37 results match your criteria under-reporting selective

Heroin use cannot be measured adequately with a general population survey.

Addiction 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

University of Maryland, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, College Park, MD, USA.

Background: Globally, heroin and other opioids account for more than half of deaths and years-of-life-lost due to drug use and comprise one of the four major markets for illegal drugs. Having sound estimates of the number of problematic heroin users is fundamental to formulating sound health and criminal justice policies. Researchers and policymakers rely heavily upon general population surveys (GPS), such as the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), to estimate heroin use, without confronting their limitations. Read More

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Efficacy and safety evaluation of benzalkonium chloride preserved eye-drops compared with alternatively preserved and preservative-free eye-drops in the treatment of glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Br J Ophthalmol 2020 11 12;104(11):1512-1518. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark

Background/aims: This systematic review compared the efficacy and safety of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-preserved eye-drops with alternatively preserved (AP) and preservative-free (PF) eye-drops.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for randomised controlled trials in June and October 2019. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were made by two independent reviewers using the Cochrane Handbook. Read More

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November 2020

Characterization of the Selective Recording of Workplace Exposure Measurements into OSHA's IMIS Databank.

Ann Work Expo Health 2018 03;62(3):269-280

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Objectives: The Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) is the largest multi-industry source of exposure results available in North America. In 2010, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) released the Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD) that contains analytical results of samples collected by OSHA inspectors. However, the two databanks only partially overlap, raising suspicion of bias in IMIS data. Read More

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Antidepressants for depression in adults with HIV infection.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 01 22;1:CD008525. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Centre for Evidence Based Health Care, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Francie van Zyl Drive, Tygerberg, 7505, Parow, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, 7505.

Background: Rates of major depression among people living with HIV (PLWH) are substantially higher than those seen in the general population and this may adversely affect antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Several unique clinical and psychosocial factors may contribute to the development and persistence of depression in PLWH. Given these influences, it is unclear if antidepressant therapy is as effective for PLWH as the general population. Read More

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January 2018

Evaluation of a novel method for the analysis of alcohol biomarkers: Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate and phosphatidylethanol.

Alcohol 2018 03 31;67:7-13. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Translational Australian Clinical Toxicology (TACT) Research Group, Discipline of Pharmacology, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia; Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia. Electronic address:

Currently available markers and methods to evaluate alcohol consumption are indirect and suboptimal, or rely on self-report, which have inherent problems. Direct metabolites of alcohol, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), are known to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, methods were established for the identification of PEth in erythrocytes and EtG and EtS in serum using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Read More

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Medication incidents in primary care medicine: protocol of a study by the Swiss Federal Sentinel Reporting System.

BMJ Open 2015 Apr 23;5(4):e007773. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background/rationale: Patient safety is a major concern in healthcare systems worldwide. Although most safety research has been conducted in the inpatient setting, evidence indicates that medical errors and adverse events are a threat to patients in the primary care setting as well. Since information about the frequency and outcomes of safety incidents in primary care is required, the goals of this study are to describe the type, frequency, seasonal and regional distribution of medication incidents in primary care in Switzerland and to elucidate possible risk factors for medication incidents. Read More

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Internal mammary artery graft dissection: a case-based retrospective study and brief review.

Tex Heart Inst J 2014 Dec 1;41(6):653-6. Epub 2014 Dec 1.

The left internal mammary artery is the preferred graft for treating left anterior descending coronary artery disease. Dissection is a rare but grave sequela of internal mammary artery graft angiography. The available medical literature is scant, perhaps as a result of under-reporting. Read More

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December 2014

Sex ratio at birth in twenty-first century Greece: the role of ethnic and social groups.

J Biosoc Sci 2015 May 22;47(3):363-75. Epub 2014 May 22.

†Department of Sociology,University of the Aegean,Lesvos,Greece.

The number of male per 100 female live births (defined as the sex ratio at birth, SRB) has been shown to be consistently stable in human populations irrespective of time and geographical location. All over the globe approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls and any significant deviation from this 'global average' is considered to be unnatural and is attributed to sex-selective under-reporting of births, sex-selective abortion, sex-selective infanticide or other man-made factors. The present paper uses data on civil registration from 2004-2011 to investigate the sex ratio at birth in modern Greece. Read More

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Workplace measurements by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration since 1979: descriptive analysis and potential uses for exposure assessment.

Ann Occup Hyg 2013 Jan 5;57(1):77-97. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

University of Montreal Hospital Research Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada. 

Background: Inspectors from the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have been collecting industrial hygiene samples since 1972 to verify compliance with Permissible Exposure Limits. Starting in 1979, these measurements were computerized into the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS). In 2010, a dataset of over 1 million personal sample results analysed at OSHA's central laboratory in Salt Lake City [Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD)], only partially overlapping the IMIS database, was placed into public domain via the internet. Read More

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January 2013

Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

Br J Nutr 2013 Apr 6;109(7):1257-65. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

BIPS - Institute for Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Achterstraße 30, 28359 Bremen, Germany.

Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. Read More

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Chronic disease prevalence and care among the elderly in urban and rural Beijing, China - a 10/66 Dementia Research Group cross-sectional survey.

BMC Public Health 2009 Oct 21;9:394. Epub 2009 Oct 21.

Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health (Peking University), No 51 Hua Yuan Bei Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, PR China.

Background: Demographic ageing is occurring at an unprecedented rate in China. Chronic diseases and their disabling consequences will become much more common. Public policy has a strong urban bias, and older people living in rural areas may be especially vulnerable due to limited access to good quality healthcare, and low pension coverage. Read More

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October 2009

Calibrating self-reported measures of maternal smoking in pregnancy via bioassays using a Monte Carlo approach.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2009 06 3;6(6):1744-59. Epub 2009 Jun 3.

Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, USA.

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major public health problem that has been associated with numerous short- and long-term adverse health outcomes in offspring. However, characterizing smoking exposure during pregnancy precisely has been rather difficult: self-reported measures of smoking often suffer from recall bias, deliberate misreporting, and selective non-disclosure, while single bioassay measures of nicotine metabolites only reflect recent smoking history and cannot capture the fluctuating and complex patterns of varying exposure of the fetus. Recently, Dukic et al. Read More

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Influence of regulatory measures on the rate of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting in Italy.

Drug Saf 2008 ;31(7):609-16

Department of Pharmacology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Background: The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is the mainstay of post-marketing surveillance systems. Under-reporting and selective reporting are considered the main limitations of a spontaneous reporting-based pharmacovigilance system. However, excessive reporting induced by external events may also impair signal detection by increasing the noise level. Read More

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December 2008

Men: good health and high mortality. Sex differences in health and aging.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2008 Apr;20(2):91-102

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, 18057 Rostock, Germany.

This review examines sex differences in health and survival, with a focus on the Nordic countries. There is a remarkable discrepancy between the health and survival of the sexes: men are physically stronger and have fewer disabilities, but have substantially higher mortality at all ages compared with women: the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. A number of proposed explanations for this paradox are rooted in biological, social, and psychological interpretations. Read More

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Physical activity, fat intake and body fat.

Physiol Behav 2008 May 17;94(2):164-8. Epub 2007 Nov 17.

Care and Health Applications, Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

The body fatness of a subject is a long-term reflection of the energy balance, the more intake exceeds expenditure the more energy is stored as fat. There is not yet a clear answer on the question whether the current obesity epidemic is a consequence of gluttony or sloth. Review studies do not show a reduction of physical activity over the years, and food intake is difficult to measure in daily life conditions. Read More

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Misreporting of dietary energy, protein, potassium and sodium in relation to body mass index in young Japanese women.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2008 Jan 14;62(1):111-8. Epub 2007 Feb 14.

Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: Although under-reporting of dietary intake is more common in persons with a high body mass index (BMI), it is not well known whether or not misreporting is selective for different foods (and hence energy and nutrients), particularly in non-Western populations. We examined misreporting of dietary intake against biomarkers and its relation with BMI in young Japanese women.

Design: Cross-sectional study. Read More

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January 2008

Validation of complex interventions in a low back pain trial: selective video analysis cross-referenced to clinical case notes.

Contemp Clin Trials 2006 Oct 19;27(5):404-12. Epub 2006 May 19.

Primary Care Sciences Research Centre, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK.

Introduction: Auditing the interventions used in clinical trials to demonstrate that treatment protocols were adhered to and that discrete modalities were delivered, is essential in establishing internal validity. Pragmatic studies involving complex interventions provide a particular challenge. The value of case report forms which document individual treatment content relies upon accurate recall and recording by the clinician. Read More

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October 2006

Determinants of high sex ratio among newborns: a cohort study from rural Anhui province, China.

Reprod Health Matters 2006 May;14(27):172-80

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

This study analysed the relative contributions of three possible determinants to the high sex ratio among newborns in rural China - under-reporting of female births, abortions of female fetuses and excess early female neonatal mortality. A cohort of 3,697 pregnancies collected at village level in 20 rural townships from a county in Anhui province in 1999 was followed from pregnancy registration to seven days after birth. The cohort was later completed with 267 retroactively registered pregnancies. Read More

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Public welfare agenda or corporate research agenda?

Mens Sana Monogr 2005 Mar;3(1):41-80

As things stand today, whether we like it or not, industry funding is on the upswing. The whole enterprise of medicine in booming, and it makes sense for industry to invest more and more of one's millions into it. The pharmaceutical industry has become the single largest direct funding agency of medical research in countries like Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Read More

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The pre-vaccination regional epidemiological landscape of measles in Italy: contact patterns, effort needed for eradication, and comparison with other regions of Europe.

Popul Health Metr 2005 Feb 17;3(1). Epub 2005 Feb 17.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Division of Primary Care & Population Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK.

BACKGROUND: Strong regional heterogeneity and generally sub-optimal rates of measles vaccination in Italy have, to date, hampered attainment of WHO targets for measles elimination, and have generated the need for the new Italian National Measles Elimination Plan. Crucial to success of the plan is the identification of intervention priorities based upon a clear picture of the regional epidemiology of measles derived from the use of data to estimate basic parameters. Previous estimates of measles force of infection for Italy have appeared anomalously low. Read More

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February 2005

Factors influencing the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions--the experience of the Slovak Republic.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2004 May;13(5):333-7

Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty Commenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

The system of adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring in the Slovak Republic is greatly influenced by changes taking place in the current health care delivery system. Under-reporting and reporting biases due to selective ADR reporting provide very serious problems in pharmacovigilance. In the year 2001, the number of reported ADRs increased due to reports of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-induced cough; this coincided with limits being imposed on the use of angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. Read More

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Missing girls and son preference in rural India: looking beyond popular myth.

Health Care Women Int 2003 Dec;24(10):910-26

Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, Department of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Survival chances of girls in parts of South and East Asia have been adverse. Female foeticide, infanticide, abandonment, out-adoption, under-reporting of female births, and selective neglect of girls leading to higher death rates, have contributed to this adversity. Here, I reflect on an observed skewed sex ratio at birth in rural West Bengal, and discuss female foeticide, infanticide, son preference, and abortion. Read More

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December 2003

Under-reporting in dietary surveys--implications for development of food-based dietary guidelines.

W Becker D Welten

Public Health Nutr 2001 Apr;4(2B):683-7

National Food Administration, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objective: To illustrate issues related to under-reporting in dietary surveys relevant for development of food-based dietary guidelines.

Setting: Food and nutrient intakes in two national dietary surveys are analysed in relation to under-reporting using the concept of cut-off values for the ratio between energy intake and basal metabolic rate as well as biochemical markers of nutritional status.

Results: Subjects with an implausibly low EI/BMR ratio had dietary patterns more close to recommended levels, e. Read More

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Multiple informants' report of emotional and behavioural problems in a nation-wide sample of selective mute children and controls.

H Kristensen

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001 Jun;10(2):135-42

Nic Waal Institute of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Regional Centre for Research and Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Oslo, Norway.

Emotional and behavioural problems and competencies in a nation-wide sample of referred selective mute children (SM) and matched non-referred controls, aged 4-16 years, were assessed by the Child Behaviour Checklist, (CBCL), Teacher Report Form (TRF) and Youth Self Report (YSR) (1). Main issues addressed were the co-variation of internalising and externalising problems reported across informants, whether there exists a pure externalising group of children with SM, and the nature of the internalising and externalising problems. The results show that the children with SM differed substantially from their peers in internalising problems as reported by the parents and the teachers. Read More

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Repeated measurement of habitual food intake increases under-reporting and induces selective under-reporting.

Br J Nutr 2001 May;85(5):629-34

Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

The aim of the current study was to measure differences in reporting behaviour between a first occasion of 7 d food recording and a second occasion of 7 d food recording 12 weeks later, in a group of elderly men (n 17) and women (n 17). Half the group followed an exercise intervention. The mean age was 61 (sd 5) years and mean BMI was 26. Read More

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Do we need to boost pertussis immunization within the existing UK vaccination schedule?

S M Beard A Finn

J Public Health Med 2000 Sep;22(3):349-56

School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield.

Pertussis infection is associated with significant morbidity in younger children (<4 years), which can include pneumonia, seizures and encephalopathy. Around one in 250 cases of pertussis in infants under the age of 6 months lead to death or severe brain damage. In the United Kingdom the control of pertussis infection has been based on a three-dose schedule of combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTPw) during the first 4 months of life. Read More

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September 2000

The acute effect of D-tagatose on food intake in human subjects.

Br J Nutr 2000 Aug;84(2):227-31

Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

A double-blind randomized crossover study was performed with nineteen normal-weight men to investigate the effect on subsequent ad libitum food intake of replacing 29 g sucrose with 29 g D-tagatose as sweetener to a breakfast meal. D-Tagatose is a malabsorbed stereoisomer of fructose with potential application as a bulk sweetener. Food intake was measured at lunch offered 4 h after the breakfast meal, during the afternoon with access to abundant snacks, and finally at a supper buffet 9 h after the breakfast. Read More

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Population studies of diet and obesity.

Br J Nutr 2000 Mar;83 Suppl 1:S21-4

Department of Internal Medicine, Göteborg University, Vasa Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Population-based research on diet, obesity and the metabolic syndrome is faced with accumulating evidence of biases that may profoundly affect results. One potential source of bias, which is often neglected in nutritional epidemiology, arises from self-selected study populations. Subjects who agree to participate in surveys may be at less risk of metabolic syndrome than those who refuse. Read More

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Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions. Estimate based on a spontaneous reporting scheme and a sentinel system.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998 Aug;54(6):483-8

Pharmacovigilance Regional Centre, Pharmacoepidemiology Institute, University of Valladolid, Spain.

Objective: Spontaneous reporting is the most common method used in pharmacovigilance and the best one to generate signals on new or rare adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Under-reporting is a major drawback of this system. The objective of this study was to quantify the extent of under-reporting in general practice and to assess the factors which influence it. Read More

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