232,985 results match your criteria underlying mechanisms


Mechanisms of Pharmacoresistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: New Drugs but Old Problems.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEPHARM), University of Salamanca, IBSAL, Salamanca, Spain.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy with poor prognosis when diagnosed at advanced stages in which curative treatments are no longer applicable. A small group of these patients may still benefit from transarterial chemoembolization. The only therapeutic option for most patients with advanced HCC is systemic pharmacological treatments based on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immunotherapy. Read More

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September 2021

The genetic architecture of leaf stable carbon isotope composition in Zea mays and the effect of transpiration efficiency on leaf elemental accumulation.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep;11(9)

Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

With increased demand on freshwater resources for agriculture, it is imperative that more water-use efficient crops are developed. Leaf stable carbon isotope composition, δ13C, is a proxy for transpiration efficiency and a possible tool for breeders, but the underlying mechanisms effecting δ13C in C4 plants are not known. It has been suggested that differences in specific leaf area (SLA), which potentially reflects variation in internal CO2 diffusion, can impact leaf δ13C. Read More

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September 2021

Unique patterns of mating pheromone presence and absence could result in the ambiguous sexual behaviors of Colletotrichum species.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep;11(9)

Department of Biochemistry, Genetics & Microbiology, Forestry & Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0083, South Africa.

Colletotrichum species are known to engage in unique sexual behaviors that differ significantly from the mating strategies of other filamentous ascomycete species. For example, most ascomycete fungi require the expression of both the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes to induce sexual reproduction. In contrast, all isolates of Colletotrichum harbor only the MAT1-2-1 gene and yet, are capable of recognizing suitable mating partners and producing sexual progeny. Read More

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September 2021

A systems biology analysis of reproductive toxicity effects induced by multigenerational exposure to ionizing radiation in C. elegans.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 17;225:112793. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SRTE, Laboratoire d'ECOtoxicologie des radionucléides (LECO), Cadarache, France. Electronic address:

Understanding the effects of chronic exposure to pollutants over generations is of primary importance for the protection of humans and the environment; however, to date, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying multigenerational adverse effects is scarce. We employed a systems biology approach to analyze effects of chronic exposure to gamma radiation at molecular, tissue and individual levels in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our data show a decrease of 23% in the number of offspring on the first generation F0 and more than 40% in subsequent generations F1, F2 and F3. Read More

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September 2021

Longitudinal associations among adolescents' internalizing problems, well-being, and the quality of their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and close friends.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Sep 8;289:114387. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Socio-Medical Sciences, Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Rationale: Internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) are known to decrease adolescents' well-being, but knowledge about potential underlying mechanisms is limited. Read More

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September 2021

Functional role of galectin-9 in directing human innate immune reactions to Gram-negative bacteria and T cell apoptosis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 17;100:108155. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Medway School of Pharmacy, Universities of Kent and Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Galectin-9 is a member of the galectin family of proteins, which were first identified to specifically bind to carbohydrates containing β-galactosides. Galectin-9 is conserved through evolution and recent evidence demonstrated its involvement in innate immune reactions to bacterial infections as well as the suppression of cytotoxic immune responses of T and natural killer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential immunological functions of galectin-9 remain largely unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Hormonal control of cell identity and growth in the shoot apical meristem.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 Sep 17;65:102111. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Laboratoire Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, Univ Lyon, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, INRAE, F-69342, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

How cells acquire their identities and grow coordinately within a tissue is a fundamental question to understand plant development. In angiosperms, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a multicellular tissue containing a stem cell niche, which activity allows for a dynamic equilibrium between maintenance of stem cells and production of differentiated cells that are incorporated in new aerial tissues and lateral organs produced in the SAM. Plant hormones are small-molecule signals controlling many aspects of plant development and physiology. Read More

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September 2021

Deep Tobit networks: A novel machine learning approach to microeconometrics.

Neural Netw 2021 Sep 9;144:279-296. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Statistics, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China. Electronic address:

Tobit models (also called as "censored regression models" or classified as "sample selection models" in microeconometrics) have been widely applied to microeconometric problems with censored outcomes. However, due to their linear parametric settings and restrictive normality assumptions, the traditional Tobit models fail to capture the pervading nonlinearities and thus may be inadequate for microeconometric analysis with large-scale datasets. This paper proposes two novel deep neural networks for Tobit problems and explores machine learning approaches in the context of microeconometric modeling. Read More

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September 2021

Longitudinal associations between cancer history and cognitive functioning among older adults.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Sep 11;97:104521. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

School of Social Work, New York University, New York, NY 11220, USA.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine (1) whether cancer history accelerates older adults' rates of cognitive decline over time and (2) whether chemotherapy increases older cancer patients'/ survivors' rates of cognitive decline over time.

Methods: This longitudinal study drew a subsample of 8811 adults aged 65 or older from Wave 6 of the Health and Retirement Study in 2002 and followed biennually until Wave 13 in 2016. Linear mixed-effects models were performed to test whether cancer history and chemotherapy were associated with accelerated rates of cognitive decline over time among older adults in different age groups. Read More

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September 2021

Do soil conservation practices exceed their relevance as a countermeasure to greenhouse gases emissions and increase crop productivity in agriculture?

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 15;805:150337. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.

Globally, agriculture sector is the significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions into the atmosphere. To achieve the goal of limiting or mitigating these emissions, a rigorous abatement strategy with an additional focus on improving crop productivity is now imperative. Replacing traditional agriculture with soil conservation-based farming can have numerous ecological benefits. Read More

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September 2021

ADIPOSE TISSUE DYSFUNCTION AND MAFLD IN OBESITY ON THE SCENE OF COVID-19.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 17:101807. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Social Applied Nutrition, Micronutrients Research Center (NPqM), Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Obesity is a known risk factor for respiratory infection and many other chronic diseases, including metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), previously known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, it has been considered an important and independent predictor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications in adults, especially cardiopulmonary, presenting in a great number of individuals in critical care. In obesity, adipose tissue (AT) undergoes expansion via several processes: expansion of adipocytes and insufficient vascularization lead to hypoxia; adipocyte apoptosis/necrosis; irregular fatty acid flux; and enhanced secretion of inflammatory adipokines, cytokines, and chemokines. Read More

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September 2021

Senkyunolide H protects PC12 cells from OGD/R-induced injury via cAMP-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 17:114659. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of General Practice, The Affiliated Huaian NO.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai'an, 223300, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Senkyunolide H (SNH) is a bioactive phthalide isolated from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort rhizome and was reported to have multiple pharmacological effects.

Aim Of The Study: The study was performed to verify the potency of SNH protecting PC12 cells from oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced injury and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Materials And Methods: OGD/R model was established in PC12 cells and the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Read More

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September 2021

Alpinone: A positive regulator molecule of immune antiviral response in Atlantic salmon kidney cells.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Sep 17:104262. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Natural Product Chemistry Laboratory, Aquatic Biotechnology Center, Chemistry and Biology Faculty, Environmental Sciences Department, University of Santiago of Chile, Av. Bernardo O'Higgins, 3363, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Alpinone is a flavonoid obtained from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium huascoense. This flavonoid shows antiviral activity against the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), which causes severe disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. Here, we aim to elucidate mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of the flavonoid. Read More

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September 2021

E-liquids and vanillin flavoring disrupts retinoic acid signaling and causes craniofacial defects in Xenopus embryos.

Dev Biol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Environmental teratogens such as smoking are known risk factors for developmental disorders such as cleft palate. While smoking rates have declined, a new type of smoking, called vaping is on the rise. Vaping is the use of e-cigarettes to vaporize and inhale an e-liquid containing nicotine and food-like flavors. Read More

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September 2021

Label-free quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of renal biopsy tissues in membranous nephropathy.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2021 Sep 20:e2000069. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen People's Hospital, Shenzhen, 518020, China.

Purpose: Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. However, the underlying mechanisms of its occurrence and development are not completely clear. Thus, it is essential to explore the mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Iron and liver cancer: an inseparable connection.

FEBS J 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Hepatology and Pancreatology, Kawasaki Medical School.

Iron is an essential element for all organisms. Iron-containing proteins play critical roles in cellular functions. The biological importance of iron is largely attributable to its chemical properties as a transitional metal. Read More

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September 2021

Persistent Biliary Hypoxia and Lack of Regeneration Are Key Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Post-transplant Non-anastomotic Strictures.

Hepatology 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Anatomical, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background & Aims: Non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) are a major cause of morbidity after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although ischemic injury of peribiliary glands (PBGs) and peribiliary vascular plexus (PVP) during OLT has been associated with the later development of NAS, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that bile ducts of patients with NAS suffer from ongoing biliary hypoxia and lack of regeneration from PBG stem/progenitor cells. Read More

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September 2021

Tubule-derived INHBB promotes interstitial fibroblast activation and renal fibrosis.

J Pathol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.

Upstream stimuli for myofibroblast activation are of considerable interest for understanding the mechanisms underlying renal fibrosis. Activin B, a member of the TGF-β family, exists as a homodimer of Inhibin Subunit Beta B (INHBB), but its role in renal fibrosis remains unknown. We found that INHBB expression was significantly increased in various renal fibrosis models and human chronic kidney disease specimens with renal fibrosis. Read More

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September 2021

HGAL inhibits lymphoma dissemination by interacting with multiple Cytoskeletal proteins.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States.

Human Germinal Center Associated Lymphoma (HGAL) is an adaptor protein specifically expressed in germinal center lymphocytes. High expression of HGAL is a predictor of prolonged survival of Diffuse Large B-Cell (DLBCL) and classical Hodgkin lymphomas. Furthermore, HGAL expression is associated with early stage DLBCL, thus potentially limiting lymphoma dissemination. Read More

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September 2021

The blood metabolome of incident kidney cancer: A case-control study nested within the MetKid consortium.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 20;18(9):e1003786. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), Lyon, France.

Background: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI).

Methods And Findings: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Read More

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September 2021

Boiss. and Reut. volatile oil enhances TRAIL/Apo2L induced apoptosis and inhibits colon carcinogenesis through upregulation of death receptor pathway.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Sep 20;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Carthage, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021, Tunisia.

Background: The aim of the study is to determine the anticancer activity of (TS) and its underlying mechanisms using and in animal models.

Methods: HCT116 cells were treated with TS essential oil alone or with TRAIL, and then its anticancer effect was determined by using MTT assay, live dead assay, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Further mechanisms of its anticancer effects was determined by analyzing expression of death receptor signaling pathway using Western blotting. Read More

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September 2021

Imaging Cytoskeleton Components by Electron Microscopy.

Authors:
Tatyana Svitkina

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2364:25-52

Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The cytoskeleton is a complex of detergent-insoluble components of the cytoplasm playing critical roles in cell motility, shape generation, and mechanical properties of a cell. Fibrillar polymers-actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments-are major constituents of the cytoskeleton, which constantly change their organization during cellular activities. The actin cytoskeleton is especially polymorphic, as actin filaments can form multiple higher-order assemblies performing different functions. Read More

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January 2022

Generation and characterization of a Myh6-driven Cre knockin mouse line.

Transgenic Res 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 393 Middle Huaxia Road, Pudong, Shanghai, 201210, China.

Gene deletion by the Cre-Loxp system has facilitated functional studies of many critical genes in mice, offering important insights and allowing deeper understanding on the mechanisms underlying organ development and diseases, such as heart development and diseases. In this study, we generated a Myh6-Cre knockin mouse model by inserting the IRES-Cre-wpre-polyA cassette between the translational stop codon and the 3' untranslated region of the endogenous Myh6 gene. By crossing knockin mice with the Rosa26 reporter lines, we found that Myh6-Cre targeted cardiomyocytes at the embryonic and postnatal stages. Read More

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September 2021

SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein binding to multiple host receptors enables cell entry and infection.

Glycoconj J 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Genos Glycoscience Research Laboratory, Zagreb, Croatia.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection displays a wide array of clinical manifestations. Although some risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes have been identified the underlying biologic mechanisms are still not well understood. The surface SARS-CoV-2 proteins are heavily glycosylated enabling host cell interaction and viral entry. Read More

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September 2021

Paraspinal muscle imaging measurements for common spinal disorders: review and consensus-based recommendations from the ISSLS degenerative spinal phenotypes group.

Eur Spine J 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Faculty of Health Sciences and Western's Bone and Joint Institute, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Paraspinal muscle imaging is of growing interest related to improved phenotyping, prognosis, and treatment of common spinal disorders. We reviewed issues related to paraspinal muscle imaging measurement that contribute to inconsistent findings between studies and impede understanding.

Methods: Three key contributors to inconsistencies among studies of paraspinal muscle imaging measurements were reviewed: failure to consider possible mechanisms underlying changes in paraspinal muscles, lack of control of confounding factors, and variations in spinal muscle imaging modalities and measurement protocols. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of Motor Impairment in C. elegans Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

J Vis Exp 2021 Sep 2(175). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System; Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington;

The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) features progressive loss of motor neurons accompanied by muscle weakness and motor impairment that worsens with time. While considerable advances have been made in determining genetic drivers of ALS for a subset of patients, the majority of cases have an unknown etiology. Further, the mechanisms underlying motor neuron dysfunction and degeneration are not well understood; therefore, there is an ongoing need to develop and characterize representative models to study these processes. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of the bioelectrochemical technique on methane emission and energy recovery in constructed wetlands (CWs) and related biological mechanisms.

Environ Technol 2021 Sep 20:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

College of Civil Engineering, Sichuan Agricultural University, Dujiangyan, People's Republic of China.

In this study, effects of bioelectrochemical technique on methane emission and energy recovery, and related mechanism underlying microbial competition were investigated. The results showed that running MFC was beneficial in reducing CH emissions and promoting COD removal rates, regardless of whether the plant roots were located at the anode or the cathode. CH emission was significantly higher in open-circuit reactors (6. Read More

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September 2021

Mannan Oligosaccharide Could Attenuate Ochratoxin A-Induced Immunosuppression with Long-Time Exposure Instead of Immunostimulation with Short-Time Exposure.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu Province, China.

Our previous study showed that ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most common mycotoxins in feed, could induce immunosuppression with long-time exposure but immunostimulation with short-time exposure. However, limited studies for the control of OTA-induced two-way immune toxicity were carried out. This study explored the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS), a glucomannoprotein complex with immunoregulatory capability derived from the yeast cell wall, on OTA-induced immune toxicity and its underlying mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals novel insights into mechanisms of action of Disulfiram (DSF).

Proteomics Clin Appl 2021 Sep 20:e2100031. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Institute of Biology and Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China.

Purpose: DSF has been proven safe and shows the promising anti-tumor effect in preclinical studies. However, the precise mechanism of DSF on tumor is rarely reported. This study aims to fully understand the mechanism of action of DSF with a systems perspective in anti-cancer effects. Read More

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September 2021