311 results match your criteria underpinnings skills


Fundamental underpinnings of simulation education: describing a four-component instructional design approach to healthcare simulation fellowships.

Adv Simul (Lond) 2021 May 11;6(1):18. Epub 2021 May 11.

NYC Health + Hospitals Simulation Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Although in 2020, there are more than 120 healthcare simulation fellowships established globally, there is a paucity of literature on how to design fellowship programs most effectively, to equip graduates with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of a competent simulation educator. Offering a systematic structure to approach simulation fellowship programmatic design may aid in better achieving program goals. In this manuscript, we present the application of the 4-component instructional design model as a blueprint to the development of Simulation Education Fellowships. Read More

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Neonatal amygdala volumes and the development of self-regulation from early infancy to toddlerhood.

Neuropsychology 2021 Mar;35(3):285-299

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku.

At the broadest level, self-regulation (SR) refers to a range of separate, but interrelated, processes (e.g., working memory, inhibition, and emotion regulation) central for the regulation of cognition, emotion, and behavior that contribute to a plethora of health and mental health outcomes. Read More

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Comparative analysis reveals distinctive epigenetic features of the human cerebellum.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009506. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Anthropology and Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.

Identifying the molecular underpinnings of the neural specializations that underlie human cognitive and behavioral traits has long been of considerable interest. Much research on human-specific changes in gene expression and epigenetic marks has focused on the prefrontal cortex, a brain structure distinguished by its role in executive functions. The cerebellum shows expansion in great apes and is gaining increasing attention for its role in motor skills and cognitive processing, including language. Read More

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Learning by concordance (LbC) to develop professional reasoning skills: AMEE Guide No. 141.

Med Teach 2021 Mar 29:1-14. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.

Developing effective clinical reasoning is central to health professions education. Learning by concordance (LbC) is an on-line educational strategy that makes learners practice reasoning competency in case-based clinical situations. The questions asked are similar to those professionals ask themselves in their practice and participant answers are compared to those of a reference panel. Read More

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Development and recovery time of mental fatigue and its impact on motor function.

Biol Psychol 2021 04 11;161:108076. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Centre for Heart, Lung and Vascular Health, School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Mental fatigue is commonplace but there is limited understanding of the neural underpinnings of its development, the time course of its recovery, and its impact on motor function. Hence, this study used neural (electroencephalography) and motor measures to investigate the development and recovery of mental fatigue. Twenty participants performed a 60-min N-back task, with neural activity compared within the task. Read More

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A novel online assessment of pragmatic and core language skills: An attempt to tease apart language domains in children.

J Child Lang 2021 Mar 15:1-22. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK.

It remains unclear whether pragmatic language skills and core language skills (grammar and vocabulary) are distinct language domains. The present work aimed to tease apart these domains using a novel online assessment battery administered to almost 400 children aged 7 to 13 years. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that pragmatic and core language domains could be measured separately, but that both domains were highly related (r = . Read More

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Early signs of autism in infants whose mothers suffered from a threatened preterm labour: a 30-month prospective follow-up study.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Neonatal Research Group, Health Research Institute La Fe, Avenida Fernando Abril Martorell 106, Valencia, 46026, Spain.

Infants born after a threatened preterm labour (TPL infants) are at high risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studying this population may provide insight on the pathophysiological underpinnings of this condition. This study aimed to (i) ascertain the presence and autistic symptom load in TPL infants aged age 30 months relative to non-TPL infants, regardless of preterm birth; (ii) explore the association between early (at 6 months) psychomotor development and temperament features with the autistic symptom load of TPL infants at age 30 months and (iii) examine the association among perinatal risk factors for ASD development with the autistic symptom load of TPL infants at age 30 months. Read More

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Linking L2 proficiency and patterns of functional connectivity during L1 word retrieval.

Brain Lang 2021 May 5;216:104931. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel; Gonda Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Second language (L2) learners differ greatly in language proficiency, which is partially explained by variability in native language (L1) skills. The present fMRI study explored the neural underpinnings of the L1-L2 link. Twenty L2 learners completed a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) task that required retrieving words in L1. Read More

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Deficits in musical rhythm perception in children with specific learning disabilities.

NeuroRehabilitation 2021 ;48(2):187-193

Associate Professor and Wellcome DBT India Alliance Intermediate Fellow, Clinical Neuropsychology and Cognitive Neurosciences Center and Music Cognition Laboratory, Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, India.

Background: A specific learning disability comes with a cluster of deficits in the neurocognitive domain. Phonological processing deficits have been the core of different types of specific learning disabilities. In addition to difficulties in phonological processing and cognitive deficits, children with specific learning disability (SLD) are known to have deficits in more innate non-language-based skills like musical rhythm processing. Read More

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Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Children as a Trauma-Informed Intervention.

Psychodyn Psychiatry 2021 ;49(1):73-85

Clinical Instructor, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York.

This article outlines the underpinnings of a psychodynamic approach for the treatment of childhood trauma through strengthening the implicit emotion regulation system. Childhood trauma impairs the functioning of the emotion regulation system, where deficits are common in children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Difficulties with emotion regulation arise out of disruptions in the development of neurobiological pathways through the interaction of constitutional determinants with environmental factors, including the child's relationships with caregivers and the broader environment. Read More

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January 2021

A treatment protocol to guide the delivery of dialogical engagement with auditory hallucinations: Experience from the Talking With Voices pilot trial.

Psychol Psychother 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Psychosis Research Unit, Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Purpose: To present a treatment protocol for delivering Talking With Voices, a novel intervention for people with psychosis that involves dialogical engagement with auditory hallucinations.

Method: This paper presents a manualized approach to therapy employed in the Talking With Voices trial, a feasibility and acceptability randomized control trial of 50 adult participants. A rationale for following a treatment manual is provided, followed by the theoretical underpinnings of the intervention and its principles and values, including the main tenet that voices can often be understood as dissociated parts of the self which serve a protective function by indicating social-emotional vulnerabilities. Read More

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February 2021

The preterm social brain: altered functional networks for Theory of Mind in very preterm children.

Brain Commun 2021 25;3(1):fcaa237. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada.

Neurodevelopmental difficulties emerge in very preterm born children (<32-week gestation) in infancy and continue to early adulthood but little is known about their social-cognitive development. This study utilized the complementary methodological advantages of both functional MRI and magnetoencephalography to examine the neural underpinnings of Theory of Mind in very preterm birth. Theory of Mind, one of the core social-cognitive skills, is the ability to attribute mental states to others, and is crucial for predicting others' behaviours in social interactions. Read More

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January 2021

Extrahippocampal contributions to spatial navigation in humans: A review of the neuroimaging evidence.

Hippocampus 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Spatial navigation is a crucial everyday skill, which when impaired leads to a significant decrease in quality of life. In humans, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided extensive insights into the neural underpinnings of navigation skills. Whereas the hippocampus has been recognized as the prime region underpinning navigation abilities, by providing a cognitive map of the environment, imaging studies have also implicated a range of other brain regions. Read More

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February 2021

Impaired Learning From Errors and Punishments and Maladaptive Avoidance-General Mechanisms Underlying Self-Regulation Disorders?

Front Psychiatry 2020 26;11:609874. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Self-regulation (SR) is an important human function that relates to quality of life in multiple domains including mental health. Previous studies have found important correlates of low SR including impulsivity and poor emotional regulation; however, underpinnings of low SR are incompletely understood. Individuals low in SR frequently engage in maladaptive behaviors (substance abuse, procrastination, etc. Read More

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January 2021

Creating a Theoretical Framework to Underpin Discourse Assessment and Intervention in Aphasia.

Brain Sci 2021 Feb 2;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Division of Language and Communication Science, School of Health Sciences, University of London, London EC1V 0HB, UK.

Discourse (a unit of language longer than a single sentence) is fundamental to everyday communication. People with aphasia (a language impairment occurring most frequently after stroke, or other brain damage) have communication difficulties which lead to less complete, less coherent, and less complex discourse. Although there are multiple reviews of discourse assessment and an emerging evidence base for discourse intervention, there is no unified theoretical framework to underpin this research. Read More

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February 2021

Cognitive underpinnings of multidimensional Japanese literacy and its impact on higher-level language skills.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 26;11(1):2190. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

This study aimed to identify the cognitive underpinnings of Japanese kanji abilities and clarify the contributions of kanji acquisition to the development of higher-level language skills based on a three-dimensional view of kanji abilities encompassing reading accuracy, writing accuracy, and semantic comprehension. First, a series of regression analyses was used to identify the multifactorial models of each dimension of Japanese kanji acquisition. These models suggest that, among basic cognitive skills, naming speed, visuospatial processing, and syntactic processing underpin kanji abilities in a dimension-specific manner, whereas phonological processing is a common factor. Read More

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January 2021

A functional map for diverse forelimb actions within brainstem circuitry.

Nature 2021 02 6;590(7846):445-450. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Biozentrum, Department of Cell Biology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

The brainstem is a key centre in the control of body movements. Although the precise nature of brainstem cell types and circuits that are central to full-body locomotion are becoming known, efforts to understand the neuronal underpinnings of skilled forelimb movements have focused predominantly on supra-brainstem centres and the spinal cord. Here we define the logic of a functional map for skilled forelimb movements within the lateral rostral medulla (latRM) of the brainstem. Read More

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February 2021

Changes in Electroencephalogram Coherence in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder After a Social Skills Intervention.

Autism Res 2021 04 4;14(4):787-803. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Psychology, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition that affects social communication and behavior. There is consensus that neurological differences are present in ASD. Further, theories emphasize the mixture of hypo- and hyper-connectivity as a neuropathologies in ASD [O'Reilly, Lewis, & Elsabbagh, 2017]; however, there is a paucity of studies specifically testing neurological underpinnings as predictors of success on social skills interventions. Read More

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Disentangling pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A neuropsychological approach.

Psychiatriki 2020 Oct-Dec;31(4):332-340

Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "Aghia Sophia" Children' s Hospital, Athens, Greece.

The clinical and diagnostic debate circulating pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has been highlighted as one of the most controversial themes in child psychiatry. With atypical symptomatic expression, constituting its predominant diagnostic discrepancy, PBD is manifested through prolonged manic episodes and affective storms, lacking the symptomatic cycling and episodic nature presented in adult BD. Apart from its unique clinical presentation, the substantial symptomatic overlap with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicate an important diagnostic challenge in PBD. Read More

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December 2020

Infancy studies come of age: Jacques Mehler's influence on the importance of perinatal experience for early language learning.

Cognition 2020 Dec 12:104543. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

University of California, Los Angeles, United States of America.

In this paper, we pay homage to Jacques Mehler's empirical and theoretical contributions to the field of infancy studies. We focus on studies of the ability of the human fetus and newborn to attend to, learn from, and remember aspects of the environment, in particular the linguistic environment, as a part of an essential dynamic system of early influence. We provide a selective review of Mehler's and others' studies that examined the perinatal period and helped to clarify the earliest skills and predilections that infants bring to the task of language learning. Read More

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December 2020

Using the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus to Test Individual Proprioception Acuity: Implications for Test Design.

Percept Mot Skills 2021 Feb 3;128(1):283-303. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

UCRISE, University of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra, Australia.

The Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA) has been used for measuring proprioception at various joints in the body for more than two decades. The utility of this instrument for discriminating groups has been reported in terms of an area under the curve (AUC) derived from an absolute identification test. This metric has supported statistically significant group differences, but it is not clear whether the AMEDA's testing protocol is suitable for measuring individual proprioception acuity changes. Read More

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February 2021

Neural Correlates of Emotion Regulation in Adolescents and Emerging Adults: A Meta-analytic Study.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 01 14;89(2):194-204. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: The development of adaptive implicit and explicit emotion regulation skills is crucial for mental health. Adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods of heightened risk for psychopathology associated with emotion dysregulation, and neurodevelopmental mechanisms have been proposed to account for this increased risk. However, progress in understanding these mechanisms has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the neural underpinnings of emotion regulation during development. Read More

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January 2021

Interventions that support adults with brain injuries, learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders in dating or romantic relationships: a systematic review.

Disabil Rehabil 2020 Nov 12:1-14. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

School of Health Sciences, City University of London, London, UK.

Purpose: To evaluate the current evidence on dating interventions, their theoretical underpinnings and effectiveness for adult neuro-atypical populations.

Methods: A literature search was completed using CINAHL, Communication Source, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, MEDLINE, Embase, AMED and EMB Reviews (all), for English-language, peer-reviewed studies into interventions for relationships or dating among adults with acquired brain injuries (ABI), learning disabilities or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Demographic data and intervention details were extracted for all included studies. Read More

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November 2020

Emotional face processing across neurodevelopmental disorders: a dynamic faces study in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 11 2;10(1):375. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is classically associated with poor face processing skills, yet evidence suggests that those with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also have difficulties understanding emotions. We determined the neural underpinnings of dynamic emotional face processing across these three clinical paediatric groups, including developmental trajectories, compared with typically developing (TD) controls. We studied 279 children, 5-19 years of age but 57 were excluded due to excessive motion in fMRI, leaving 222: 87 ASD, 44 ADHD, 42 OCD and 49 TD. Read More

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November 2020

An evolutionarily acquired microRNA shapes development of mammalian cortical projections.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 11 2;117(46):29113-29122. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305;

The corticospinal tract is unique to mammals and the corpus callosum is unique to placental mammals (eutherians). The emergence of these structures is thought to underpin the evolutionary acquisition of complex motor and cognitive skills. Corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) and callosal projection neurons (CPN) are the archetypal projection neurons of the corticospinal tract and corpus callosum, respectively. Read More

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November 2020

Revised and Neuroimaging-Compatible Versions of the Dual Task Screen.

J Vis Exp 2020 10 5(164). Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Molecular Cellular and Integrative Neuroscience Program, Colorado State University; Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Colorado State University;

Dual task paradigms simultaneously assess motor and cognitive abilities, and they can detect subtle, residual impairments in athletes with recent mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, past dual task paradigms have focused solely on lower extremity skills and have relied on cumbersome, expensive laboratory equipment - thus limiting their practicality for everyday mTBI evaluation. Subsequently, we developed the Dual Task Screen (DTS), which takes <10 minutes to administer and score, uses low-cost portable equipment, and includes lower extremity (LE) and upper extremity (UE) subtasks. Read More

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October 2020

Shared decision-making in advance care planning for persons with dementia in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Geriatr 2020 10 2;20(1):381. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

LUCAS - Centre for care research & Consultancy, KU Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 8, Postal box 5310, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Shared decision-making provides an approach to discuss advance care planning in a participative and informed manner, embodying the principles of person-centered care. A number of guided approaches to achieve shared decision-making already exist, such as the three-talk model. However, it is uncertain whether daily practice methods in nursing home wards for persons with dementia comply with the underpinnings of this model. Read More

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October 2020

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Neuropathological Underpinnings and Clinical Correlations.

Semin Pediatr Neurol 2020 10 24;35:100832. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Center for Collaboration and Innovation in Brain and Learning Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Despite growing knowledge about autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research findings have not been translated into curative treatment. At present, most therapeutic interventions provide for symptomatic treatment. Outcomes of interventions are judged by subjective endpoints (eg, behavioral assessments) which alongside the highly heterogeneous nature of ASD account for wide variability in the effectiveness of treatments. Read More

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October 2020

Cognitive Correlates of Math Performance in School-Aged Children with Sickle Cell Disease and Silent Cerebral Infarcts.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 May;36(4):465-474

Department of Neuropsychology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Attention, processing speed, executive functioning, and math difficulties are common in youth with sickle cell disease (SCD) with silent cerebral infarcts (SCI). This study investigated the cognitive underpinnings of math difficulties in children with SCD and SCI.

Method: Youth (n = 68) with SCD and SCI completed measures of attention [Digit Span forward (DSF); Conners Continuous Performance Test-Third Edition/Kiddie Conners Continuous Performance Test-Second Edition (CPT-3/KCPT-2)]; working memory [Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WPPSI-IV, WISC-IV, WISC-V, WAIS-IV), Working Memory Index (WMI), Digit Span backwards (DSB)]; processing speed [WPPSI-IV, WISC-IV, WISC-V, WAIS-IV Processing Speed Index (PSI)]; math reasoning [Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) Mathematics composite (MC)]; and math fluency [WIAT-III Math Fluency composite (MF)] as part of a clinical neuropsychological evaluation. Read More

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Act Scholarly! Embrace your inner behavioral .

Authors:
Sandra K Burge

Int J Psychiatry Med 2020 09;55(5):304-313

Department of Family & Community Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio TX, USA.

Fifty years of scholarship by behavioral science faculty shaped the training and practice of family physicians. One can trace behavioral science influence from the philosophical underpinnings of family medicine (whole-person, patient-centered, biopsychosocial care), to the translation of psychotherapy skills into tools for family physicians, to the discovery of successful, integrated healthcare teams of family physicians and behavioral science professionals. Family medicine as we know it today rests on the shoulders of scholars who collaborated to conceive, experiment, evaluate, improve, and innovate. Read More

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September 2020