12,421 results match your criteria understand source

Refining the shit flow diagram using the capacity-building approach - Method and demonstration in a south Indian town.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 12;294:112971. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas (CTARA), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB), India.

In cities of the Global South, faecal sludge management (FSM) has arisen as an acceptable and economical alternative for managing excreta. Shit flow diagram (SFD) has emerged as the preferred tool for the planning and advocacy of FSM services. Besides context-specific challenges, FSM planning, especially the use of SFD is impeded by the lack of data related to on-site sanitation systems (OSSs) and lack of capacity at the local level. Read More

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Prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Medical Laboratory, Hawassa Ethiopia. Electronic address:

Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are the most significant current threats to public health worldwide. Their presence and impact are more severe in low- and middle-income countries like Ethiopia. To understand the real magnitude of multiple drug-resistant bacteria comprehensive data is important as such data is not present in Ethiopia. Read More

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Data-driven characterization of thermal models for powder-bed-fusion additive manufacturing.

Addit Manuf 2020 ;36

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201, United States.

Computational modeling for additive manufacturing has proven to be a powerful tool to understand physical mechanisms, predict fabrication quality, and guide design and optimization. Varieties of models have been developed with different assumptions and purposes, and these models are sometimes difficult to choose from, especially for end-users, due to the lack of quantitative comparison and standardization. Thus, this study is focused on quantifying model uncertainty due to the modeling assumptions, and evaluating differences based on whether or not selected physical factors are incorporated. Read More

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January 2020

Time-resolved luminescence detection of peroxynitrite using a reactivity-based lanthanide probe.

Chem Sci 2020 Feb 18;11(12):3164-3170. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University Epinal Way Loughborough LE11 3TU UK

Peroxynitrite (ONOO) is a powerful and short-lived oxidant formed , which can react with most biomolecules directly. To fully understand the roles of ONOO in cell biology, improved methods for the selective detection and real-time analysis of ONOO are needed. We present a water-soluble, luminescent europium(iii) probe for the rapid and sensitive detection of peroxynitrite in human serum, living cells and biological matrices. Read More

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February 2020

The effects of early-life immune activation on microglia-mediated neuronal remodeling and the associated ontogeny of hippocampal-dependent learning in juvenile rats.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Delaware, Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, 108 Wolf Hall, Newark, DE, 19716, USA. Electronic address:

Many neurodevelopmental disorders and associated learning deficits have been linked to early-life immune activation or ongoing immune dysregulation (Laskaris et al., 2016; O'Connor et al., 2014; Frick et al. Read More

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Plug-and-Play Image Restoration with Deep Denoiser Prior.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Recent works on plug-and-play image restoration have shown that a denoiser can implicitly serve as the image prior for model-based methods to solve many inverse problems. Such a property induces considerable advantages for plug-and-play image restoration when the denoiser is discriminatively learned via deep convolutional neural network (CNN) with large modeling capacity. However, while deeper and larger CNN models are rapidly gaining popularity, existing plug-and-play image restoration hinders its performance due to the lack of suitable denoiser prior. Read More

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Optimizing SARS-CoV-2 Surveillance in the United States: Insights From the National Football League Occupational Health Program.

Ann Intern Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

National Football League, New York, New York (E.M., G.S., A.S.).

Background: Evidence to understand effective strategies for surveillance and early detection of SARS-CoV-2 is limited.

Objective: To describe the results of a rigorous, large-scale COVID-19 testing and monitoring program.

Design: The U. Read More

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Exploring Nurse and Patient Experiences of Developing Rapport During Oncology Ambulatory Care Videoconferencing Visits: Protocol for a Qualitative Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jun 14;10(6):e27940. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Duke University School of Nursing, Durham, NC, United States.

Background: Telehealth videoconferencing has largely been embraced by health care providers and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, little is known about specific techniques for building rapport and provider-patient relationships in this care environment. Although research suggests that videoconferencing is feasible and can be effective for some types of care, concerns about the impact of technology on provider-patient relationships exist across health disciplines. Suggestions for adapting some in-person rapport techniques, such as the use of small talk, eye contact, and body language to facilitate trust, personal connection, and communication during videoconferencing encounters, have been discussed in the popular press and clinical commentaries. Read More

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Experimental Simulation of Hydrocarbon Expulsion in Semi-open Systems from Variable Organic Richness Source Rocks.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 24;6(22):14664-14676. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580, P. R. China.

To better understand oil and gas generation and expulsion mechanisms and their controlling factors, two-stage heating program (20 and 5 °C/d) at 11 target temperatures (250-580 °C) have been performed in a semi-open reactor on nine immature lacustrine shale samples from the Triassic Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, NW China, with total organic carbon (TOC) contents ranging from 0.5% to 30.0%. Read More

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Direct observation of the evolving metal-support interaction of individual cobalt nanoparticles at the titania and silica interface.

Chem Sci 2020 Oct 26;11(48):13060-13070. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Chemistry, University College London 20 Gordon Street London WC1H 0AJ UK

Understanding the metal-support interaction (MSI) is crucial to comprehend how the catalyst support affects performance and whether this interaction can be exploited in order to design new catalysts with enhanced properties. Spatially resolved soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in combination with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Helium Ion-Milling Microscopy (SHIM) has been applied to visualise and characterise the behaviour of individual cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) supported on two-dimensional substrates (SiO Si(100) ( < 2) and rutile TiO(110)) after undergoing reduction-oxidation-reduction (ROR). The behaviour of the Co species is observed to be strongly dependent on the type of support. Read More

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October 2020

Single-ion magnetism in the extended solid-state: insights from X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy.

Chem Sci 2020 Oct 7;11(43):11801-11810. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

The University of Manchester at Harwell, Diamond Light Source Harwell Campus OX11 0DE UK

Large single-ion magnetic anisotropy is observed in lithium nitride doped with iron. The iron sites are two-coordinate, putting iron doped lithium nitride amongst a growing number of two coordinate transition metal single-ion magnets (SIMs). Uniquely, the relaxation times to magnetisation reversal are over two orders of magnitude longer in iron doped lithium nitride than other 3d-metal SIMs, and comparable with high-performance lanthanide-based SIMs. Read More

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October 2020

Sex-specific differences in : essential oil yield, growth-defence conflict and population sex ratio.

AoB Plants 2021 Jun 22;13(3):plab021. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Nature Conservation, Institute of Game Management and Nature Protection, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Guba Sándor utca 40, H-7400 Kaposvár, Hungary.

In plants, biomass and nutrient allocation often generate trade-offs between the different biochemical pathways conflicting the utilization of the common source among growth, reproduction and chemical defence. However, in dioecious plant species, these trade-off patterns could appear as a more contrasted problem between males and females due to the dissimilar reproduction investment. Generally, the growth ratio is higher in males than females, while females have a stronger defence than males. Read More

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Insufficient Access: Naloxone Availability to Laypeople in Arizona and Indiana, 2018.

J Health Care Poor Underserved 2021 ;32(2):819-829

Objectives: To understand naloxone availability to laypeople in Arizona (Ariz.) and Indiana (Ind.). Read More

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January 2021

Transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste into chironomids and fish in boreal freshwater bodies.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 3;791:148218. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Information on transfer of elements and their radionuclides is essential for radioecological modeling. In the present study, we investigated the transfer of Cl, Co, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, U and Zn in a boreal freshwater food chain. These elements were selected on the basis that they have important radionuclides that might be released into the biosphere from various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Read More

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Seaweed-based cellulose: Applications, and future perspectives.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Sep 21;267:118241. Epub 2021 May 21.

Food and Nutritional Biotechnology Division, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), SAS Nagar, Punjab 140306, India.

Cellulose is a naturally occurring organic polymer extracted mainly from lignocellulosic biomass of terrestrial origin. However, the increasing production of seaweeds for growing global market demands has developed the opportunity to use it as an additional cellulose source. This review aims to prepare comprehensive information to understand seaweed cellulose and its possible applications better. Read More

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September 2021

Nonlinear dynamics for the spread of pathogenesis of COVID-19 pandemic.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 20;14(7):817-831. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University School of Basic & Applied Sciences (USBAS), Head, Non-Linear Dynamics-Research-Lab, GGS Indraprastha University, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Coronaviruses did not invite attention at a global level and responsiveness until the series of 2003-SARS contagion followed by year-2012 MERS plus, most recently, 2019-nCoV eruptions. SARS-CoV &MERS-CoV are painstaking, extremely pathogenic. Also, very evidently, both have been communicated from bats to palm-civets & dromedary camels and further transferred ultimately to humans. Read More

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Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and toxicological profile of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC.: A review.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 8:114313. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Chittagong, 4318, Bangladesh; Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. is a perennial shrub indigenous to the tropical and subtropical regions of India, China, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippine, Java, Sumatra, Borneo and Australia. Read More

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Species-wide transposable element repertoires retrace the evolutionary history of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae host.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, GMGM UMR 7156, Strasbourg, France.

Transposable elements (TE) are an important source of genetic variation with a dynamic and content that greatly differ in a wide range of species. The origin of the intraspecific content variation is not always clear and little is known about the precise nature of it. Here, we surveyed the species-wide content of the Ty LTR-retrotransposons in a broad collection of 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae natural isolates to understand what can stand behind the variation of the repertoire, i. Read More

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Prevalence of 16S rRNA Methylation Enzyme Gene in From Outpatients and Food.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:663210. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

is the primary cause of community-acquired foodborne infections, so its resistance to antimicrobials, such as aminoglycosides, is a public health issue. Of concern, aminoglycoside resistance in is increasing rapidly. Here, we performed a retrospective study evaluating the prevalence of harboring -mediated aminoglycoside resistance in community-acquired infections and in food or environmental sources. Read More

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Peripapillary Halo in Inflammatory Papillitis of Birdshot Chorioretinopathy.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 3;15:2327-2333. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Purpose: Peripapillary halos (PPH) are peripapillary changes observed surrounding the optic nerve head in normal eyes and eyes with different disorders. Recognizing the microstructure and mechanism of development of these halos will help clinicians understand the different associated retinal and optic nerve head pathologies. We describe the in vivo histological characteristics of PPH in birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR). Read More

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The Role of Source-sink Dynamics in the Assessment of Risk to Non-target Arthropods from the Use of Plant Protection Products.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

BASF S.A.S, Ecully, France.

The concept of source-sink dynamics as a potentially important component of metapopulation dynamics was introduced in the 1980's. The objective of this paper is to review the considerable body of work that has been developed to consider its theoretical implications as well as to understand how source-sink dynamics may manifest under field conditions to the specific case of non-target arthropods in the agricultural environment. Our review concludes that metapopulation dynamics based on field observations are often far more complex than existing theoretical source-sink models would indicate as they are dependent on numerous population processes and influencing factors. Read More

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No water, no mating: Connecting dots from behaviour to pathways.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252920. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Biological and Life Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Ahmedabad University, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Insects hold considerable ecological and agricultural importance making it vital to understand the factors impacting their reproductive output. Environmental stressors are examples of such factors which have a substantial and significant influence on insect reproductive fitness. Insects are also ectothermic and small in size which makes them even more susceptible to environmental stresses. Read More

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Burden of intestinal parasitic infections among pregnant women in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infection 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Comprehensive nationwide data on prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites (IPIs) among pregnant women are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide pooled prevalence estimate, prevalence in different regions and species-specific IPIs among pregnant women in Ethiopia.

Methods: The search was carried out in Medline via PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science and Google Scholar on published and unpublished data between 2008 and Sep 2020 for studies describing rate of IPIs among pregnant women in Ethiopian. Read More

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An update on the distribution, bionomics, and insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi in Ethiopia, 2018-2020.

Malar J 2021 Jun 9;20(1):263. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

US President's Malaria Initiative (PMI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Anopheles stephensi, an invasive malaria vector, was first detected in Africa nearly 10 years ago. After the initial finding in Djibouti, it has subsequently been found in Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia. To better inform policies and vector control decisions, it is important to understand the distribution, bionomics, insecticide susceptibility, and transmission potential of An. Read More

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Hyperspectral Image Super-Resolution via Deep Spatiospectral Attention Convolutional Neural Networks.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 9;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Hyperspectral images (HSIs) are of crucial importance in order to better understand features from a large number of spectral channels. Restricted by its inner imaging mechanism, the spatial resolution is often limited for HSIs. To alleviate this issue, in this work, we propose a simple and efficient architecture of deep convolutional neural networks to fuse a low-resolution HSI (LR-HSI) and a high-resolution multispectral image (HR-MSI), yielding a high-resolution HSI (HR-HSI). Read More

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Assembly of the Microbiome Is Temporally Dynamic and Determined by Selective and Stochastic Factors.

mSphere 2021 Jun 9:e0131620. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

Recent work shows that the plant microbiome, particularly the initial assembly of this microbiome, influences plant health, survival, and fitness. Here, we characterize the initial assembly of the microbiome across ten genotypes belonging to two poplar species in a common garden using 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 region amplicon sequencing of the leaf endosphere, leaf surface, root endosphere, and rhizosphere. We sampled these microbiomes three times throughout the first growing season and found that the composition of the microbiome changed dramatically over time across all plant-associated habitats and host genotypes. Read More

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CsPbX -ITO (X = Cl, Br, I) Nano-Heterojunctions: Voltage Tuned Positive to Negative Photoresponse.

Small 2021 Jun 9:e2101403. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University Beijing, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

All-Inorganic perovskite CsPbX (X = Cl, Br, I) quantum dots (QDs) have attracted tremendous attention in the past few years for their appealing performance in optoelectronic applications. Major properties of CsPbX QDs include the positive photoconductivity (PPC) and the defect tolerance of the in-band trap states. Here it is reported that when hybridizing CsPbX QDs with indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals to form CsPbX -ITO nano-heterojunctions (NHJs), a voltage tuned photoresponse-from PPC to negative photoconductivity (NPC) transform-is achieved in lateral drain-source structured ITO/CsPbX -ITO-NHJs/ITO devices. Read More

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Epidemiological profile of viral hepatitis infection in the population treated at a reference hospital in Alagoas.

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e238431. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas - UNCISAL, Maceió, AL, Brasil.

Viral hepatitis are widely spread infectious diseases caused by a variety of etiological agents that displays liver tropism as a common characteristic. A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational and retrospective study was conducted through the analysis of viral hepatitis medical records treated and diagnosed from 2010 to 2015. The relationship between the variables were made through the chi-square test. Read More

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COVID-19 Medical-Religious Partnerships: Implementation of a Just-In-Time COVID-19 Training in Catholic Schools.

J Relig Health 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Johns Hopkins School of Education, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The concept of Just-In-Time Training (JITT) is to provide critical information specific to a public health crisis, allowing individuals to understand and respond to an urgent situation. The design of the JITT curriculum appropriate for school-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic is vital, as every individual has a role to play in mitigating the spread of SARS-CoV-2. When working with various communities, considering culture and religion is essential, as aligning values and beliefs with the JITT curriculum's objectives may significantly change the community's behavior toward a public health crisis. Read More

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Evaluating metrics in link streams.

Soc Netw Anal Min 2021 4;11(1):51. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON Canada.

We seek to understand the topological and temporal nature of temporal networks by computing the distances, latencies and lengths of paths. Shortest fastest paths offer interesting insights about connectivity that were unknowable until recently. Moreover, distances and latencies tend to be computed by separate algorithms. Read More

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