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Mathematical modeling of COVID-19 in India and its states with optimal control.

Model Earth Syst Environ 2021 Jun 10:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Mathematics, School of Advanced Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai, India.

A pandemic is an epidemic spread over a huge geographical area. COVID-19 is such pandemic documented after 1918 flu pandemic. In this work, we frame a mathematical epidemic model taking inspiration from the classic SIR model and develop a compartmental model with ten compartments to study the coronavirus dynamics in India and three of its most affected states, namely, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu, with inclusion of factors related to face mask efficacy, contact tracing, and testing along with quarantine and isolation. Read More

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Influenza co-infection associated with severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Virol J 2021 06 14;18(1):127. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Pediatric Pulmonology Department, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implications of viral and bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 clinical outcomes.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 48 COVID-19 patients (29% ICU and 71% non-ICU) and screened for the presence of 24 respiratory pathogens using six multiplex PCR panels. Read More

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Maximizing the Efficiency of Active Case Finding for SARS-CoV-2 Using Bandit Algorithms.

Med Decis Making 2021 Jun 14:272989X211021603. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biostatistics, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

Even as vaccination for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) expands in the United States, cases will linger among unvaccinated individuals for at least the next year, allowing the spread of the coronavirus to continue in communities across the country. Detecting these infections, particularly asymptomatic ones, is critical to stemming further transmission of the virus in the months ahead. This will require active surveillance efforts in which these undetected cases are proactively sought out rather than waiting for individuals to present to testing sites for diagnosis. Read More

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Nicotinic acid supplementation at a supraphysiological dose increases the bioavailability of NAD precursors in mares.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia.

NAD deficiency has recently been linked with increased occurrences of congenital abnormalities and embryonic death in human and animal subjects. Early embryonic death is a major component of pregnancy loss in mares and very little is known regarding the requirement for NAD in horses. The aim of this study was to quantify NAD and its metabolites in the plasma and urine of mares after orally administering an acute dose of nicotinic acid and determine the absorption, metabolism and excretion of this essential precursor for NAD biosynthesis. Read More

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Warwick-India-Canada (WIC) global mental health group: rationale, design and protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 06 11;11(6):e046362. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Mental Health & Wellbeing, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Introduction: The primary aim of the National Institute of Health Research-funded global health research group, Warwick-India-Canada (WIC), is to reduce the burden of psychotic disorders in India. India has a large pool of undetected and untreated patients with psychosis and a treatment gap exceeding 75%. Evidence-based packages of care have been piloted, but delivery of treatments still remains a challenge. Read More

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Influence of collar height of definitive restoration and type of luting cement on the amount of residual cement in implant restorations: A clinical study.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Senior Resident, Department of Prosthodontics, Government Dental College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.

Statement Of Problem: Residual cement in the peri-implant sulcus may cause peri-implant mucositis, which can lead to peri-implantitis. Clinical studies comparing the role of the collar height of the definitive restoration and the type of cement used for luting the prosthesis in the amount of residual cement are lacking.

Purpose: The purpose of this clinical study was to determine the volume of residual cement left undetected in the peri-implant sulcus by an implant prosthesis with 3 different collar heights and 3 luting cements. Read More

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Investigating difficult to detect pancreatic lesions: Characterization of benign pancreatic islet cell tumors using multiparametric pancreatic 3-T MRI.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253078. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Introduction: Pancreatic islet-cell tumors (PICT) often present with atypical signal-characteristics and are often missed on preoperative imaging. The aim of this study is to provide a multiparametric PICT characterization and investigate factors impeding PICT detection.

Material And Methods: This is a detailed MRI analysis of a prospective, monocenter study, including 49 consecutive patients (37 female, 12 male; median age 50) with symptoms due to endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (EHH) and mostly negative prior-imaging. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in students and teachers: a longitudinal study from May to October 2020 in German secondary schools.

BMJ Open 2021 06 10;11(6):e049876. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

Objective: To quantify the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in secondary schools after their reopening in May 2020.

Design: Repeated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study after the reopening of schools and 4 months later.

Setting: Secondary school in Dresden, Germany. Read More

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Unravelling Atomic Structure and Degradation Mechanisms of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites by Cryo-EM.

Joule 2019 Nov 28;3(11):2854-2866. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Despite rapid progress of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells, using transmission electron microscopy to study their atomic structures has not been possible because of their extreme sensitivity to electron beam irradiation and environmental exposure. Here, we develop cryogenic-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) protocols to preserve an extremely sensitive perovskite, methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI) under various operating conditions for atomic-resolution imaging. We discover the precipitation of lead iodide nanoparticles on MAPbI nanowire's surface after short UV illumination and surface roughening after only 10 s exposure to air, while these effects remain undetected in conventional x-ray diffraction. Read More

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November 2019

Estimated Prevalence of Functional Hearing Difficulties in Blast-Exposed Service Members With Normal to Near-Normal-Hearing Thresholds.

Ear Hear 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Audiology and Speech Pathology Center, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Rehabilitation Research & Development Services, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington DC, USA 2GaRi Solutions INC, Aguada, Puerto Rico.

Objectives: Over the past decade, U.S. Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs audiologists have reported large numbers of relatively young adult patients who have normal to near-normal audiometric thresholds but who report difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments. Read More

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The prevalence of mental disorders among offenders admitted at health facilities in Bizzah Makhate Correctional Service Centre, Kroonstand, South Africa.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2020 May 20;27(6):963-972. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among offenders admitted at the health establishments in Bizzah Makhathe Correctional Centre, South Africa. Structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to elicit the information. The majority of the participants were young male Africans with low educational levels and poor socio-economic status. Read More

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An initial study on the agreement of body temperatures measured by infrared cameras and oral thermometry.

Sci Rep 2021 06 7;11(1):11901. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the rapid adoption and rollout of thermal camera-based Infrared Thermography (IRT) systems for fever detection. These systems use facial infrared emissions to detect individuals exhibiting an elevated core-body temperature, which is present in many symptomatic presentations of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite the rollout of these systems, there is little independent research supporting their efficacy. Read More

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Underestimated health risks: polystyrene micro- and nanoplastics jointly induce intestinal barrier dysfunction by ROS-mediated epithelial cell apoptosis.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2021 Jun 7;18(1):20. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Toxicology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, 1023-1063 Shatai Nan Road, Guangzhou, 510515, PR China.

Background: Micro- and nanoplastic pollution has become a global environmental problem. Nanoplastics in the environment are still hard to detect because of analysis technology limitations. It is believed that when microplastics are found in the environment, more undetected nanoplastics are around. Read More

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Group B streptococcus neonatal umbilical colonization managed by dry cord care in nurseries: A retrospective cohort study.

Pediatr Neonatol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Saitama City Hospital, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Screening-based intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) has reduced the prevalence of early-onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection in newborns. Nevertheless, early-onset disease still occurs despite IAP, and IAP is not effective in preventing late-onset disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of GBS neonatal umbilical colonization managed by dry cord care in Japan. Read More

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Tube placement using 'IRIS': A pilot assessment of its utility and safety.

Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2021 May 31:103077. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Anaesthetics, Level 3, Gate 38, Brunel Building, Southmead Hospital Bristol, BS105NB, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Most critically ill patients have a feeding tube placed blindly, but 0.5% result in a major lung complication because misplacement is only detected at the end of procedure. Real-time guided tube placement may pre-empt such complications. Read More

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Urinary Cell-Free miR-99a-5p as a Potential Biomarker for Estrus Detection in Buffalo.

Front Vet Sci 2021 17;8:643910. Epub 2021 May 17.

Animal Biochemistry Division, Molecular Endocrinology, Functional Genomics and Systems Biology Laboratory, Indian Council of Agricultural Research -National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India.

Accurate estrus detection method is the need of the hour to improve reproductive efficiency of buffaloes in dairy industry, as the currently available estrus detection methods/tools lack high sensitivity and specificity. Recently, circulating miRNAs have been shown as non-invasive biomarkers by various studies. Hence, in order to evaluate their potential as estrus biomarkers, the objective of this study was to identify and compare the levels of 10 hormone-responsive miRNAs in the urine collected at proestrus (PE), estrus (E), and diestrus (DE) phases of buffaloes ( = 3) pertaining to a discovery sample. Read More

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"We Thought We Were Alone": The Subjective Experience of the Siblings of Anorexic Adolescent Patients.

Front Psychiatry 2021 17;12:664517. Epub 2021 May 17.

APHP, Hôpital Cochin, Maison de Solenn, Paris, France.

The siblings of patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are potentially affected by a disturbed emotional experience that often remains undetected. In order to bring them a psychological support, the Maison de Solenn proposed a support group program for these siblings. The current research explores their mental representations of AN and their emotional experience in the support group named "sibling group. Read More

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Detection of cryptogenic malignancies from metagenomic whole genome sequencing of body fluids.

Genome Med 2021 Jun 1;13(1):98. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94107, USA.

Background: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of body fluids is an emerging approach to identify occult pathogens in undiagnosed patients. We hypothesized that metagenomic testing can be simultaneously used to detect malignant neoplasms in addition to infectious pathogens.

Methods: From two independent studies (n = 205), we used human data generated from a metagenomic sequencing pipeline to simultaneously screen for malignancies by copy number variation (CNV) detection. Read More

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Missing Diagnoses during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Year in Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 17;18(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

Research Group on Statistics, Econometrics and Health, Department of Economics, Universitat de Girona, 17004 Girona, Spain.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had major impacts on population health not only through COVID-positive cases, but also via the disruption of healthcare services, which in turn has impacted the diagnosis and treatment of all other diseases during this time. We study changes in all new registered diagnoses in ICD-10 groups during 2020 with respect to a 2019 baseline. We compare new diagnoses in 2019 and 2020 based on administrative records of the public primary health system in Central Catalonia, Spain, which cover over 400,000 patients and 3 million patient visits. Read More

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Bacterial Autofluorescence Digital Imaging Guides Treatment in Stage 4 Pelvic Pressure Injuries: A Preliminary Case Series.

Authors:
James B Stiehl

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 7;11(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

St Mary's Hospital, Centralia, IL 62801, USA.

Pelvic pressure injuries in long-term care facilities are at high risk for undetected infection and complications from bacterial contamination and stalling of wound healing. Contemporary wound healing methods must address this problem with mechanical debridement, wound irrigation, and balanced dressings that reduce bacterial burden to enable the normal healing process. This study evaluated the impact of bacterial autofluorescence imaging to indicate wound bacterial contamination and guide treatment for severe stage 4 pelvic pressure injuries. Read More

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Care pathway and prioritization of rapid testing for COVID-19 in UK hospitals: a qualitative evaluation.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 31;21(1):532. Epub 2021 May 31.

NIHR Newcastle In Vitro Diagnostics Co-Operative, The Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.

Objectives: The second wave of the coronavirus pandemic is now established, occurring at a time of winter pressure on acute care in the NHS. This is likely to be more challenging then the first wave for the diagnosis of COVID-19 because of the similar symptomology with other respiratory conditions highly prevalent in winter. This study sought to understand the care pathways in place in UK NHS hospitals during the first wave (March-July 2020) for identification of patients with COVID-19 and to learn lessons to inform optimal testing strategies within the COVID-19 National Diagnostic Research and Evaluation Platform (CONDOR). Read More

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On the MLC leaves alignment in the direction orthogonal to movement.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Jun 30;22(6):268-273. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.

The main focus of the recommended spatial accuracy tests for the multi-leaf collimators (MLC) is calibration of the leaf position along the movement direction and overall alignment to the radiation isocenter. No explicit attention was typically paid to the alignment of the leaves from the opposing banks in the direction orthogonal to movement. This paper is a case study demonstrating that verification of such alignment at the time of acceptance testing is prudent. Read More

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Loss of Mammographic Tissue Homeostasis in Invasive Lobular and Ductal Breast Carcinomas vs. Benign Lesions.

Front Physiol 2021 5;12:660883. Epub 2021 May 5.

CompuMAINE Laboratory, University of Maine, Orono, ME, United States.

The 2D wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method is used to perform a comparison of the spatial fluctuations of mammographic breast tissue from patients with invasive lobular carcinoma, those with invasive ductal carcinoma, and those with benign lesions. We follow a procedure developed and validated in a previous study, in which a sliding window protocol is used to analyze thousands of small subregions in a given mammogram. These subregions are categorized according to their Hurst exponent values (): fatty tissue ( ≤ 0. Read More

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Systematic investigation on the anti-rheumatoid arthritis material basis and mechanism of Juan Bi Tang. Part 1: Integrating metabolic profiles and network pharmacology.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Aug 12;202:114133. Epub 2021 May 12.

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Shanghai, 201203, China; College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, 201203, China. Electronic address:

Previously, our cooperative team confirmed the chemical composition and anti-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) efficacy of Juanbi-Tang (JBT), a clinically and historically used traditional Chinese medicine formula, in two model animals. In this study, we developed an in vivo-in silico strategy to elucidate the anti-RA material basis and mechanism of JBT. With the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF), the metabolic profiles were investigated in normal and collagen-induced arthritis RA rats following oral administration of JBT. Read More

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Automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing of slow-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in the presence of tetrazolium salt WST-1.

J Microbiol Methods 2021 Jul 27;186:106252. Epub 2021 May 27.

bioMérieux, La Balme-les-Grottes, France. Electronic address:

Slow growing, mucoid isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa require adaptation of the protocol used for automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). In the present study we used a water soluble tetrazolium salt WST-1 (4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate) in combination with menadione for possibly improving AST of slow growing and biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Read More

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Initial experience with dual-layer detector spectral CT for diagnosis of blood or contrast after endovascular treatment for ischemic stroke.

Neuroradiology 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Radiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Wagnerlaan 55, 6815 AD, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To determine whether spectral detector CT (SDCT) with a plain non-enhanced monochromatic CT, a water-weighted image after iodine removal, an iodine map, and Mono energetic images changes the diagnosis and classification of intracranial hemorrhage based on single energy CT after endovascular treatment (EVT) for ischemic stroke.

Methods: Two readers evaluated single energy and SD CT data collected from 63 patients within one week after EVT. They diagnosed ICH or contrast staining, and graded ICH according to the Heidelberg and Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST) classification. Read More

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Undetected Neurodegenerative Disease Biases Estimates of Cognitive Change in Older Adults.

Psychol Sci 2021 Jun 27;32(6):849-860. Epub 2021 May 27.

Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Washington University in St. Louis.

Neurodegenerative disease is highly prevalent among older adults and, if undetected, may obscure estimates of cognitive change among aging samples. Our aim in this study was to determine the nature and magnitude of cognitive change in the absence of common neuropathologic markers of neurodegenerative disease. Cognitively normal older adults (ages 65-89 years, = 199) were classified as normal or abnormal using neuroimaging and cerebrospinal-fluid biomarkers of β-amyloid, tau, and neurodegeneration. Read More

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Serological study of healthcare workers in four different hospitals in Madrid (Spain) with no previous history of COVID-19.

Occup Environ Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Occupational Health and Prevention Department, Fundación Jiménez Díaz University Hospital - Quirónsalud, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have been one of the most severely affected groups during the COVID-19 pandemic, though few studies have sought to determine the rate of undiagnosed cases among this population. In this study, we aim to determine the rate of undetected infection in HCWs, a potential source of nosocomial infection.

Methods: Serological screening for IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was carried out among HCWs from four different hospitals in Madrid, Spain, from 6 April to 25 April 2020; HCWs with a previous diagnosis of infection based on real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay performed after presenting compatible symptoms were excluded. Read More

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Differentiation of Features of Inflammatory Neovascular Membrane Versus Active Posterior Uveitis by SS-OCTA.

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2021 Mar 1;52(3):129-137. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Background And Objective: Neovascularization is a sight-threatening, uncommon complication of posterior uveitis that often goes undetected until persistent clinical findings appear, or in light of treatment failure. This could be attributed to the relative similarity of activity signs in inflammatory neovascular membranes (NVM) and active posterior uveitis. The purpose of the present study is to recognize imaging features that distinguish uveitic neovascularization from active uveitis using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Read More

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Phase II study of apatinib in combination with oral vinorelbine in heavily pretreated HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer and clinical implications of monitoring ctDNA.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Unit of Medical Oncology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma 00176, Italy.

Objective: Apatinib is an oral TKI targeting VEGFR-2. Single-agent apatinib treatment has been shown to produce an objective response in patients with pretreated mBC. Oral vinorelbine also holds promise as a treatment of choice in patients with mBC. Read More

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