1,108 results match your criteria uninjured controls


Muscle Activity and Activation in Previously Strain-Injured Lower Limbs: A Systematic Review.

Sports Med 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, 115 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Melbourne, VIC, 3065, Australia.

Background: Lower limb muscle strain injury is highly prevalent in running-based sports and is considered a risk factor for recurrent injury. It is possible that differences in muscle activity and activation in previously strain-injured limbs may contribute to the elevated risk of reinjury.

Objectives: To systematically review available literature investigating whether muscle activity and/or activation is different in previously strain-injured muscles compared to contralateral uninjured muscles or uninjured controls. Read More

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Toll-Like Receptor 9-Mediated Neuronal Innate Immune Reaction Is Associated with Initiating a Pro-Regenerative State in Neurons of the Dorsal Root Ganglia Non-Associated with Sciatic Nerve Lesion.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 12;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Cellular and Molecular Research Group, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, CZ-62500 Brno, Czech Republic.

One of the changes brought about by Wallerian degeneration distal to nerve injury is disintegration of axonal mitochondria and consequent leakage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-the natural ligand for the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). RT-PCR and immunohistochemical or Western blot analyses were used to detect TLR9 mRNA and protein respectively in the lumbar (L4-L5) and cervical (C7-C8) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) ipsilateral and contralateral to a sterile unilateral sciatic nerve compression or transection. The unilateral sciatic nerve lesions led to bilateral increases in levels of both TLR9 mRNA and protein not only in the lumbar but also in the remote cervical DRG compared with naive or sham-operated controls. Read More

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The effectiveness of booster seat use in motor vehicle collisions.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jul 17;159:106296. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences, University Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Sports Injury Prevention Research Centre, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; O'Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Background: Alberta remains the only province in Canada without booster seat legislation. To date, analyses of booster seat effectiveness compared with seatbelt only use have demonstrated mixed findings using observational data.

Methods: This study uses Alberta police collision report data for the years 2010-2016, inclusive. Read More

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The influence of a biofilm-dispersing wound gel on the wound healing process.

Int Wound J 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Microbiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

Topical antimicrobials that reduce the bacterial bioburden within a chronically-infected wound may have helpful or harmful effects on the healing process. We used murine models of full-thickness skin wounds to determine the effects of the novel biofilm-dispersing wound gel (BDWG) and its gel base on the healing of uninfected wounds. The rate of wound closure over 19 days was comparable among the BDWG-treated (BT) wounds and the controls. Read More

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What Does the Future Hold? Health-Related Quality of Life 3-12 Years Following a Youth Sport-Related Knee Injury.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jun 26;18(13). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 8205 114 Street, 2-50 Corbett Hall, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G4, Canada.

Knee trauma can lead to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and osteoarthritis. We aimed to assess HRQoL 3-12 years following youth sport-related knee injury considering HRQoL and osteoarthritis determinants. Generic (EQ-5D-5L index, EQ-VAS) and condition-specific (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score quality of life subscale, KOOS QOL) HRQoL were assessed in 124 individuals 3-12 years following youth sport-related knee injury and 129 uninjured controls of similar age, sex, and sport. Read More

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Long-Term Healthcare Expenditures Following Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Center for Surgery and Public Health, Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common injuries resulting from U.S. Military engagements since 2001. Read More

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Quantitative ultrasound imaging of intrinsic hand muscles after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

Spinal Cord 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Guangdong Work Injury Rehabilitation Center, Guangzhou, China.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study.

Objectives: To quantify differences in hand muscle morphology between persons with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) and uninjured adults.

Setting: The study was performed at the Guangdong Work Injury Rehabilitation Hospital. Read More

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Progressive Visual Occlusion and Postural Control Responses in Individuals With and Without Chronic Ankle Instability.

J Sport Rehabil 2021 Jun 24:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Context: Prophylactic and rehabilitative balance training is needed to maximize postural control and develop appropriate sensory organization strategies. Partially occluding vision during functional exercise may promote appropriate sensory organization strategies, but little is known about the influence of partially occluded vision on postural control in those with and without a history of musculoskeletal injury.

Objective: To determine the effect of increasing levels of visual occlusion on postural control in a heterogeneous sample of those with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Read More

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Military Service Members with Major Lower Extremity Fractures Return to Running with a Passive-dynamic Ankle-foot Orthosis: Comparison with a Normative Population.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Scripps Mercy Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: Lower extremity fractures represent a high percentage of reported injuries in the United States military and can devastate a service member's career. A passive dynamic ankle-foot orthosis (PD-AFO) with a specialized rehabilitation program was initially designed to treat military service members after complex battlefield lower extremity injuries, returning a select group of motivated individuals back to running. For high-demand users of the PD-AFO, the spatiotemporal gait parameters, agility, and quality of life is not fully understood with respect to uninjured runners. Read More

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Acceleration and Jerk After a Jump Stabilization Task in Individuals With and Without Chronic Ankle Instability.

J Appl Biomech 2021 Jun 17:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

University of Kentucky.

Studies have demonstrated that individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have diminished dynamic stability. Jerk-based measures have been utilized to examine dynamic balance because of their ability to quantify changes in acceleration and may provide an understanding of the postural corrections that occur during stabilizing following a jumping task. The purpose of this study was to compare acceleration and jerk following a jump stabilization task between individuals with CAI and the uninjured controls. Read More

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Gait Adaptations at 8 Years After Reconstruction of Unilateral Isolated and Combined Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Jul 11;49(9):2416-2425. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Julius Wolff Institute, Berlin Institute of Health and Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: It remains unclear how posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction influences long-term lower extremity joint biomechanics.

Purpose: To determine whether patients who underwent PCL reconstruction exhibited long-term alterations in lower limb gait mechanics.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Read More

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Return-to-Play Times and Player Performance After ACL Reconstruction in Elite UEFA Professional Soccer Players: A Matched-Cohort Analysis From 1999 to 2019.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 May 28;9(5):23259671211008892. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Winnipeg Clinic, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the most common injuries afflicting soccer players and requires a lengthy recovery processes after reconstructive surgery. The impact of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) on return to play (RTP) time and player performance in professional soccer players remains poorly studied.

Purpose/hypothesis: To determine player performance and RTP rate and time after ACLR in elite professional soccer players with a retrospective matched-cohort analysis. Read More

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Gait asymmetries are exacerbated at faster walking speeds in individuals with acute anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

J Orthop Res 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Kinesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Previous research suggests more biomechanically demanding tasks (e.g., stair descent, hopping) magnify biomechanical asymmetries compared with walking after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Read More

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Prelanding movement strategies among chronic ankle instability, coper, and control subjects.

Sports Biomech 2021 May 27:1-17. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

We describe feedforward neuromuscular control during a maximal jump landing/cutting task among groups of chronic ankle instability (CAI), coper, and uninjured control subjects. Sixty-six volunteers participated (22 CAI, 22 copers, and 22 uninjured controls). The subjects completed five trials of a maximal jump landing/cutting manoeuvre. Read More

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Hysteresis and stiffness of the lateral ankle complex in those with chronic ankle instability.

Sports Biomech 2021 May 24:1-14. Epub 2021 May 24.

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, J Paul Sticht Center on Aging, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

The role of mechanical laxity and viscoelastic tissue properties in chronic ankle instability (CAI) is unclear, but may influence repeated injury. The purpose was to determine if lateral ankle complex stiffness and hysteresis was altered in CAI individuals with and without mechanical laxity, compared to copers and uninjured controls. Thirty-five recreational athletes (19 females, 22. Read More

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Current perception threshold testing in chronic ankle instability.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 18;22(1):453. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Rehabilitation, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 45 Changchunjie, Beijing, 100054, China.

Background: Damage to sensory input is an underlying pathology of chronic ankle instability (CAI). Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sensory function of patients with CAI. The present study quantitatively evaluated sensory nerve function in patients with CAI and healthy controls using current perception threshold (CPT) measurements, as well as the influence of sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) on CPT values and the relations between CPT frequencies. Read More

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Appropriate Tourniquet Types in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review.

Cureus 2021 Apr 13;13(4):e14474. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Emergency Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA.

Trauma is the leading cause of mortality in those aged 1-19, with hemorrhage accounting for up to 40% of all trauma deaths. Manufactured tourniquets are recommended for the control of life-threatening extremity hemorrhage in adults but their use in the pediatric population requires further investigation. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the most appropriate tourniquet design for use in the pediatric population. Read More

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Acute Talar Cartilage Deformation in Those with and without Chronic Ankle Instability.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jun;53(6):1228-1234

MOTION Science Institute, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

Purpose: This study aimed 1) to determine whether talar cartilage deformation measured via ultrasonography (US) after standing and hopping loading protocols differs between chronic ankle instability (CAI) patients and healthy controls and 2) to determine whether the US measurement of cartilage deformation reflects viscoelasticity between standing and hopping protocols.

Methods: A total of 30 CAI and 30 controls participated. After a 60-min off-loading period, US images of the talar cartilage were acquired before and after static (2-min single-leg standing) and dynamic (60 single-leg forward hops) loading conditions. Read More

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Angiotensin II augments renal vascular smooth muscle soluble GC expression via an AT receptor-forkhead box subclass O transcription factor signalling axis.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Heart, Lung, Blood and Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background And Purpose: Reduced renal blood flow triggers activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) leading to renovascular hypertension. Renal vascular smooth muscle expression of the NO receptor, soluble GC (sGC), modulates the vasodilator response needed to control renal vascular tone and blood flow. Here, we tested if angiotensin II (Ang II) affects sGC expression via an AT receptor-forkhead box subclass O (FoxO) transcription factor dependent mechanism. Read More

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Role of Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 in Craniofacial Bone Regeneration.

J Dent Res 2021 Apr 24:220345211007447. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Departments of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Bone loss caused by trauma, neoplasia, congenital defects, or periodontal disease is a major cause of disability and human suffering. Skeletal progenitor cell-extracellular matrix interactions are critical for bone regeneration. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), an understudied collagen receptor, plays an important role in skeletal development. Read More

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Using change scores on the vestibular ocular motor screening (VOMS) tool to identify concussion in adolescents.

Appl Neuropsychol Child 2021 Apr 24:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UPMC Sports Medicine Concussion Program, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: To develop clinical cutoffs using change scores for the VOMS individual items and an overall VOMS change score that identified concussion in adolescent athletes.

Methods: Change score clinical cutoffs were calculated from a sample of adolescents (13-18 years) with SRC (147) and a sample of uninjured adolescents CONTROL (147). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, with area under the curve (AUC), based on Youden's statistic were used to identify optimal cutoffs for identifying SRC from CONTROLS using VOMS individual item change scores, an overall VOMS change scores, and NPC distance (cm). Read More

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Quadriceps Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Uninjured Matched Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Apr 8;9(4):2325967121991534. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: The limb symmetry index may overestimate the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Comparison of individuals who have had anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with age-, sex-, and activity-matched individuals might be more appropriate to guide rehabilitation interventions.

Purpose: To compare the quadriceps strength between the injured limb of people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and the limb of an age-, sex-, and activity-matched control group. Read More

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Larazotide acetate induces recovery of ischemia-injured porcine jejunum via repair of tight junctions.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250165. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Comparative Medicine Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States of America.

Intestinal ischemia results in mucosal injury, including paracellular barrier loss due to disruption of tight junctions. Larazotide acetate (LA), a small peptide studied in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of celiac disease, regulates tight junctions (TJs). We hypothesized that LA would dose-dependently hasten recovery of intestinal ischemic injury via modulation of TJs. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy and reliability of sideline concussion evaluation: a prospective, case-controlled study in college athletes comparing newer tools and established tests.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Objective: To assess diagnostic accuracy and reliability of sideline concussion tests in college athletes.

Methods: Athletes completed baseline concussion tests including Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, Standardised Assessment of Concussion (SAC), modified Balance Error Scoring System (m-BESS), King-Devick test and EYE-SYNC Smooth Pursuits. Testing was repeated in athletes diagnosed acutely with concussion and compared to a matched teammate without concussion. Read More

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Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint loading during a single-leg forward hop following ACL reconstruction.

J Orthop Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

La Trobe Sports & Exercise Medicine Research Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Altered biomechanics are frequently observed following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Yet, little is known about knee-joint loading, particularly in the patellofemoral-joint, despite patellofemoral-joint osteoarthritis commonly occurring post-ACLR. This study compared knee-joint reaction forces and impulses during the landing phase of a single-leg forward hop in the reconstructed knee of people 12-24 months post-ACLR and uninjured controls. Read More

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Biceps Femoris Compensates for Semitendinosus After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With a Hamstring Autograft: A Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Male Soccer Players.

Am J Sports Med 2021 05 16;49(6):1470-1481. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Rates of reinjury, return to play (RTP) at the preinjury level, and hamstring strain injuries in male soccer players after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) remain unsatisfactory, due to multifactorial causes. Recent insights on intramuscular hamstring coordination revealed the semitendinosus (ST) to be of crucial importance for hamstring functioning, especially during heavy eccentric hamstring loading. Scientific evidence on the consequences of ST tendon harvest for ACLR is scarce and inconsistent. Read More

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Long-term gait biomechanics in level, uphill, and downhill conditions following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Apr 31;84:105345. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Program in Human Movement Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA; Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Altered gait biomechanics have been linked to post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis development following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery, but the persistence of aberrant gait biomechanics after the first year post-surgery is inconsistent in the literature. Gait biomechanics are typically evaluated on a level surface, but this task may not elucidate discrepancies in individuals further removed from surgery due to the simplicity of the task. Graded surfaces are common in real-world ambulation and may exacerbate aberrant gait biomechanics due to greater mechanical demands. Read More

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Chondroitinase ABC Promotes Axon Regeneration and Reduces Retrograde Apoptosis Signaling in Lamprey.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:653638. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center (Center for Neural Repair and Rehabilitation), Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI) is due to failure of axonal regeneration. It is believed that axon growth is inhibited by the presence of several types of inhibitory molecules in central nervous system (CNS), including the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Many studies have shown that digestion of CSPGs with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can enhance axon growth and functional recovery after SCI. Read More

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Volume measurements on weightbearing computed tomography can detect subtle syndesmotic instability.

J Orthop Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Foot and Ankle Research and Innovation Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

While weightbearing computed tomography (WBCT) allows three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the distal syndesmosis, image interpretation has largely relied on one-dimensional (1D) distance and, more recently, two-dimensional (2D) area measurements. This study aimed to (1) determine the sensitivity and specificity of 2D area and 3D volume WBCT measurements towards detecting subtle syndesmotic instability, (2) evaluate whether the patterns of changes in the 3D shape of the syndesmosis can be attributed to the type of ligament injury. A total of 24 patients with unilateral subtle syndesmotic instability and 24 individuals with uninjured ankles (controls) with bilateral ankle WBCT were assessed retrospectively. Read More

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Blood Serum Cytokines in Patients with Subacute Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study to Search for Biomarkers of Injury Severity.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 4;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Clinical Research Center for Precision and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia.

. Despite considerable interest in the search for a spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy, there is a critical need to develop a panel of diagnostic biomarkers to determine injury severity. In this regard, there is a requirement for continuing research into the fundamental processes of neuroinflammatory and autoimmune reactions in SCI, identifying changes in the expression of cytokines. Read More

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