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Comparative Safety and Efficacy of Therapeutic Options in Resectable and Advanced/Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Indirect Comparison.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 Jul 27:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Objectives: FOLFIRINOX, gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (gem-nab/P), and gemcitabine-capecitabine (gem-cap) demonstrated superiority over gemcitabine monotherapy for pancreatic cancer (PC). It is still unclear which chemotherapy regimen is the most optimal. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review (SR) and indirect comparison to compare safety and efficacy of FOLFIRINOX versus gem-nab/P and gem-cap in PC. Read More

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CCL5 via GPX1 activation protects hippocampal memory function after mild traumatic brain injury.

Redox Biol 2021 Jul 17;46:102067. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Ph.D. Program for Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and National Health Research, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a prevalent head injury worldwide which increases the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory chemokines after TBI induces secondary effects which damage neurons. Targeting NADPH oxidase or increasing redox systems are ways to reduce ROS and damage. Read More

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Cognition in children and young adults with myoclonus dystonia - A case control study.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Jul 21;89:162-166. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands; Expertise Center Movement Disorders Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: In adult patients with myoclonus dystonia (MD), cognitive deficits regarding information processing speed and executive functioning have been demonstrated, but it is unclear whether cognition is also affected in young MD patients. The present study investigates cognition in young MD patients and the role of an SGCE mutation.

Methods: In this case control study 20 young MD patients (9 children (5. Read More

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Psychosocial functioning in integrated treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorder.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jul 22;142:40-47. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

V.A. San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr, San Diego, CA, 92161, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive #9116B, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA; Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health/VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr, San Diego, CA, 92161, USA; National Center for PTSD, 215 North Main St, White River Junction, VT, 05009, USA. Electronic address:

Co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorder (PTSD/AUD) is associated with poorer psychosocial functioning than either disorder alone; however, it is unclear if psychosocial functioning improves in treatment for PTSD/AUD. This study examined if psychosocial functioning improved in integrated treatments for PTSD/AUD, and if changes in PTSD severity and percentage heavy drinking days (PHDD) during treatment were associated with functioning outcomes. 119 veterans with PTSD/AUD randomized to receive either Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders using Prolonged Exposure or Seeking Safety completed measures of functioning (Medical Outcomes Survey SF-36), PTSD (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5), and alcohol use (Timeline Follow-Back) at baseline, posttreatment, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Read More

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Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Large-Vessel Occlusion due to Atherosclerotic Stenosis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 24;30(10):105960. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Objectives: Endovascular therapy (EVT) is safe and effective for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large-vessel occlusion (LVO). However, the influence of the AIS subtype (large-artery atherosclerosis [LAA] or cardioembolism [CE]) on clinical outcome in patients treated with EVT remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in clinical results between the two subtypes using data from a multicenter prospective registry (RESCUE-Japan Registry 2). Read More

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SGLT2 promotes pancreatic cancer progression by activating the Hippo signaling pathway via the hnRNPK-YAP1 axis.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China; Sino-German Laboratory of Personalized Medicine for Pancreatic Cancer, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

SGLT2 is overexpressed in various cancers, including pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the tumorigenic effects of SGLT2 in pancreatic cancer remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that SGLT2 inhibition significantly suppressed the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Disease burden, symptoms and use of analgesics in patients with psoriasis with or without psoriatic arthritis: a cross-sectional study.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Copenhagen University Hospital - Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Patients with psoriasis have an impaired quality of life and higher use of analgesics than the general population. Whether such use is due to skin pain or a consequence of joint pain resulting from psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is unclear.

Objectives: To assess symptoms, disease burden, and use of analgesics in patients with psoriasis with and without PsA. Read More

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Neuroscience: What, where, and how wonderful?

Curr Biol 2021 Jul;31(14):R896-R898

NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Hippocampal place cells represent spatial locations, but it is unclear how they incorporate associations between locations and specific outcomes. A recent study illuminates this issue by showing that place cells in intermediate hippocampus remap their fields following changes in reward. Read More

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Hospitalization Risk for Medicare Beneficiaries With Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease.

Chest 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, US.

Background: Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is an uncommon mycobacterial infection characterized by worsening lung function and increased healthcare resource utilization; however, overall risk for hospitalization among patients with NTM-PD remains unclear.

Study Design And Methods: A retrospective, nested, case-control study was conducted using the Medicare claims database. Cases were defined as patients with ≥2 NTM-PD claims ≥30 days apart between 1/1/07 and 12/31/15. Read More

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Chronological changes of serum exosome in preterm infants: A prospective study.

Pediatr Int 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.

Background: Exosomes, which are observed in all human fluid, including serum, are nanosized extracellular vesicles with a mechanism of intercellular communication. Potential clinical applications of exosomes involving neonatal diseases have recently been discussed. However, the state of exosomes in serum during early infancy is unclear. Read More

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N1-methyladenosine Profiling of Long Non-Coding RNA in Colorectal Cancer.

IUBMB Life 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

N1-methyladenosine (m1A), is a unique methyl group that confers post-transcriptional modification of gene expression, and plays important roles in various human diseases. However, the abundance of this modification and its effects on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. In this study, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing was performed in 3 pairs of human CRC and nontumorous tissues to identify m1A peaks and its correlation with differential alterations of lncRNA expression in CRC. Read More

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A comparison of children's diet and movement behaviour patterns derived from three unsupervised multivariate methods.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(7):e0255203. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Behavioural patterns are typically derived using unsupervised multivariate methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), latent profile analysis (LPA) and cluster analysis (CA). Comparability and congruence between the patterns derived from these methods has not been previously investigated, thus it's unclear whether patterns from studies using different methods are directly comparable. This study aimed to compare behavioural patterns derived across diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep domains, using PCA, LPA and CA in a single dataset. Read More

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The kinetic landscape of nucleosome assembly: A coarse-grained molecular dynamics study.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 27;17(7):e1009253. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

The organization of nucleosomes along the Eukaryotic genome is maintained over time despite disruptive events such as replication. During this complex process, histones and DNA can form a variety of non-canonical nucleosome conformations, but their precise molecular details and roles during nucleosome assembly remain unclear. In this study, employing coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and Markov state modeling, we characterized the complete kinetics of nucleosome assembly. Read More

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Comparing Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty in Renal Transplant Recipients to Patients on Dialysis for End-Stage Renal Disease: A Nationally Matched Analysis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Renal transplants are the most commonly performed solid-organ transplants worldwide. It is unclear whether a kidney transplant is associated with reduced postoperative complications in comparison with patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The purpose of this study was to utilize a national database to compare readmissions, complications, and costs associated with primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) between matched renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and patients on dialysis for ESRD. Read More

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Normal-sized basal ganglia perivascular space related to motor phenotype in Parkinson freezers.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 27;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Changes in basal ganglia (BG) perivascular spaces (PVSs) are related to motor and cognitive behaviors in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the correlation between the initial motor phenotype and PVSs distribution/burden in PD freezing of gait (FOG) remains unclear. In addition, the normal-sized PVSs (nPVSs) have not been well-studied. Read More

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AbdomenCT-1K: Is Abdominal Organ Segmentation A Solved Problem.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jul 27;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

With the unprecedented developments in deep learning, automatic segmentation of main abdominal organs seems to be a solved problem as state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods have achieved comparable results with inter-rater variability on many benchmark datasets. However, most of the existing abdominal datasets only contain single-center, single-phase, single-vendor, or single-disease cases, and it is unclear whether the excellent performance can generalize on diverse datasets. This paper presents a large and diverse abdominal CT organ segmentation dataset, termed AbdomenCT-1K, with more than 1000 (1K) CT scans from 12 medical centers, including multi-phase, multi-vendor, and multi-disease cases. Read More

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Urodynamic effects of prostatic urethral lift procedure for male voiding LUTS.

J Endourol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Radboudumc, 6034, Urology, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands;

Aims: Primary objective is to investigate whether prostatic urethral lift (PUL) results in an improvement of urodynamic parameters that define bladder outlet obstruction (urethral resistance algorithm [URA], Schäfer grade, PdetQmax, PdetOpen).

Methods: 20 patients (main inclusion criteria: ≥ 50 years of age, BPO, IPSS ≥ 13, prostate volume ≤ 60 mL, no middle prostate lobe) were enrolled in the study and a PUL was performed. Patients underwent urodynamic investigation and filled out the IPSS and QoL before and after PUL. Read More

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Adaptation of African swine fever virus to HEK293T cells.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, National High Containment Facilities for Animal Diseases Control and Prevention, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China.

African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs. Although adaptation of ASFV to Vero cells has been investigated, the phenotypic changes and the corresponding genomic variations during adaptation of ASFV to other cell lines remain unclear. To obtain a cell-adapted ASFV strain, different cell lines were tested to determine whether they support ASFV infection. Read More

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Study on potential differentially expressed genes in stroke by bioinformatics analysis.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Genetic Testing Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dali University, Dali, 671000, Yunnan, China.

Stroke is a sudden cerebrovascular circulatory disorder with high morbidity, disability, mortality, and recurrence rate, but its pathogenesis and key genes are still unclear. In this study, bioinformatics was used to deeply analyze the pathogenesis of stroke and related key genes, so as to study the potential pathogenesis of stroke and provide guidance for clinical treatment. Gene Expression profiles of GSE58294 and GSE16561 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between IS and normal control group. Read More

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Prevalence of Hashimoto Thyroiditis in Adults With Papillary Thyroid Cancer and Its Association With Cancer Recurrence and Outcomes.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2118526. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Importance: Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) has been suggested to be associated with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) development. However, its association with PTC progression remains unclear.

Objective: To examine the association between HT and PTC presentation and outcomes. Read More

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Neurite Imaging Reveals Widespread Alterations in Gray and White Matter Neurite Morphology in Healthy Aging and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94304, USA.

Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and affects neurite distributions throughout the brain, yet underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. Multi-shell diffusion-weighted imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) now provide in vivo biophysical measurements that explain these biological processes in the cortex and white matter. In this study, neurite distributions were evaluated in the cortex and white matter in healthy older adults and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) that provides fundamental contributions regarding healthy aging and neurodegeneration. Read More

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No Associations Between Regular Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort of 0.44 Million Participants.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Big Data Center, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Introduction: The association between proton pump inhibitors' (PPIs) use and mortality remains unclear.

Methods: This was a prospective analysis of 440,840 UK residents and 13,154 deaths. We evaluated the associations with multivariate Cox regression. Read More

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The Efficacy of the Dyson Air Purifier in Improving Asthma Control: Protocol for a Single-Center, Investigator-Led, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jul 27;10(7):e28624. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, Newport, United Kingdom.

Background: Indoor air quality has been shown to influence asthma control and outcomes. Air purifiers and high-efficiency particulate air filtration devices can improve indoor air quality by reducing the indoor levels of air pollution and allergens. However, the influence of this improved indoor air quality on asthma control remains unclear; hence, randomized controlled trials are needed to further elucidate this phenomenon. Read More

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Studies of xenobiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis: from correlation to mechanisms.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1921912

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Environmental chemicals can alter gut microbial community composition, known as dysbiosis. However, the gut microbiota is a highly dynamic system and its functions are still largely underexplored. Likewise, it is unclear whether xenobiotic exposure affects host health through impairing host-microbiota interactions. Read More

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A Combination of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Reduces Risk of Incident Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Rheumatology, Inflammation and Immunity, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: While the association between individual factors related to lifestyle and the risk of SLE has been previously evaluated, it is unclear how the combination of these factors might affect the risk of incident SLE. We prospectively evaluated whether a combination of healthy lifestyle factors is associated with lower risk of incident SLE and its subtypes (dsDNA positive and negative).

Methods: We included 185,962 women with 203 incident SLE cases (96 anti-dsDNA positive,107 anti-dsDNA negative) during 4,649,477 person-years of follow-up from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII cohorts. Read More

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Systematic review: duodenogastroesophageal (biliary) reflux prevalence, symptoms, oesophageal lesions and treatment.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing (ChroMetA), Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: The prevalence of duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER) and its effect on symptoms and oesophageal lesions in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is unclear.

Aims: To conduct a systematic review to determine the prevalence of DGER among patients with GERD, the effect of DGER on symptoms and oesophageal lesions, and the treatment of DGER.

Methods: We searched Pubmed and MEDLINE for full text, English language articles until October 2020 that evaluated DGER prevalence among patients with GERD, the effect of DGER on symptoms and oesophageal lesions, and the treatment of DGER. Read More

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A putative redox-sensing regulator Rex regulates lincomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces lincolnensis.

J Basic Microbiol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

Lincomycin is an important antimicrobial agent which is widely used in clinical and animal husbandry. The biosynthetic pathway of lincomycin comes to light in the past 10 years, however, the regulatory mechanism is still unclear. In this study, a redox-sensing regulator Rex from Streptomyces lincolnensis (Rex ) was identified and characterized to affect cell growth and lincomycin biosynthesis. Read More

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Altitude distribution of fungal community in Huoditang in Qinling Mountains, Northwest China.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jul;32(7):2589-2596

College of Land Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, China.

Soil fungi play an important role in soil nutrient cycling and carbon storage in natural ecosystems. Dominant tree species showed altitude distribution in Huoditang forest in Qinling Mountains, whereas the corresponding changes of soil characteristics and microbial communities are still unclear. In this study, the variations of soil characteristics were investigated at five altitudes (1500, 1700, 1900, 2100 and 2300 m). Read More

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Species richness and endemism pattern of Fagaceae in Southwest China and their environmental interpretation.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jul;32(7):2290-2300

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China.

How to accurately model species macro-richness patterns and endemism centers is a key focus of biodiversity conservation efforts and a hot biogeographical topic. Southwest China is one of regions with high Fagaceae species richness, the species diversity patterns and driving mechanisms are unclear. In this study, the distribution pattern of species richness (SR), weighted endemism (WE), and corrected weighted endemism (CWE) indices were estimated based on 7258 occurrence points of 161 Fagaceae species in Southwest China using both occurrence-to grid method and species distribution model (SDM). Read More

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Overexpression of a Small GTP-Binding Protein Ran1 in Arabidopsis Leads to Promoted Elongation Growth and Enhanced Disease Resistance against P. syringae DC3000.

Plant J 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environment, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Plants resist infection through an innate immune response, which is usually associated with slowing of growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying the trade-off between plant growth and defense remain unclear. Here, our study reveals that growth/defense trade-offs mediated by gibberellin (GA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways are uncoupled during constitutive overexpression of transgenic AtRAN1 and AtRAN1 (GTP locked form) Arabidopsis plants. Read More

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