34,211 results match your criteria unidentified

Endogenous vitamin E metabolites mediate allosteric PPARγ activation with unprecedented co-regulatory interactions.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt 60438, Germany. Electronic address:

Vitamin E exhibits pharmacological effects beyond established antioxidant activity suggesting involvement of unidentified mechanisms. Here, we characterize endogenously formed tocopherol carboxylates and the vitamin E mimetic garcinoic acid (GA) as activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Co-stimulation of PPARγ with GA and the orthosteric agonist pioglitazone resulted in additive transcriptional activity. Read More

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Sex Differences in Laterality Are Associated with Reproduction in Threespine Stickleback.

Am Nat 2021 Jun 27;197(6):708-718. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

AbstractLaterality, the partitioning of information processing into specific brain hemispheres, is widespread across animal taxa. Substantial unexplained variation in this trait exists, particularly between the sexes, despite multiple identified advantages of lateralization. Here, we demonstrate a relationship among laterality (measured as directional biases), reproduction, and experience of mating and parenting. Read More

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Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism.

T Yoldemir

Climacteric 2021 May 14:1-9. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism is a state of relative or absolute androgen excess originating from the adrenal glands and/or ovaries clinically manifested by the presence of terminal hair in androgen-dependent areas of the body, and other manifestations of hyperandrogenism such as acne and alopecia or the development of virilization. In such circumstances, physicians must exclude the possibility of rare but serious androgen-producing tumors of the adrenal glands or ovaries. Worsening of undiagnosed hyperandrogenic disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, ovarian hyperthecosis, Cushing syndrome and iatrogenic hyperandrogenism should be considered for differential diagnosis. Read More

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Incidence of enterovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Service of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA) and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Oviedo, Spain.

Enteroviruses (EV) have been linked to lymphocytic meningitis and exanthems, but they may also be involved in acute gastroenteritis (AGE), a condition whose aetiological agent often remains unidentified. In this work 1214 samples from individuals with AGE were studied with the aim of establishing the incidence of EV. The samples were collected between September and December in three different years and subjected to real-time genomic amplification in order to determine the viral load (VL). Read More

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Quantification of Local Electric Field Changes at the Active Site of Cytochrome Oxidase by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroelectrochemical Titrations.

Front Chem 2021 27;9:669452. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Physics, Experimental Molecular Biophysics, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Cytochrome oxidase (CO) is a transmembrane protein complex that reduces molecular oxygen to water while translocating protons across the mitochondrial membrane. Changes in the redox states of its cofactors trigger both O reduction and vectorial proton transfer, which includes a proton-loading site, yet unidentified. In this work, we exploited carbon monoxide (CO) as a vibrational Stark effect (VSE) probe at the binuclear center of CO from . Read More

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Prokaryotic reverse transcriptases: from retroelements to specialized defense systems.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Structure, Dynamics and Function of Rhizobacterial Genomes, Grupo de Ecología Genética de la Rizosfera, Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, C/ Profesor Albareda 1, 18008 Granada, Spain.

Reverse transcriptases (RTs) catalyze the polymerization of DNA from an RNA template. These enzymes were first discovered in RNA tumor viruses in 1970, but it was not until 1989 that they were found in prokaryotes as a key component of retrons. Apart from RTs encoded by the "selfish" mobile retroelements known as group II introns, prokaryotic RTs are extraordinarily diverse, but their function has remained elusive. Read More

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A multi-gene knockdown approach reveals a new role for Pax6 in controlling organ number in Drosophila.

Development 2021 May 13;148(9). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

Genetic screens are designed to target individual genes for the practical reason of establishing a clear association between a mutant phenotype and a single genetic locus. This allows for a developmental or physiological role to be assigned to the wild-type gene. We previously observed that the concurrent loss of Pax6 and Polycomb epigenetic repressors in Drosophila leads the eye to transform into a wing. Read More

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Current Diagnosis and Management of Primary Chylomicronemia.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Molecular Pathogenesis, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute.

Primary chylomicronemia (PCM) is a rare and intractable disease characterized by marked accumulation of chylomicrons in plasma. The levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs) typically range from 1,000 - 15,000 mg/dL or higher.PCM is caused by defects in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) pathway due to genetic mutations, autoantibodies, or unidentified causes. Read More

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Pathogenic variants in , a chromatin remodeler, cause a range of syndromic neurodevelopmental features.

Sci Adv 2021 May 12;7(20). Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Intellectual disability encompasses a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, with many linked genetic loci. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for more than 50% of the patients remains elusive. We describe pathogenic variants in , encoding the ATPase motor of the ISWI chromatin remodeler, as a cause of a previously unidentified neurodevelopmental disorder, identifying 12 individuals with de novo or dominantly segregating rare heterozygous variants. Read More

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Secondary malaria vectors in western Kenya include novel species with unexpectedly high densities and parasite infection rates.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 12;14(1):252. Epub 2021 May 12.

Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA.

Background: Malaria vector control has been implemented chiefly through indoor interventions targeting primary vectors resulting in population declines-pointing to a possible greater proportional contribution to transmission by secondary malaria vectors with their predominant exophagic and exophilic traits. With a historical focus on primary vectors, there is paucity of data on secondary malaria vectors in many countries in Africa. This study sought to determine the species compositions and bionomic traits, including proportions infected with Plasmodium falciparum and phenotypic insecticide resistance, of secondary vectors in three sites with high malaria transmission in Kisumu County, western Kenya. Read More

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Trends in recent waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks in South Korea, 2015-2019.

Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2021 Apr 29;12(2):73-79. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Infectious Disease Control, Center for Infectious Disease Control, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Cheongju, Korea.

Objective: This study analyzed trends in foodborne and waterborne diseases in South Korea between 2015 and 2019.

Methods: The data consisted of information on outbreaks of waterborne and foodborne infectious diseases reported through the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) system. We analyzed the trends and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks by month, place of occurrence, and causative pathogens in this observational study. Read More

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Online Marketing of Weight Loss Supplements: Labeling and Marketing Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Ban on Ephedra.

J Altern Complement Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

To characterize dietary supplements marketed online as "ephedra-containing or ephedra-like products" for weight management and to assess labeling/marketing compliance with the ban on the sale of ephedrine alkaloids. This cross-sectional study assessed websites selling ephedra-like supplements using the search term "buy ephedra." For each website, the first three featured products were characterized by evaluating the label for (1) sp. Read More

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Evidence of Spread of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediated by Internal Transportation of Ornamental Plants in Brazil.

Neotrop Entomol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Dept of Plant Pathology, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Two Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) species, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), are major pests that are dispersed throughout the world. While MEAM1 was introduced in Brazil in the 1990s, MED was reported recently with limited spread. Here, a survey was performed to examine whether MED whiteflies are widely present in the Federal District region, in central Brazil. Read More

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Additions to the bee Brazilian fauna: first record of Anthrenoides, Callonychium and Psaenythia (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in the state of Piauí.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 10;93(2):e20200579. Epub 2021 May 10.

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Nazaré 481, 04263-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The bee genera Callonychium Brèthes, Psaenythia Gerstaecker and Anthrenoides Ducke are newly recorded in Piauí State, northeastern Brazil. The species reported here are Callonychium brasilience (Ducke, 1907) and Psaenythia variabilis Ducke, 1908, and an as yet unidentified species of Anthrenoides. Images and all known distributional records of these species are also provided. Read More

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The cytokine FAM3B/PANDER is an FGFR ligand that promotes posterior development in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Institute of Neuroscience, Translational Medicine Institute, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710061 Xi'an, China;

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling plays a crucial role in anterior-posterior (A-P) axial patterning of vertebrate embryos by promoting posterior development. In our screens for novel developmental regulators in embryos, we identified Fam3b as a secreted factor regulated in ectodermal explants. Family with sequence similarity 3 member B (FAM3B)/PANDER (pancreatic-derived factor) is a cytokine involved in glucose metabolism, type 2 diabetes, and cancer in mammals. Read More

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sp. nov., isolated from the respiratory tract of , and sp. nov., isolated from the lung tissue of .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 May;71(5)

Shanghai Institute for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai 201508, PR China.

Four Gram-stain-positive, non-motile and asporous bacilli (strains ZJ-599, ZJ-621, MC1420 and MC1482), isolated from animal tissue and environmental samples collected on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, PR China, were taxonomically characterized. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, the closest relatives of strains ZJ-599 and ZJ-621 were LMM-1653 (97.5 %), M408/89/1 (96. Read More

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Taishania pollutisoli gen. nov., sp. nov., Isolated from Tetrabromobisphenol A-Contaminated Soil.

Curr Microbiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Lab of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 210095, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Strain CZZ-1 was isolated from long-term TBBPA-contaminated soil Zaozhuang city, Shandong province, People's Republic of China. CZZ-1 was pink-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and aerobic. The 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that strain CZZ-1 shows high similarities to Fluviicola taffensis DSM 16823 (92. Read More

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Arthroscopic management of unexplained pain following total knee arthroplasty.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hôpital Privé de L'Estuaire, Ramsay Santé, Le Havre, France.

Introduction: Arthrofibrosis develops in 3-10% of knees after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which may result in pain and restricted range-of-motion. Treatment options include manipulation under anaesthesia, arthroscopic debridement, and quadricepsplasty, but there is little consensus on their efficacy for treatment of unexplained pain after TKA. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence and characteristics of unexplained pain after TKA as revealed by arthroscopic exploration, and assess the efficacy of arthroscopic procedures to relieve pain. Read More

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Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biomolecular Engineering, University Of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, United States.

The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Late Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp. Read More

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Adipocytes Provide Fatty Acids to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:665763. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Diabetes and Obesity Program, Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Background: There is increasing evidence that adipocytes play an active role in the cancer microenvironment. We have previously reported that adipocytes interact with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells, contributing to chemotherapy resistance and treatment failure. In the present study, we investigated whether part of this resistance is due to adipocyte provision of lipids to ALL cells. Read More

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Treatment of carotid cavernous sinus fistulas with flow diverters. A case report and systematic review.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 May 10:15910199211014701. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, 401 General Military Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Introduction: Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are rare, usually follow head trauma or aneurysmal rupture. Recent treatment options include endovascular techniques such as flow diversion devices (FDDs).

Objective: To present our case treated with FDD application with transarterial cavernous-sinus coiling and present a systematic review on the use and effectiveness of FDDs in CCF treatment. Read More

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Marine debris from the past - Contamination of the Brazilian shore by a WWII wreck.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Apr 29;169:105345. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Instituto de Ciências do Mar (LABOMAR), Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Av. da Abolição, 3207, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

In 2018, unidentified packages appeared along approximately 1600 Km of the Brazilian coastline causing widespread pollution to beaches and danger to society. The packages were found to be bales of raw rubber ranging in size from 0.06 m³ to 3. Read More

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NSMF promotes the replication stress-induced DNA damage response for genome maintenance.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Life Sciences, Ulsan National University of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea.

Proper activation of DNA repair pathways in response to DNA replication stress is critical for maintaining genomic integrity. Due to the complex nature of the replication fork (RF), problems at the RF require multiple proteins, some of which remain unidentified, for resolution. In this study, we identified the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor synaptonuclear signaling and neuronal migration factor (NSMF) as a key replication stress response factor that is important for ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) activation. Read More

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Devosia aurantiaca sp. nov., Isolated from Mountain Soil and Proposal of Albitalea gen. nov. to Replace the Illegitimate Prokaryotic Genus Name Geomonas Khan et al. 2020.

Curr Microbiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, 84, HeukSeok-Ro, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea.

Strain H239, a gram-negative, strictly aerobic, and oxidase-positive, and catalase-negative bacterium, was isolated from mountain soil in Gangwon-do of South Korea. Colonies were orange colored, and cells were motile rods with a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed between 25 and 30 °C (optimum, 30 °C), between pH 7. Read More

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Combinatorial screen of dynamic mechanical stimuli for predictive control of MSC mechano-responsiveness.

Sci Adv 2021 May 7;7(19). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada.

Mechanobiological-based control of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to facilitate engineering and regeneration of load-bearing tissues requires systematic investigations of specific dynamic mechanical stimulation protocols. Using deformable membrane microdevice arrays paired with combinatorial experimental design and modeling, we probed the individual and integrative effects of mechanical stimulation parameters (strain magnitude, rate at which strain is changed, and duty period) on myofibrogenesis and matrix production of MSCs in three-dimensional hydrogels. These functions were found to be dominantly influenced by a previously unidentified, higher-order interactive effect between strain magnitude and duty period. Read More

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E3 ligase c-Cbl regulates intestinal inflammation through suppressing fungi-induced noncanonical NF-κB activation.

Sci Adv 2021 May 7;7(19). Epub 2021 May 7.

Clinical Medicine Scientific and Technical Innovation Center, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China

Intestinal fungi are critical for modulating host immune homeostasis and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We show that dendritic cell (DC)-specific deficiency of casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl) renders mice susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Mechanistically, we identify that c-Cbl functions downstream of Dectin-2 and Dectin-3 to mediate the ubiquitination and degradation of noncanonical nuclear factor κB subunit RelB. Read More

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Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of a measles outbreak in northern Vietnam, 2013-2014.

J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 24;139:104840. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8640, Japan.

Background: A nationwide measles outbreak occurred in Vietnam between 2013 and 2014.

Objectives: To provide an overview on the 2013-2014 measles outbreak in northern Vietnam using epidemiological and molecular analysis of the measles virus (MeV).

Study Design: Epidemiological information was collected from all suspected cases of measles/rubella. Read More

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Comparative evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems for non-albicans Candida and uncommon yeast isolates.

J Microbiol Methods 2021 May 4;185:106232. Epub 2021 May 4.

University of Health Sciences, Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.

Introduction: Rapid and accurate diagnosis is critically important in invasive and disseminated fungal infections for appropriate antifungal treatment.

Hypothesis: MALDI-TOF MS systems are effective for fast and accurate identification of Candida species.

Aim: We aimed to compare two MALDI-TOF MS systems for the rapid identification of non-albicans Candida and rare clinical yeast species. Read More

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Recovering Individual Genomes from Metagenomes Using MaxBin 2.0.

Curr Protoc 2021 May;1(5):e128

Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, California.

It is critical to identify individual genomes from microbiomic samples in order to carry out analysis of the microbes. Methods based on existing databases, however, may have limited capabilities in elucidating and quantifying the microbes due to the largely unidentified microbial species in natural or human-associated environments. We thus developed a database-free method, MaxBin 2. Read More

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Current and future deep learning algorithms for MS/MS-based small molecule structure elucidation.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 May 6:e9120. Epub 2021 May 6.

Janssen Research & Development, Beerse, Belgium.

Rationale: Structure elucidation of small molecules has been one of the cornerstone applications of mass spectrometry for decades. Despite the increasing availability of software tools, structure elucidation from MS/MS data remains a challenging task, leaving many spectra unidentified. However, as an increasing number of reference MS/MS spectra are being curated at a repository scale and shared on public servers, there is an exciting opportunity to develop powerful new deep learning (DL) models for automated structure elucidation. Read More

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