123,189 results match your criteria underlying mechanism


Transcriptomic analysis reveals the parallel transcriptional regulation of UV-B-induced artemisinin and flavonoid accumulation in Artemisia annua L.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 6;163:189-200. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) Ministry of Agriculture, Plant Biotechnology Research Center, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R&D Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

UV-B radiation is a pivotal photomorphogenic signal and positively regulates plant growth and metabolite biosynthesis. In order to elucidate the transcriptional regulation mechanism underlying UV-B-induced artemisinin and flavonoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua, the transcriptional responses of A. annua L. Read More

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UPLC-Q-TOF/MS based fecal metabolomics reveals the potential anti-diabetic effect of Xiexin Decoction on T2DM rats.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 2;1173:122683. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Road, Nanjing 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

Xiexin Decoction (XXD), a traditional Chinese medicine prescription composed of Rhei rhizome (RR), Scutellaria radix (SR) and Coptidis rhizome (CR), has been used to cure diabetes in clinical practices for thousands of years, but its mechanism is not clear. Our previous study indicated that XXD could significantly ameliorate the symptom of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats by shifting the composition of gut microbiota. However, the effect of XXD on the metabolic activity of gut microbiota is not clarified. Read More

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Targeted nanomedicine modalities for prostate cancer treatment.

Drug Resist Updat 2021 Mar 19;56:100762. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 3200003, Israel. Electronic address:

Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cause of death amongst men in the USA. Therapy of PC has been transformed in the past decade by introducing novel therapeutics, advanced functional imaging and diagnostic approaches, next generation sequencing, as well as improved application of existing therapies in localized PC. Treatment of PC at the different stages of the disease may include surgery, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Read More

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Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination - a report of two UK cases.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

Recent reports have highlighted rare, and sometimes fatal, cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) and thrombocytopenia following the Vaxzevria vaccine. An underlying immunological mechanism similar to that of spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is suspected, with the identification of antibodies to platelet factor-4 (PF4), but without previous heparin exposure. This unusual mechanism has significant implications for the management approach used, which differs from usual treatment of CVST. Read More

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Licoricidin Abrogates T Cell Activation by Modulating PTPN1 Activity and Attenuates Atopic Dermatitis In Vivo.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Life Sciences, Immune Synapse and Cell Therapy Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea.

Licoricidin, the fifth-highest fraction among the isolated 48 molecules from Glycyrrhiza uralensis extracts, has been known as anti-inflammatory bioactive molecules, however, few studies have shown its inhibitory effect on T cell activation and atopic dermatitis. The present study examined the therapeutic potential of licoricidin in atopic dermatitis by modulating T cell activation with molecular mechanism. Licoricidin attenuated the expression of IL-2 mRNA in stimulated T cells without cytotoxicity. Read More

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Molecular basis for diaryldiamine selectivity and competition with tRNA in a type-2 methionyl-tRNA synthetase from a Gram-negative bacterium.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 12:100658. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Brazilian Biosciences National Laboratory (LNBio), Brazilian Centre for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), CEP 13083-100, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for a variety of human, animal and plant diseases. The spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria poses a challenge to disease control and highlights the need for novel antimicrobials. Due to their critical role in protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AaRS), including the methionyl-tRNA synthetases MetRS1 and MetRS2, are attractive drug targets. Read More

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Positive selection of IgG over IgM B cells in the germinal center reaction.

Immunity 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Immunology Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia; St. Vincent's Clinical School, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. Electronic address:

Positive selection of high-affinity B cells within germinal centers (GCs) drives affinity maturation of antibody responses. Here, we examined the mechanism underlying the parallel transition from immunoglobulin M (IgM) to IgG. Early GCs contained mostly unswitched IgM B cells; IgG B cells subsequently increased in frequency, dominating GC responses 14-21 days after antigen challenge. Read More

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Neuromedin U uses Gαi2 and Gαo to suppress glucose-stimulated Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0250232. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Neuromedin U (NMU), a highly conserved peptide in mammals, is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes, including impairment of pancreatic β-cell function via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, ultimately suppressing insulin secretion. NMU has two receptors, NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and NMUR2, both of which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Only NMUR1 is expressed in mouse islets and β cell-derived MIN6-K8 cells. Read More

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Differential diagnosis of vitamin D-related hypercalcemia using serum vitamin D metabolite profiling.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada, K7L3N6.

Genetic causes of vitamin D-related hypercalcemia are known to involve mutation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase CYP24A1 or the sodium phosphate co-transporter SLC34A1; which result in excessive 1,25-(OH) D hormonal action. However, at least 20% of idiopathic hypercalcemia (IH) cases remain unresolved. In this case-control study, we used precision vitamin D metabolite profiling based on LC-MS/MS of an expanded range of vitamin D metabolites - to screen German and French cohorts of hypercalcemia patients, to identify patients with altered vitamin D metabolism where involvement of CYP24A1 or SLC34A1 mutation had been ruled out, and possessed normal 25-OH-D :24,25-(OH) D ratios. Read More

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CHOP Increases TRIB3-Dependent miR-208 Expression to Potentiate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration by Downregulating TIMP3 in Atherosclerosis.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Physiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, No. 126, Xinmin Street, Changchun, 130021, Jilin Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) has been identified as a suitable therapeutic target to combat atherosclerosis but the mechanism has not been fully studied. Here, we sought to define the role and underlying mechanism of CHOP in atherosclerosis.

Methods: Mouse models of atherosclerosis in ApoE mice were established by high-fat feeding, where miR-208 expression was determined. Read More

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Utility of three-dimensional and reformatted head computed tomography images in the evaluation of pediatric abusive head trauma.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), 4301 W. Markham St. Slot 556, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA.

Skull fractures are common in the pediatric population following head trauma and are estimated to occur post head trauma in 11% of children younger than 2 years. A skull fracture indicates potential underlying intracranial injury and might also help explain the mechanism of injury. Multiple primary and accessory sutures complicate the identification of non-depressed fractures in children younger than 2 years. Read More

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Estrogen regulation of the molecular phenotype and active translatome of AVPV kisspeptin neurons.

Endocrinology 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Dept. of OBGYN and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

In females, ovarian estradiol (E2) exerts both negative and positive feedback regulation on the neural circuits governing reproductive hormone secretion, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this remain poorly understood. In rodents, ERα-expressing kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular region (AVPV) are prime candidates to mediate E2 positive feedback induction of preovulatory GnRH and LH surges. E2 stimulates AVPV Kiss1 expression, but the full extent of estrogen effects in these neurons is unknown; whether E2 stimulates or inhibits other genes in AVPV Kiss1 cells has not been determined. Read More

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SAHA induces white fat browning and rectifies metabolic dysfunctions via activation of ZFPs.

J Endocrinol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

C Sun, Key Laboratory of Neurogeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to play beneficial roles for treating obesity and its related metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood well. In this study, we examined the potential roles of SAHA, a potent inhibitor of HDACs, on energy expenditure, and explored the involved molecular mechanism. Read More

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Cold Plasma Treatment Promotes Full-thickness Healing of Skin Wounds in Murine Models.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2021 Apr 15:15347346211002144. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Cold plasma can be beneficial for promoting skin wound healing and has a high potential of being effectively used in treating various wounds. Our aim was to verify the effect of cold plasma in accelerating wound healing and investigate its underlying mechanism in vitro and in vivo. For the in vivo experiments, 2 full-thickness dermal wounds were created in each mouse (n = 30). Read More

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Promoting reactive oxygen species generation: a key strategy in nanosensitizer-mediated radiotherapy.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People's Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

The radiotherapy enhancement effect of numerous nanosensitizers is based on the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and only a few systematic reviews have focused on the key strategy in nanosensitizer-mediated radiotherapy. To clarify the mechanism underlying this effect, it is necessary to understand the role of ROS in radiosensitization before clinical application. Thus, the source of ROS and their principle of tumor inhibition are first introduced. Read More

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Underlying Mechanisms for the Modulation of Self-Assembly and the Intrinsic Fluorescent Properties of Amino Acid-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Discipline of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 452020, Madhya Pradesh, India.

The origin of the blue fluorescence of proteins and peptides in the visible region has been a subject of intense debate despite several efforts. Although aromatic amino acids, namely tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), and phenylalanine (Phe) are responsible for the intrinsic luminescence of proteins and peptides, the underlying mechanism and contributions of these amino acids to the unusual blue fluorescence are still not well resolved. In the present endeavor, we show that the clusterization of both aromatic and aliphatic amino acids on the surface of the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) leads to clusteroluminescence, which could be linked to the unusual fluorescence properties of the proteins and peptides and have been ignored in the past. Read More

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Functionalized Strategies and Mechanisms of the Emerging Mesh for Abdominal Wall Repair and Regeneration.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Hernia and Abdominal Wall Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, TongJi University, 150 Ji Mo Road, Shanghai 200120, PR China.

Meshes have been the overwhelmingly popular choice for the repair of abdominal wall defects to retrieve the bodily integrity of musculofascial layer. Broadly, they are classified into synthetic, biological and composite mesh based on their mechanical and biocompatible features. With the development of anatomical repair techniques and the increasing requirements of constructive remodeling, however, none of these options satisfactorily manages the conditional repair. Read More

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Identification of Key Genes and Pathways in Osteoarthritis via Bioinformatic Tools: An Updated Analysis.

Cartilage 2021 Apr 15:19476035211008975. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a severe and common degenerative disease; however, the exact pathology of OA is undefined. Our study is designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of OA with bioinformatic tools.

Design: Three updated GEO datasets: GSE55235, GSE55457, and GSE82107 were selected for data analyzing. Read More

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Multilevel prioritization of gene regulators associated with consensus molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, China.

Consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs) are emerging as critical factor for prognosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. Gene regulators, including chromatin regulator, RNA-binding protein and transcriptional factor, are critical modulators of cancer hallmark, yet little is known regarding the underlying functional mechanism in CMSs. Herein, we identified a core set of 235 functional gene regulators (FGRs) by integrating genome, epigenome, transcriptome and interactome of CMSs. Read More

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Reward sensitivity and action in Parkinson's disease patients with and without apathy.

Brain Commun 2021 10;3(2):fcab022. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Clinical apathy results in dysfunction of goal directed behaviour, a key component of which is the initiation of action. Previous work has suggested that blunting of reward sensitivity is an important mechanism underlying apathy. However, an additional component might be impoverished initiation of action itself. Read More

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Butyrate Suppresses Glucose Metabolism of Colorectal Cancer Cells GPR109a-AKT Signaling Pathway and Enhances Chemotherapy.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 29;8:634874. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China.

Glycolysis inhibitors are promising therapeutic drugs for tumor treatment, which target the uniquely elevated glucose metabolism of cancer cells. Butyrate is a critical product of beneficial microbes in the colon, which exerts extraordinary anti-cancer activities. In particular, butyrate shows biased inhibitory effects on the cell growth of cancerous colonocytes, whereas it is the major energy source for normal colonocytes. Read More

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Serum Metabolomic Analysis of Chronic Drug-Induced Liver Injury With or Without Cirrhosis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 29;8:640799. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Liver Diseases, The Fifth Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Chronic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) occurs in up to 20% of all DILI patients. It presents a chronic pattern with persistent or relapsed episodes and may even progress to cirrhosis. However, its underlying development mechanism is poorly understood. Read More

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Clusteroluminescence from Cluster Excitons in Small Heterocyclics Free of Aromatic Rings.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Apr 11;8(7):2004299. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Chemistry The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay Kowloon Hong Kong 999077 China.

The study of nonconventional luminescence is important for revealing the luminescence of natural systems and has gradually drawn the attention of researchers in recent years. However, the underlying mechanism is still inexplicable. Herein, the luminescence behavior of two series of simple, heteroatom-containing small molecules without aromatic rings, i. Read More

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Motion Direction Discrimination with Tactile Random-Dot Kinematograms.

Iperception 2021 Mar-Apr;12(2):20416695211004620. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan; Department of Intelligence Science and Technology, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Motion detection is a fundamental sensory function for multiple modalities, including touch, but the mechanisms underlying tactile motion detection are not well understood. While previous findings supported the existence of high-level feature tracking, it remains unclear whether there also exist low-level motion sensing that directly detects a local spatio-temporal correlation in the skin-stimulation pattern. To elucidate this mechanism, we presented, on braille displays, tactile random-dot kinematograms, similar to those widely used in visual motion research, which enables us to independently manipulate feature trackability and various parameters of local motion. Read More

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IL-33 as a Novel Serum Prognostic Marker of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 26;2021:5597790. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, 121000 Liaoning Province, China.

Objective: Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a key cytokine involved in inflammation and oxidative stress. The significance of serum IL-33 levels on the prognosis of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between the serum IL-33 level and the prognosis of patients with ICH upon admission. Read More

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Neural mechanism of visual information degradation from retina to V1 area.

Cogn Neurodyn 2021 Apr 20;15(2):299-313. Epub 2020 May 20.

Institute for Cognitive Neurodynamics, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

The information processing mechanism of the visual nervous system is an unresolved scientific problem that has long puzzled neuroscientists. The amount of visual information is significantly degraded when it reaches the V1 after entering the retina; nevertheless, this does not affect our visual perception of the outside world. Currently, the mechanisms of visual information degradation from retina to V1 are still unclear. Read More

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CSE1L, as a novel prognostic marker, promotes pancreatic cancer proliferation by regulating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

J Cancer 2021 14;12(10):2797-2806. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Department of Oncology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive tumors with poor prognosis and new targetable therapies are urgently required. CSE1L (chromosome segregation 1 like) is thought to play an important role in tumorigenesis and acts as a cancer therapeutic target. However, the biological function and the underlying mechanism of CSE1L in pancreatic cancer are still not fully explicit. Read More

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CD8 T Lymphocyte Coexpression Genes Correlate with Immune Microenvironment and Overall Survival in Breast Cancer.

J Oncol 2021 27;2021:5533923. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Oncology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China.

Purpose: To identify CD8+ T lymphocyte-related coexpressed genes that increase CD8+ T lymphocyte proportions in breast cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms among relevant genes in the tumor microenvironment.

Method: We obtained breast cancer expression matrix data and patient phenotype following information from TCGA-BRCA FPKM. Tumor purity, immune score, stromal score, and estimate score were calculated using the estimate package in R. Read More

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Case Report: Could Hennebert's Sign Be Evoked Despite Global Vestibular Impairment on Video Head Impulse Test? Considerations Upon Pathomechanisms Underlying Pressure-Induced Nystagmus due to Labyrinthine Fistula.

Front Neurol 2021 29;12:634782. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

ENT Unit, Department of Surgery, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

We describe a case series of labyrinthine fistula, characterized by Hennebert's sign (HS) elicited by tragal compression despite global hypofunction of semicircular canals (SCs) on a video-head impulse test (vHIT), and review the relevant literature. All three patients presented with different amounts of cochleo-vestibular loss, consistent with labyrinthitis likely induced by labyrinthine fistula due to different temporal bone pathologies (squamous cell carcinoma involving the external auditory canal in one case and middle ear cholesteatoma in two cases). Despite global hypofunction on vHIT proving impaired function for each SC for high accelerations, all patients developed pressure-induced nystagmus, presumably through spared and/or recovered activity for low-velocity canal afferents. Read More

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Evolution of the Conceptualization of Filial Piety in the Global Context: From Skin to Skeleton.

Front Psychol 2021 29;12:570547. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Social science researchers often define as a set of norms, values, and practices regarding how children should behave toward their parents. In this article, we trace the conceptual development of filial piety research in Chinese and other societies to highlight the assumptions underlying this traditional approach to filial piety research. We identify the limitations of these assumptions, including the problem of an evolving definition and lack of cross-cultural applicability. Read More

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