Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 17:101807. Epub 2021 Sep 17.
Department of Social Applied Nutrition, Micronutrients Research Center (NPqM), Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Obesity is a known risk factor for respiratory infection and many other chronic diseases, including metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), previously known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, it has been considered an important and independent predictor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications in adults, especially cardiopulmonary, presenting in a great number of individuals in critical care. In obesity, adipose tissue (AT) undergoes expansion via several processes: expansion of adipocytes and insufficient vascularization lead to hypoxia; adipocyte apoptosis/necrosis; irregular fatty acid flux; and enhanced secretion of inflammatory adipokines, cytokines, and chemokines. Read More