175,022 results match your criteria understanding mechanisms


Neuroinflammation in Mood Disorders: Role of Regulatory Immune Cells.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Education and Research, Santa Casa BH, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Mood disorders are associated with chronic low-grade systemic (sterile) inflammation, with increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory mediators targeting all tissues including the brain. Importantly, pro-inflammatory cytokines (ex., tumor-necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-6) regulate mood behavior and cognition by influencing neurotransmitter levels, activating stress-responsive endocrine axes, among other effects. Read More

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NMR illuminates intrinsic disorder.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2021 May 2;70:44-52. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology and Skaggs Institute of Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, 92037, California, USA. Electronic address:

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has long been instrumental in the characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). This method continues to offer rich insights into the nature of IDPs in solution, especially in combination with other biophysical methods such as small-angle scattering, single-molecule fluorescence, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and mass spectrometry. Substantial advances have been made in recent years in studies of proteins containing both ordered and disordered domains and in the characterization of problematic sequences containing repeated tracts of a single or a few amino acids. Read More

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The developing relations between networks of cortical myelin and neurophysiological connectivity.

Neuroimage 2021 May 2:118142. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, M5G 0A4, Canada; Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, M5G 0A4, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5G 0A4 Canada; Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5G 0A4, Canada.

Recent work identified that patterns of distributed brain regions sharing similar myeloarchitecture are related to underlying functional connectivity, demonstrating cortical myelin's plasticity to changes in functional demand. However, the changing relations between functional and structural architecture throughout child and adulthood are poorly understood. We show that structural covariance connectivity (T1-weighted/T2-weighted ratio) and functional connectivity (magnetoencephalography) exhibit nonlinear developmental changes. Read More

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Host-microbial interactions in the metabolism of different dietary fats.

Cell Metab 2021 May;33(5):857-872

Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Although generally presumed to be isocaloric, dietary fats can differ in their energetic contributions and metabolic effects. Here, we show how an explicit consideration of the gut microbiome and its interactions with human physiology can enrich our understanding of dietary fat metabolism. We outline how variable human metabolic responses to different dietary fats, such as altered ileal digestibility or bile acid production, have downstream effects on the gut microbiome that differentially promote energy gain and inflammation. Read More

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Aging-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by ceramide signaling inhibits antitumor T cell response.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(5):109076

Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, 86 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425, USA; Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, 86 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Electronic address:

We lack a mechanistic understanding of aging-mediated changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipid metabolism that affect T cell function. The bioactive sphingolipid ceramide, induced by aging stress, mediates mitophagy and cell death; however, the aging-related roles of ceramide metabolism in regulating T cell function remain unknown. Here, we show that activated T cells isolated from aging mice have elevated C14/C16 ceramide accumulation in mitochondria, generated by ceramide synthase 6, leading to mitophagy/mitochondrial dysfunction. Read More

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Reward processing as a common diathesis for chronic pain and depression.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Pain disorders and psychiatric illness are strongly comorbid, particularly in the context of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). While these disorders account for a significant amount of global disability, the mechanisms of their overlap remain unclear. Understanding these mechanisms is of vital importance to developing prevention strategies and interventions that target both disorders. Read More

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The effects of secreted aspartyl proteinase inhibitor ritonavir on azoles-resistant strains of Candida albicans as well as regulatory role of SAP2 and ERG11.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Department of Dermatovenereology, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Background: Candida albicans, the main human fungal pathogen, can cause fungal infection and seriously affect people's health and life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ritonavir (RIT) on C. albicans and the correlation between SAP2 as well as ERG11 and drug resistance. Read More

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Transcriptomic meta-analysis of disuse muscle atrophy vs. resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy in young and older humans.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, St. Luke's Campus, Exeter, UK.

Background: Skeletal muscle atrophy manifests across numerous diseases; however, the extent of similarities/differences in causal mechanisms between atrophying conditions in unclear. Ageing and disuse represent two of the most prevalent and costly atrophic conditions, with resistance exercise training (RET) being the most effective lifestyle countermeasure. We employed gene-level and network-level meta-analyses to contrast transcriptomic signatures of disuse and RET, plus young and older RET to establish a consensus on the molecular features of, and therapeutic targets against, muscle atrophy in conditions of high socio-economic relevance. Read More

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Emotional contagion in nonhuman animals: A review.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 2021 May 5:e1560. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychology, Human Evolution and Cognition Group (EvoCog), UIB, IFISC, Associated Unit to CSIC, Palma, Spain.

Emotional contagion, the emotional state-matching of an individual with another, seems to be crucial for many social species. In recent years evidence on emotional contagion in different animal species has accumulated. However, despite its adaptative advantages and its presumed simplicity, the study and direct demonstration of this phenomenon present more complexities than previously thought. Read More

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Rhododendrol-induced leukoderma update II: Pathophysiology, mechanisms, risk evaluation, and possible mechanism-based treatments in comparison with vitiligo.

J Dermatol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Integrative Medical Science for Allergic Disease, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

A small proportion of individuals utilizing cosmetics containing rhododendrol developed leukoderma with various pathological conditions, in some cases indistinguishable from vitiligo. In this review, we investigate and evaluate the major considerations for developing rhododendrol-induced leukoderma based on data from original or review articles published in the literature to provide a wide range of information regarding the pathophysiology, mechanisms, risk evaluation, and possible mechanism-based treatments. We compile and discuss the latest information, including data related to the cytotoxicity of rhododendrol, cytoprotective functions, and involvement of the immune system, and consider the possibility of novel treatments based on the differences between individual patients and on the mechanism underlying the onset of the condition. Read More

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The compounding effect of having HIV and a disability on child mortality among mothers in South Africa.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251183. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Lurie Institute for Disability Policy, The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Previous research on the association between maternal HIV status and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa was published between 2005-2011. Findings from these studies showed a higher child mortality risk among children born to HIV-positive mothers. While the population of women with disabilities is growing in developing countries, we found no research that examined the association between maternal disability in HIV-positive mothers, and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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A review of the antimicrobial and immune-modulatory properties of the gut microbiota-derived short chain fatty acid propionate - What is new?

Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Gastrointestinal Microbiology Research Group, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

As antimicrobial resistance poses a globally rising health problem, the identification of alternative antimicrobial agents is urgently required. The short chain fatty acid propionate which is physiologically produced by the gut microbiota constitutes a promising molecule given that it has been widely used as a cosmetics and food preservative due to its antimicrobial effects. This literature survey aims to determine the most recent state of knowledge about the antimicrobial and immune-modulatory properties of propionate. Read More

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"The sky is the limit; I am going there": experiences of hope among young women receiving a conditional cash transfer in rural South Africa.

Cult Health Sex 2021 May 5:1-17. Epub 2021 May 5.

MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Young women in South Africa face elevated risk of HIV infection compared to male peers. Cash transfers may mitigate their risk for HIV; however, there is limited understanding of mechanisms of impact. We explored hope as one potential mechanism. Read More

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Developmental Psychopathology and the Research Domain Criteria: Friend or Foe?

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2020 May-Jun;49(3):341-352

Department of Human Services, University of Virginia.

Developmental psychopathology (DP) is a conceptual approach to the study of the origins and course of individual patterns in the development of psychopathology across the lifespan. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework aims to study dimensions of neurobiology and behavior to construct a new classification of psychopathology that will advance the understanding and treatment of mental disorders. In this commentary, we describe aspects of overall convergence and divergence between these two approaches. Read More

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Reversing the Humidity Response of MoS- and WS-Based Sensors Using Transition-Metal Salts.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain.

Two-dimensional materials, such as transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), are attractive candidates for sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, chemically active edges, and good electrical properties. However, their electrical response to humidity is still under debate and experimental reports remain inconclusive. For instance, in different studies, the impedance of MoS-based sensors has been found to either decrease or increase with increasing humidity, compromising the use of MoS for humidity sensing. Read More

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The pentose phosphate pathway in industrially relevant fungi: crucial insights for bioprocessing.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Christian Doppler Laboratory for Optimized Expression of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, Institute of Chemical, Environmental and Bioscience Engineering, TU Wien, Gumpendorfer Str. 1a, A-1060, Vienna, Austria.

The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is one of the most targeted pathways in metabolic engineering. This pathway is the primary source of NADPH, and it contributes in fungi to the production of many compounds of interest such as polyols, biofuels, carotenoids, or antibiotics. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the PPP are still not fully known. Read More

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Victims, perpetrators, and bystanders: a meta-ethnography of roles in cyberbullying.

Cad Saude Publica 2021 30;37(4):e00097120. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Instituto de Salud Colectiva, Universidad Nacional de Lanús, Lanús, Argentina.

Cyberbullying is a form of online aggression between peers, the prevalence of which varies from 10% to 40% according to studies in different countries. A large share of the scientific literature on cyberbullying tends to individualize and medicalize the causes of the violence, without understanding the context in which it takes place or the meanings it acquires for those who practice it. The study aims to understand the beliefs, values, and practices that adolescents mobilize in performing the roles involved in cyberbullying. Read More

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Observation of microstructure evolution during inertia friction welding using in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 May 19;28(Pt 3):790-803. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE, United Kingdom.

The widespread use and development of inertia friction welding is currently restricted by an incomplete understanding of the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution during the process. Understanding phase transformations and lattice strains during inertia friction welding is essential for the development of robust numerical models capable of determining optimized process parameters and reducing the requirement for costly experimental trials. A unique compact rig has been designed and used in-situ with a high-speed synchrotron X-ray diffraction instrument to investigate the microstructure evolution during inertia friction welding of a high-carbon steel (BS1407). Read More

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Biochemical Activity Architectures Visualized-Using Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Biosensors to Map the Spatial Boundaries of Signaling Compartments.

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Departments of Pharmacology, Bioengineering, and Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

ConspectusAll biological processes arise through the coordinated actions of biochemical pathways. How such functional diversity is achieved by a finite cast of molecular players remains a central mystery in biology. Spatial compartmentation-the idea that biochemical activities are organized around discrete spatial domains within cells-was first proposed nearly 40 years ago and has become firmly rooted in our understanding of how biochemical pathways are regulated to ensure specificity. Read More

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Ribosome dynamics and mRNA turnover, a complex relationship under constant cellular scrutiny.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2021 May 5:e1658. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory of Biology and Modeling of the Cell, Université de Lyon, ENS de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard, CNRS UMR 5239, Inserm U1293, Lyon, France.

Eukaryotic gene expression is closely regulated by translation and turnover of mRNAs. Recent advances highlight the importance of translation in the control of mRNA degradation, both for aberrant and apparently normal mRNAs. During translation, the information contained in mRNAs is decoded by ribosomes, one codon at a time, and tRNAs, by specifically recognizing codons, translate the nucleotide code into amino acids. Read More

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A reaction-coordinate perspective of magnetic relaxation.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Understanding and utilizing the dynamic quantum properties of metal ions is the frontier of many next generation technologies. One property in particular, magnetic relaxation, is a complicated physical phenomenon that is scarcely treated in undergraduate coursework. Consequently, principles of magnetic relaxation are nearly impenetrable to starting synthetic chemists, who ultimately design the molecules that fuel new discoveries. Read More

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Molecular origin of viscoelasticity in mineralized collagen fibrils.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3390-3400

Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics (LAMM), USA.

Bone is mineralized tissue constituting the skeletal system, supporting and protecting the body's organs and tissues. In addition to such fundamental mechanical functions, bone also plays a remarkable role in sound conduction. From a mechanical standpoint, bone is a composite material consisting of minerals and collagen arranged in multiple hierarchical structures, with a complex anisotropic viscoelastic response, capable of transmitting and dissipating energy. Read More

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Pruritogenic mechanisms and gut sensation: Putting the 'irritant' into Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Visceral Pain Research Group, CMPH, FHMRI, Flinders University, Australiagrid.1014.4.

Chronic abdominal pain is a common clinical condition experienced by patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A general lack of suitable treatment options for the management of visceral pain is the major contributing factor to the debilitating nature of the disease. Understanding the underlying causes of chronic visceral pain is pivotal to identifying new effective therapies for IBS. Read More

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Promiscuous Esterases Counterintuitively Are Less Flexible than Specific Ones.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC), Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), Institute of Biological Information Processing (IBI-7: Structural Biochemistry), and Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-4: Bioinformatics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany.

Understanding mechanisms of promiscuity is increasingly important from a fundamental and application point of view. As to enzyme structural dynamics, more promiscuous enzymes generally have been recognized to also be more flexible. However, examples for the opposite received much less attention. Read More

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Deep reasoning neural network analysis to predict language deficits from psychometry-driven DWI connectome of young children with persistent language concerns.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Computer Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

This study investigated whether current state-of-the-art deep reasoning network analysis on psychometry-driven diffusion tractography connectome can accurately predict expressive and receptive language scores in a cohort of young children with persistent language concerns (n = 31, age: 4.25 ± 2.38 years). Read More

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What Drives the Dehumanization of Consensual Non-Monogamous Partners?

Arch Sex Behav 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

We built upon a recent study by Rodrigues, Fasoli, Huic, and Lopes (2018) by investigating potential mechanisms driving the dehumanization of consensual non-monogamous (CNM) partners. Using a between-subjects experimental design, we asked 202 Portuguese individuals (158 women; M = 29.17, SD = 9. Read More

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Functional anatomy of idiomatic expressions.

Brain Topogr 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

ENyS (Studies in Neurosciences and Complex Systems), National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), National University A. Jauretche (UNAJ), El Cruce Hospital Néstor Kirchner, Avenue Calchaquí 5402, Florencio Varela, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Idiomatic expressions (IE) are groups of words whose meaning is different from the sum of its components. Neural mechanisms underlying their processing are still debated, especially regarding lateralization, main structures involved, and whether this neural network is independent from the spoken language. To investigate the neural correlates of IE processing in healthy Spanish speakers. Read More

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Molecular interactions of the M and E integral membrane proteins of SARS-CoV-2.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Specific lipid-protein interactions are key for cellular processes, and even more so for the replication of pathogens. The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed our lives and cause the death of nearly three million people worldwide, as of this writing. SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes the disease and has been at the center of scientific research over the past year. Read More

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Biased perceptions explain collective action deadlocks and suggest new mechanisms to prompt cooperation.

iScience 2021 Apr 29;24(4):102375. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Center for BioComplexity, High Meadows Environmental Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

When individuals face collective action problems, their expectations about others' willingness to contribute affect their motivation to cooperate. Individuals, however, often misperceive the cooperation levels in a population. In the context of climate action, people underestimate the pro-climate positions of others. Read More

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Cilostazol eliminates radiation-resistant glioblastoma by re-evoking big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1148-1169. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University Hospital Taiwan.

In spite of radio- and chemotherapy, glioblastoma (GBM) develops therapeutic resistance leading to recurrence and poor prognosis. Therefore, understanding the underlying mechanisms of resistance is important to improve the treatment of GBM. To this end, we developed a radiation-resistant cell model by exposure to consecutive periods of irradiation. Read More

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