93,516 results match your criteria understand roles


Towards tailored psychosocial intervention for BD-II: Lived experience perspectives on current and future management options.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 27;289:110-116. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Centre for Mental Health, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC, Australia.

Background: Despite its significant morbidity and mortality, very little is known about how those with lived experience of bipolar II disorder (BD-II) manage their condition. This study sought to understand unmet needs in currently available psychosocial treatments, explore self-management strategies (SMS) that individuals with BD-II currently use, and determine the potential role of digital mental health interventions in this space.

Methods: Individuals (aged 18-65) confirming they had received a diagnosis of BD-II from a mental health professional were invited to complete an online survey about treatments trialled, coping strategies used to manage their condition and perspectives on the role of digital mental interventions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular cloning of duck CD40 and its immune function research.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 11;100(6):101100. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, People's Republic of China.

Cosignal molecules are cell surface molecules that transduce signals to other cells to modulate immune response positively (costimulate) or negatively (cosuppress). Costimulatory signals are key factors in determining whether T/B cells are capable of responding to specific antigens and ultimately mediating an appropriate immune response. In this study, the cDNA sequence containing the complete coding frame of the costimulatory molecule duck CD40 gene was cloned and reported for the first time, and its mediated antiviral innate immune was verified in vitro. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The History of Microbiology-A Personal Interpretation.

Authors:
Roberto Kolter

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Microbiology began as a unified science using the principles of chemistry to understand living systems. The unified view quickly split into the subdisciplines of medical microbiology, molecular biology, and environmental microbiology. The advent of a universal phylogeny and culture-independent approaches have helped tear down the boundaries separating the subdisciplines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

NMDA receptor inhibition increases, synchronizes, and stabilizes the collective pancreatic beta cell activity: Insights through multilayer network analysis.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 11;17(5):e1009002. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.

NMDA receptors promote repolarization in pancreatic beta cells and thereby reduce glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Therefore, NMDA receptors are a potential therapeutic target for diabetes. While the mechanism of NMDA receptor inhibition in beta cells is rather well understood at the molecular level, its possible effects on the collective cellular activity have not been addressed to date, even though proper insulin secretion patterns result from well-synchronized beta cell behavior. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Luminal Breast Cancer: Risk of Recurrence and Tumor-Associated Immune Suppression.

Mol Diagn Ther 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Azienda Tutela della Salute Sardegna, Ospedale A. Segni, Ozieri, Italy.

Hormone-receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) (including the luminal A and the luminal B subtypes) is the most common type of tumor in women diagnosed with early-stage BC (EBC). It represents a highly heterogeneous subgroup that is characterized by different risks of relapse. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible role played by the immune response in predicting this risk, along with the most common clinical and pathological factors and molecular tools that have been developed and are already in use. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of EQ-5D-3L and metabolic components between patients with hyperhidrosis and the general population: a propensity score matching analysis.

Qual Life Res 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: It is important to understand the characteristics of patients with hyperhidrosis, which are different from the general population, for treating hyperhidrosis. Sympathetic overactivity, which might play an important role in hyperhidrosis, can contribute to metabolic diseases and the decreased quality of life (QoL). We compared the metabolic components and health-related QoL between patients with hyperhidrosis and the general population. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Danger-associated molecular pattern molecules and the receptor for advanced glycation end products enhance ANCA-induced responses.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre for Inflammatory Disease, Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Objectives: The pro-inflammatory activities of the calgranulins and HMGB1 can be counteracted by sRAGE the soluble form of their shared receptor. To understand the role of these molecules in AAV and their potential as therapeutic targets we have studied 1) The relationship between these DAMPS and disease activity, 2) The expression of RAGE and sRAGE in biopsy tissue and peripheral blood and 3) The effect of these molecules on ANCA-mediated cytokine production.

Methods: We examined circulating levels of calgranulins (S100A8/A9 and S100A12), HMGB1 and sRAGE by ELISA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Deliberations about clinical pharmacogenetic testing in pediatric oncology.

Per Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics & BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Division of Translational Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4, Canada.

This article summarizes the background, content and outcomes of a special meeting that was convened among oncologists and scientists to discuss the role of pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing in pediatric clinical oncology practice. This meeting provided an opportunity for what the lead author (AM Issa) refers to as the 'voice of the clinician' dynamic to be amplified in order to better understand how personalized or precision medicine applications such as PGx testing are adopted and incorporated into clinical settings and what we can learn from the experiences of current and ongoing implementation PGx approaches to further the implementation of precision medicine applications in real-world environments. Group dynamics and clinical experience with PGx testing and return of results shaped the discussion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 53 inhibits the occurrence and development of clear cell renal cell carcinoma through NF-κB pathway inactivation.

Cancer Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Urology, Huangshi Central Hospital (Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Polytechnic University), Edong Healthcare Group, Huangshi, P.R. China.

Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is one of the most prevalent malignant diseases in the urinary system with more than 140,000 related deaths annually. Ubiquitination-deubiquitination homeostasis is an important factor in ccRCC progression; ubiquitin-specific peptidase 53 (USP53) belongs to the family of deubiquitinating enzymes, but its functions are rarely reported.

Methods: Databases obtained from GEO and TCGA were analyzed to reveal the role of USP53 in ccRCC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transcription factor control of virulence in phytopathogenic fungi.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre for Crop and Disease Management, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia.

Plant-pathogenic fungi are a significant threat to economic and food security worldwide. Novel protection strategies are required and therefore it is critical we understand the mechanisms by which these pathogens cause disease. Virulence factors and pathogenicity genes have been identified, but in many cases their roles remain elusive. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of systemic estrogen for preventing urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.

Menopause 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Medical School, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA Department of Global Health, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX.

Importance: Current guidelines for postmenopausal recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) prevention recommend the use of vaginal topical estrogen products but not systemic estrogens. Studies show that vaginal estrogen decreases the risk of rUTI, but evidence against use of systemic estrogen is less convincing.

Objective: We performed a comprehensive literature review to evaluate the effect of systemic estrogen on UTI occurrence among postmenopausal women. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A broadened estimate of syntactic and lexical ability from the MB-CDI.

J Child Lang 2021 May 11:1-18. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

A critical question in the study of language development is to understand lexical and syntactic acquisition, which play different roles in speech to the extent it would be natural to surmise they are acquired differently. As measured through the comprehension and production of closed-class words, syntactic ability emerges at roughly the 400-word mark. However, a significant proportion of the developmental work uses a coarse combination of function and content words on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (MB-CDI). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Expression and function analysis of FaCO gene in Festuca arundinacea].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Apr;37(4):1324-1333

Guizhou Institute of Prataculture, Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guiyang 550006, Guizhou, China.

Photoperiod plays an important role in transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in plants. CONSTANS (CO), as a unique gene in the photoperiod pathway, responds to changes of day length to initiate flowering in the plant. In this study, the expression level of FaCONSTANS (FaCO) gene under long-day, short-day, continuous light and continuous darkness conditions was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Double Exchange Induced in situ Conductivity in Nickel Based Oxyhydroxides: An Effective Descriptor for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Nanjing University, Chemistry, 163 Xianling Road, 210023, Nanjing, CHINA.

The electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays an important role in sustainable energy conversion from water to hydrogen fuel. The most effective non-noble metal catalyst for OER is currently Fe-doped NiOOH (Ni 1-x Fe x OOH), but its overpotential (theoretically calculated η = 0.4) is too large for practical applications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adenosine A2A receptor null chondrocyte transcriptome resembles that of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

Purinergic Signal 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, NYUGSOM, New York, NY, USA.

Adenosine signaling plays a critical role in the maintenance of articular cartilage and may serve as a novel therapeutic for osteoarthritis (OA), a highly prevalent and morbid disease without effective therapeutics in the current market. Mice lacking adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) develop spontaneous OA by 16 weeks of age, a finding relevant to human OA since loss of adenosine signaling due to diminished adenosine production (NT5E deficiency) also leads to development of OA in mice and humans. To better understand the mechanism by which A2AR and adenosine generation protect from OA development, we examined differential gene expression in neonatal chondrocytes from WT and A2AR null mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The multifaceted roles of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 in osteophilic metastatic cancers.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut de pharmacologie de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001, 12e Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

Breast and prostate cancers have a great propensity to metastasize to long bones. The development of bone metastases is life-threatening, incurable, and drastically reduces patients' quality of life. The chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 and their respective receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4, are central instigators involved in all stages leading to cancer cell dissemination and secondary tumor formation in distant target organs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Leadership Through Influence: What Mechanisms Allow Leaders to Steer a Swarm?

Bull Math Biol 2021 May 10;83(6):69. Epub 2021 May 10.

Dipartimento Interateneo di Scienze, Progetto e Politiche del Territorio (DIST), Politecnico di Torino, Viale Pier Andrea Mattioli, 39, 10125, Turin, Italy.

Collective migration of cells and animals often relies on a specialised set of "leaders", whose role is to steer a population of naive followers towards some target. We formulate a continuous model to understand the dynamics and structure of such groups, splitting a population into separate follower and leader types with distinct orientation responses. We incorporate leader influence via three principal mechanisms: a bias in the orientation of leaders towards the destination (orientation-bias), a faster movement of leaders when moving towards the target (speed-bias), and leaders making themselves more clear to followers when moving towards the target (conspicuousness-bias). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Organic agriculture and rural networks in the mountain environments of Região serrana fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 24;8(2):200498. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Embrapa Agrobiology, Professor and Tutor at UFRRJ PhD program Science, Tecnology an Agricultural Innovation, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

This paper presents a case study on organic agriculture at Região Serrana Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. We sought to understand what was the role of organic farming, and if it can be considered as an aggregating element between different kinds of people or groups who were located in the same region. The methodology used to carry out this investigation was based on the concept of the rural network, which enabled us to comprehend the articulations and connections that comprise the organic agriculture circuit in the mountains of this specific region. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Silicon modifies C:N:P stoichiometry, and increases nutrient use efficiency and productivity of quinoa.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9893. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Jaboticabal, São Paulo, 14884-900, Brazil.

Recognizably, silicon has a beneficial effect on plant growth and productivity. In this respect, it is also known that the C, N and, P stoichiometric ratios and nutrient conversion efficiency allow identifying the interactions between elements while helping to understand the role Si plays in plant growth. This study aims to investigate whether increasing Si concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3 mmol L) supplied in the nutrient solution is uptaken by quinoa, modifies the C:N:P stoichiometry while increasing nutritional efficiency and crop productivity as well. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The evolution and changing ecology of the African hominid oral microbiome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Department of Humanities, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

The oral microbiome plays key roles in human biology, health, and disease, but little is known about the global diversity, variation, or evolution of this microbial community. To better understand the evolution and changing ecology of the human oral microbiome, we analyzed 124 dental biofilm metagenomes from humans, including Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene to present-day modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, as well as New World howler monkeys for comparison. We find that a core microbiome of primarily biofilm structural taxa has been maintained throughout African hominid evolution, and these microbial groups are also shared with howler monkeys, suggesting that they have been important oral members since before the catarrhine-platyrrhine split ca. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Structural variations in papaya genomes.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 10;22(1):335. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

Background: Structural variations (SVs) are a type of mutations that have not been widely detected in plant genomes and studies in animals have shown their role in the process of domestication. An in-depth study of SVs will help us to further understand the impact of SVs on the phenotype and environmental adaptability during papaya domestication and provide genomic resources for the development of molecular markers.

Results: We detected a total of 8083 SVs, including 5260 deletions, 552 tandem duplications and 2271 insertions with deletion being the predominant, indicating the universality of deletion in the evolution of papaya genome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Variational hysteresis and photoresponse behavior of MAPbX(X=I, Br, Cl) perovskite single crystals.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Science, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310018, CHINA.

High-quality MAPbX(X=I, Br, Cl) single crystals with a desirable size were grown through an inverse temperature crystallization method. Systematically measurements of current-voltage (-) hysteresis show that the hysteresis is strongly dependent on the measuring protocol, including scan rate and light illumination condition, which reveals the competition of three main factors that influence the charge dynamics in different regimes, defect trap, MAdipoles rotation, and ion migration. In the dark, defect trapping is the dominant charge transport dynamics at low bias in the MAPbI, while the MAdipole rotation is significant in MAPbBr, and ion migration occurs in MAPbCl. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The association between intended drinking contexts and alcohol expectancies in college students: A daily diary study.

Addict Behav 2021 Apr 30;120:106967. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors, 1100 NE 45th St., #300, Seattle, WA 98115, USA.

Background: Because of the role alcohol outcome expectancies play in subsequent drinking, it is important to understand factors that can shape alcohol expectancies to guide intervention efforts. This study examined among college students whether intended social contexts for drinking were associated with positive and negative alcohol expectancies at the daily-level.

Methods: Participants included in analyses were 323 students, ages 18 to 24 years, enrolled at a 4-year university in the Pacific Northwest. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bio-carrier-enhanced aerobic granulation: Effects on the extracellular polymeric substances production and microorganism community.

Chemosphere 2021 May 3;280:130756. Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China.

In this study, the strengthening effect of bio-carrier inoculation in the process of aerobic granulation and its influence on the microbial secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) has been systematically explored, to further understand and perfect the rapid granulation mechanism. Complete granulation was achieved within 15 days, and the granule morphology realized in a reactor inoculated with the bio-carrier (R1) was better than that in the control group (R2), in which complete granulation was not achieved during the entire operation period. However, AGS gradually disintegrated after the 20th day because of the strong shearing force, the crushed AGS enhanced granulation, however did not ensure stability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hygiene hypothesis and autoimmune diseases: A narrative review of clinical evidences and mechanisms.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 May 7:102845. Epub 2021 May 7.

School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy.

Since the start of the "modern era", characterized by the increase in urbanization, a progressive attention to hygiene and autoimmune conditions has considerably grown. Although these diseases are often multifactorial, it was demonstrated that environment factors such as pollution, diet and lifestyles may play a crucial role together with genetic signature. Our research, based on the newest and most significant literature of this topic, highlights that the progressive depletion of microbes and parasites due to increased socioeconomic improvement, may lead to a derangement of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of a chemical dispersant (Corexit 9500A) on the structure and ion transport function of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) gills.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 7:109070. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, United States of America. Electronic address:

Chemical dispersants are commercially available mixtures of surfactants and solvents that have become important tools in the remediation of spilled oil. Given the importance of oil to the world economy, the recurring nature of spills, and the prevalence of dispersant use in remediation, there is a critical need to understand potential toxic impacts of dispersants on invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) play ecologically important roles in the environments they inhabit and support economically important fisheries along the Atlantic Coast and in the Gulf of Mexico. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Understanding importance of clinical biomarkers for diagnosis of anxiety disorders using machine learning models.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251365. Epub 2021 May 10.

Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental illnesses that cause constant and overwhelming feelings of anxiety and fear. Excessive anxiety can make an individual avoid work, school, family get-togethers, and other social situations that in turn might amplify these symptoms. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one in thirteen persons globally suffers from anxiety. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Detection and analysis of tick-borne infections in communal dogs of northwest Zimbabwe.

J S Afr Vet Assoc 2021 Apr 29;92(0):e1-e4. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) may serve as a reservoir or a sentinel for infectious disease pathogens that can affect human and wildlife health. To understand the role of tick-borne diseases in rural and lesser developed regions, we investigated the prevalence of several tick-borne pathogens in communal dogs of Zimbabwe. Blood samples from 225 dogs in northwest Zimbabwe were assessed by serology for Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi, and 241 samples were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Ehrlichia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF