, Rua Sílvio Lima, Pólo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790, Coimbra, Portugal.

Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, irreplaceable for life and food production, and currently considered a Critical Raw Material to the European Union (EU). Due to concerns about the rate of consumption and limited reserves in countries with sensitive geopolitical contexts, it is urgent to recover P from urban and industrial flows. Indeed, the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are considered relevant sources with several hot spots, especially sewage sludge with estimated recovery efficiencies of >80%. Read More

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Safer chemicals using less animals: kick-off of the European ONTOX project.

Toxicology 2021 Jun 30;458:152846. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Centre for Health Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

The 3Rs concept, calling for replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experimentation, is receiving increasing attention around the world, and has found its way to legislation, in particular in the European Union. This is aligned by continuing high-level efforts of the European Commission to support development and implementation of 3Rs methods. In this respect, the European project called "ONTOX: ontology-driven and artificial intelligence-based repeated dose toxicity testing of chemicals for next generation risk assessment" was recently initiated with the goal to provide a functional and sustainable solution for advancing human risk assessment of chemicals without the use of animals in line with the principles of 21 century toxicity testing and next generation risk assessment. Read More

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Overview of Mitigation Programs for Non-EU-Regulated Cattle Diseases in Austria.

Front Vet Sci 2021 15;8:689244. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, Institute of Food Safety, Food Technology and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

The non-regulation of animal diseases due to missing regulation at the European Union (EU) level enables member states to implement mitigation programs based on their own country-specific conditions such as priority settings of the governments, availability of financial resources, and epidemiological situation. This can result in a heterogeneous distribution of mitigation activities and prevalence levels within and/or between countries, which can cause difficulties for intracommunity trade. This article aims to describe the past, current, and future mitigation activities and associated prevalence levels for four non-regulated animal diseases, i. Read More

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Toxic Elements in Traditional Kohl-Based Eye Cosmetics in Spanish and German Markets.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 5;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Grup de Recerca Infancia i Entorn (GRIE), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

Kohl is a traditional cosmetic widely used in Asia and Africa. In recent years, demand for kohl-based eyelids and lipsticks has increased in Europe, linked to migratory phenomena of populations from these continents. Although the European legislation prohibits the use of heavy metals in cosmetics due to the harmful effects to human health, particularly to pregnant women and children, these elements are still present in certain products. Read More

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Navigating the Regulatory Landscape to Develop Pediatric Oncology Drugs: Expert Opinion Recommendations.

Paediatr Drugs 2021 Jul 26;23(4):381-394. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA.

Regulatory changes have been enacted in the United States (US) and European Union (EU) to encourage the development of new treatments for pediatric cancer. Here, we review some of the factors that have hampered the development of pediatric cancer treatments and provide a comparison of the US and EU regulations implemented to address this clinical need. We then provide some recommendations for each stage of the oncology drug development pathway to help researchers maximize their chance of successful drug development while complying with regulations. Read More

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Standard contractual clauses for cross-border transfers of health data after .

J Law Biosci 2021 Jan-Jun;8(1):lsab007. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Centre for Law, Medicine and Life Sciences (LML), Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge, UK.

Standard contractual clauses (SCCs) have long been considered the most accessible method to transfer personal data legally across borders. In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in () placed heavy conditions on their use. The Court found that SCCs were valid as 'appropriate safeguards' for data transfers from EU entities to others outside the EU/EEA as long as unspecified 'supplementary measures' were in place to compensate for the lack of data protection in the third country. Read More

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["Surveillance of medical devices by ANSM"].

Dominique Martin

Rev Prat 2021 Mar;71(3):329-330

"Ancien directeur général de l'Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé. Depuis décembre 2020, a rejoint la Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie en qualité de médecin-conseil national, Paris, France".

"Monitoring of medical devices by ansm. The surveillance of medical devices represents an immense field which is ensured, in an evolving European framework, by the health agencies of each of the States of the EU. In France, the ANSM is in charge of this surveillance : market surveillance, which is based, among other things, on the creation of medical registers which allow real-life surveillance; centralization of incidents and participation of the French agency in the European vigilance system. Read More

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The Irish Programme to Eradicate Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus-Organization, Challenges, and Progress.

Front Vet Sci 2021 1;8:674557. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Animal Health Ireland, Carrick on Shannon, Ireland.

A mandatory national Irish bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) eradication programme, coordinated by Animal Health Ireland, commenced in 2013. Key decisions and programme review are undertaken by a cross-industry Implementation Group (BVDIG) supported by a Technical Working Group. Ear notch tissue is collected from all new-born calves using modified official identity tags, supplemented by additional blood sampling, including for confirmatory testing of calves with initial positive results and testing of their dams. Read More

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Quantitative risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) cooked meat products sliced at retail stores in Greece.

Food Microbiol 2021 Oct 9;99:103800. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Hygiene, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece. Electronic address:

A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model predicting the listeriosis risk related to the consumption of Ready- To- Eat (RTE) cooked meat products sliced at retail stores in Greece was developed. The probability of illness per serving assessed for 87 products available in the Greek market was found highly related to the nitrite concentration; products having a lower concentration showed a higher risk per serving. The predicted 95 percentiles of the annual listeriosis cases totaled 33 of which 13 cases were <65 years old and 20 cases ≥65 years old. Read More

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October 2021

Brexit: A Boon or a Curse for Animals Used in Scientific Procedures?

Rachel Dunn

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 25;11(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Law, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.

The UK has long been hailed as one of the world leaders in animal welfare. Within the UK, animals used in experiments are provided some protection under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 (ASPA). This Act was impacted by European Union (EU) Directive 2010/63/EU, and subsequently the ASPA was updated to reflect any changes required. Read More

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Change Regularity of Taste and the Performance of Endogenous Proteases in Shrimp () Head during Autolysis.

Foods 2021 May 8;10(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

College of Light Industry and Food Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

This study evaluated the food safety and proximate composition of shrimp head (SH). Potentially toxic elements in SH were below European Union legislation limits. SH had a high content of tasting amino acids (sweet and umami amino acids was 57%) and a high content of functional amino acids (essential amino acids was 37%). Read More

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Does Trypsin Oral Spray (Viruprotect/ColdZyme) Protect against COVID-19 and Common Colds or Induce Mutation? Caveats in Medical Device Regulations in the European Union.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 11;18(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Background: nasal or oral sprays are often marketed as medical devices (MDs) in the European Union to prevent common cold (CC), with ColdZyme/Viruprotect (trypsin/glycerol) mouth spray claiming to prevent colds and the COVID-19 virus from infecting host cells and to shorten/reduce CC symptoms as an example. We analyzed the published (pre)-clinical evidence.

Methods: preclinical: comparison of in vitro tests with validated host cell models to determine viral infectivity. Read More

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The need for European harmonization of Nutrivigilance in a public health perspective: a comprehensive review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 26:1-17. Epub 2021 May 26.

French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), Maisons-Alfort, France.

According to the European Union regulation, some countries have established a pre-market notification system for food supplements while others have not. As this regulation is unfulfilled, a notified and marketed food supplement ingredient in one country may be forbidden in another. Even though food supplements shall not be placed on the market if unsafe, some products may still expose the consumers to risks. Read More

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The recovery and repatriation of the remains of Japanese war dead and the roles of physical anthropologists.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Jul 21;324:110791. Epub 2021 May 21.

National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan.

During and after World War II, around 2.4 million Japanese died overseas. The bodies of nearly half of them are still missing as they remain in the field where they fell and have never been repatriated. Read More

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Living alone and depression in a developing country context: Longitudinal evidence from South Africa.

Dorrit Posel

SSM Popul Health 2021 Jun 24;14:100800. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

In South Africa, single-person households were a household type enforced by apartheid legislation, designed to restrict the "influx" of Africans into "white" and typically urban areas of the country. Yet the increase in living alone has been one of the most marked demographic trends of the post-apartheid period. The trend, which has occurred alongside the persistence in individual labor migration patterns and a decline in rates of union formation, has been driven by changes among working-age adults, rather than among older adults. Read More

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Molecular networking as a novel approach to unravel toxin diversity of four strains of the dominant Dinophysis species from French coastal waters.

Harmful Algae 2021 03 31;103:102026. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Université de Nantes, MMS, EA 2160, Nantes, France; ThalassOMICS Metabolomics Facility, Plateforme Corsaire, Biogenouest, Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Some species of the genus Dinophysis contain Diarrhetic shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins and are the main threat to shellfish farming in Europe including France. Dinophysis species are known to produce two families of bioactive lipophilic toxins: (i) okadaic acid (OA) and their analogues dinophysistoxins (DTXs) and (ii) pectenotoxins (PTXs). Only six toxins (OA, DTX1, DTX2, DTX3, PTX1 and PTX2) regulated by the European Union Legislation (EC No. Read More

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Evolving models for handling emergency calls in Spanish and European dispatch coordination centers.

Emergencias 2021 06;33(3):211-217

Enfermera. Máster en Ciencias de la Enfermería. Vocal de la Sociedad Española de Enfermería en Cirugía (SEECIR). Miembro del Grupo de Normalización. Hospital de Fuenlabrada. Madrid, España.

Emergency call dispatch centers have changed greatly over the years leading up to the management and coordination centers we have today. This paper describes how those changes unfolded and the Spanish and European Union (EU) legislation that promoted them. We also describe case volume and response times for the single EU emergency number (112). Read More

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Analysis of Medical Device Alerts Issued by the Portuguese Medicines Agency: Scoping the Purpose of New Regulatory Recommendations.

Acta Med Port 2021 Mar 1;34(3):201-208. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Departamento de Sócio-Farmácia. Faculdade de Farmácia. Universidade de Lisboa. Lisboa. Portugal.

Introduction: Medical devices are healthcare technologies with a significantly growing market worldwide. This study aims to analyze medical device alerts issued by the Portuguese Medicines Agency, INFARMED, I.P. Read More

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Artificial intelligence and robotisation in the EU - should we change OHS law?

Maciej Jarota

J Occup Med Toxicol 2021 May 5;16(1):18. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Labour Law and Social Security Law, Institute of Law, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Raclawickie 14, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Background: Technological progress in the twenty-first century offers real chances for economic development of the European Union (EU). The purpose of this publication is to analyse risks and threats relating to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) considerations in the context of scientific and technological development. The article attempts the analysis of whether current legislation of the European Union enables good protection of workers' health in the performance of their duties using robots, artificial intelligence (AI). Read More

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Gender Transition: Is There a Right to Be Forgotten?

Health Care Anal 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319, Porto, Portugal.

The European Union (EU) faced high risks from personal data proliferation to individuals' privacy. Legislation has emerged that seeks to articulate all interests at stake, balancing the need for data flow from EU countries with protecting personal data: the General Data Protection Regulation. One of the mechanisms established by this new law to strengthen the individual's control over their data is the so-called "right to be forgotten", the right to obtain from the controller the erasure of records. Read More

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Checkpoint inhibition: protecting against or predisposing for second primary tumors? Reply to the Letter to the Editor 'Checkpoint inhibition: protecting against or predisposing for second primary tumors?' by K. P. M. Suijkerbuijk, A. M. May and M. J. M. van Eijs.

Ann Oncol 2021 Aug 28;32(8):1055-1057. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Research (CRCL), Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; Department of Medicine, Centre Léon Bérard & Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France; Unicancer, Paris, France; Department of Cancer Initiation and Tumor Cell Identity, Cancer Research Center of Lyon (CRCL), Lyon, France. Electronic address:

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Determination of DDT in honey samples by liquid-liquid extraction with low-temperature purification (LLE-LTP) combined to HPLC-DAD.

Anal Methods 2021 04 12;13(16):1955-1964. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Honey is widely consumed worldwide, however, this food can be contaminated by chemical contaminants, such as the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Despite legal restrictions on DDT use, this organochlorine pesticide has been detected in honey collected in several developed and developing countries, representing risks to human health, animals, and the environment due to its high environmental persistence, potential carcinogenicity, and ecotoxicological effects. Thus, the development of an analytical method for DDT monitoring in this matrix is important to ensure food security. Read More

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European legislation for veterinary medicines: Would a monograph system improve the environmental risk assessment?

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS), Madrid, Spain.

The environmental risk assessment (ERA) of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) has been a regulatory requirement in the European Union (EU) since 1993. However, in the last few years, the potential impact of human and veterinary medicines on the environment has become a growing concern worldwide. Indeed, the legal requirements for VMPs in the EU are changing. Read More

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State of the science: cannabis and cannabinoids in palliative medicine-the potential.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Anesthesia and Pain Management, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Cannabinoids are chemicals derived naturally from the cannabis plant or are synthetically manufactured. They interact directly with cannabinoid receptors or share chemical similarity with endocannabinoids (or both). Within palliative medicine, cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) may modulate some cancer symptoms: appetite, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and mood, pain and sleep disorders. Read More

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