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Long-term fasting improves lipoprotein-associated atherogenic risk in humans.

Eur J Nutr 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Buchinger Wilhelmi Clinic, Wilhelm-Beck-Straße 27, 88662, Überlingen, Germany.

Purpose: Dyslipidemia is a major health concern associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Long-term fasting (LF) has been shown to improve plasma lipid profile. We performed an in-depth investigation of lipoprotein composition. Read More

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The effect of the COVID pandemic lockdown measures on surgical emergencies: experience and lessons learned from a Greek tertiary hospital.

World J Emerg Surg 2021 May 7;16(1):22. Epub 2021 May 7.

Emergency and Trauma Surgery, Maggiore Hospital, Parma, Italy.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a rise in healthcare demands leading to significant restructuring of hospital emergency departments worldwide. The aim of the present study is twofold: firstly, to discern any differences in regard to reason for surgical emergency department (SED) attendance and hospital admission during the pandemic and pre-pandemic eras in Greece, and secondly, to assess the impact of the lockdown measures implemented during the pandemic on SED patient attendance.

Methods: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece (1 March 2020) and up to 15 December 2020, the charts of all adult patients arriving at the SED of the third surgical department of the "Attikon" University Hospital (a tertiary referral center for surgical and COVID-19 cases) were retrospectively reviewed and broken down in four periods reflecting two nationwide lockdown (period A 1/3/2020 to 30/4/2020 and period D 16/10/2020 to 15/12/2020) and two interim (period B 1/5/2020 to 15/6/2020 and period C 15/9/2020 to 30/10/2020) periods. Read More

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Text message reminders and peer education increase HIV and Syphilis testing among female sex workers: a pilot quasi-experimental study in Uganda.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 7;21(1):436. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Globally, female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, uptake of STI and HIV testing services among FSW in sub-Saharan Africa remains low. We aimed to assess the effect of FSW-led peer education and text message reminders on 3-monthly syphilis and HIV testing among FSW in Uganda. Read More

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Differences in native T1 and native T2 mapping between patients on hemodialysis and control subjects.

Eur J Radiol 2021 May 1;140:109748. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester and Cardiovascular Theme, NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Myocardial native T1 is a potential measure of myocardial fibrosis, but concerns remain over the potential influence of myocardial edema to increased native T1 signal in subjects prone to fluid overload. This study describes differences in native T2 (typically raised in states of myocardial edema) and native T1 times in patients on hemodialysis by comparing native T1 and native T2 times between subjects on hemodialysis to an asymptomatic control group. Reproducibility of these sequences was tested. Read More

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Race-specific changes in endothelial inflammation and microRNA in response to an acute inflammatory stimulus.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United Statesgrid.164295.d.

Both aberrant vascular reactivity to acute cardiovascular stress and epigenetic mechanisms such as microRNA (miR) may underlie the increased propensity for African Americans (AA) to develop cardiovascular disease. This study assessed racial differences in acute induced endothelial inflammation and related miRs. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) derived from AA and Caucasian Americans (CA) were exposed to the influenza vaccine to determine changes in inflammatory markers, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and miR expression/release. Read More

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Handgrip Strength and Depression Among Older Chinese Inpatients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 30;17:1267-1277. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, People's Republic of China.

Objective: There have been studies exploring the association between handgrip and depression among community-dwelling adults; however, evidence for this association among hospitalized older adults is scarce. We aimed to use a larger-scale population from multiple centers to explore the association between low handgrip strength and depression.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included hospitalized patients aged 65 years or older from different hospitals in China. Read More

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Parent's self-reported indoor environment-related symptoms and health worry increase symptom reports among their children at school-Study in two independent populations.

Indoor Air 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Environmental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.

Little is known whether parent's indoor environment quality (IEQ)-related symptoms or health perceptions influence the risk of self- or parent-reported symptoms in their children. We assessed (i) the association of parents' IEQ-related symptoms with IEQ-related symptoms in their children at school and (ii) whether parental IEQ-related health worry increases the risk for children's symptoms. We used two Finnish studies: a national, population-based survey of indoor air and related health problems (n = 611 parents) and a subset of survey for all primary school pupils (grade 3-6) and their parents in Helsinki, which also included school IEQ-related symptoms reported by children (n = 1617 parent-child dyads). Read More

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Transient postprandial increase in intact circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 levels after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

PeerJ 2021 14;9:e11174. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Despite a consistent link between obesity and increased circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), the effect of weight-loss interventions on FGF21 is not clear. We aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on intact plasma FGF21 levels and to test the hypothesis that RYGB, but not diet-induced weight loss, increases fasting and postprandial responses of FGF21.

Method: Twenty-eight participants with obesity followed a low-calorie diet for 11 weeks. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 Curricular Shifts on Learning Gains on the Microbiology for Health Sciences Concept Inventory.

J Microbiol Biol Educ 2021 31;22(1). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Biology Department, Valencia College, Orlando, FL 32825.

As a validated assessment, the Microbiology for Health Sciences Concept Inventory (MHSCI) is a valuable tool to evaluate student progress in health sciences microbiology courses. In this brief analysis, we survey MHSCI faculty users and report student MHSCI scores to determine the impact on student learning gains of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent quarantine in spring 2020. Although a majority of students reported moving to a fully online lecture and lab microbiology course in the spring 2020 semester, there was no statistically significant impact on student outcomes reported by the MHSCI, and by some measures, student learning gains increased in the semester students moved to online learning. Read More

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Rapid Increase of Gastrointestinal P-Glycoprotein Functional Activity in Response to Etoposide Stimulation.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 ;44(5):701-706

Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare.

We previously reported that exposure of human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells to the bitter substance phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) rapidly enhanced the transport function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of etoposide, another bitter-tasting P-gp substrate, on P-gp transport function in the same cell line. We found that etoposide exposure significantly increased both the P-gp protein level in the plasma membrane fraction and the efflux rate of rhodamine123 (Rho123) in Caco-2 cells within 10 min. Read More

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January 2021

Single-session effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on breathing function after human spinal cord injury.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 2:113735. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States; Brooks Rehabilitation, Jacksonville, FL, United States; Breathing Research and Therapeutics Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States. Electronic address:

After spinal cord injury (SCI) respiratory complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) triggers spinal respiratory motor plasticity in rodent models, and repetitive AIH may have the potential to restore breathing capacity in those with SCI. As an initial approach to provide proof of principle for such effects, we tested single-session AIH effects on breathing function in adults with chronic SCI. Read More

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Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetic Interaction and Safety of Atogepant Co-Administered with Acetaminophen or Naproxen in Healthy Participants: A Randomized Trial.

Clin Drug Investig 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Global Patient Safety & Epidemiology, AbbVie, Madison, NJ, USA.

Background: Atogepant is an oral calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist in development for preventive treatment of migraine.

Objective: To evaluate potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs), safety and tolerability of atogepant co-administered with acetaminophen or naproxen in healthy participants.

Methods: This open-label, randomized, five-way crossover, single-center, phase 1 DDI trial randomized healthy adult participants to one of ten intervention sequences to receive single-dose 60 mg atogepant, 1000 mg acetaminophen, 500 mg naproxen, or co-administrations of atogepant with acetaminophen or naproxen, with 7-day washout periods between interventions. Read More

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Trends in Length of Stay and Readmissions in Children's Hospitals.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background And Objectives: Patient complexity at US children's hospitals is increasing. Hospitals experience concurrent pressure to reduce length of stay (LOS) and readmissions, yet little is known about how these common measures of resource use and quality have changed over time. Our aim was to examine temporal trends in medical complexity, hospital LOS, and readmissions across a sample of US children's hospitals. Read More

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Improvement of pharmacologically relevant properties of methotrexate by solid dispersion with Pluronic F127.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 25;124:112059. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Akademicheskaya str., 153045 Ivanovo, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

Solid dispersion with Pluronic F127 was proposed as alternative approach to modify the pharmacologically relevant properties of methotrexate (MTX). Solid dispersion of MTX with Pluronic F127 was prepared by fusion method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy with the aim to elucidate the physical state of the dispersed MTX and the nature of the interactions occurring between MTX and the carrier. Effect of Pluronic F127 on solubility, dissolution rate, membrane permeability, and pharmacokinetic parameters was revealed in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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The Effect of DBD Plasma Activation Time on the Dyeability of Woven Polyester Fabric with Disperse Dye.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Textile-Leather and Fashion (STLF)-Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1, Dai Co Viet, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi 11615, Vietnam.

This study consists of two parts. In the first, the woven polyester fabric, after washing to remove lubricant oils, was treated with the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at the short plasma exposure time (from 15 to 90 s). The effect of the plasma exposure time on the activation of the polyester fabric was assessed by the wicking height of the samples. Read More

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Continuous glucose monitoring Time-in-Range and HbA1c targets in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 16689, Servei d'Endocrinologia i Nutrició, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.

The CONCEPTT trial compared Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) to capillary glucose monitoring in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. We analyzed CGM and HbA1c measures in first (n=221), second (n=197) and third (n=172) trimesters, aiming to examine target glucose attainment and associations with pregnancy outcomes. CGM targets were Time-in-range TIR >70%, Time-above-range TAR <25%, Time-below-range TBR <4% and HbA1c targets <6. Read More

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Synaptotagmins at the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites maintain diacylglycerol homeostasis during abiotic stress.

Plant Cell 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica. Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea "La Mayora", Universidad de Málaga-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Universidad de Málaga, 29071, Málaga, Spain.

Endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites (ER-PM CS) play fundamental roles in all eukaryotic cells. Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the ER-PM protein tether synaptotagmin1 (SYT1) exhibit decreased plasma membrane (PM) integrity under multiple abiotic stresses such as freezing, high salt, osmotic stress and mechanical damage. Here, we show that, together with SYT1, the stress-induced SYT3 is an ER-PM tether that also functions in maintaining PM integrity. Read More

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Allosteric modulation of cardiac myosin mechanics and kinetics by the conjugated omega-7,9 trans-fat rumenic acid.

J Physiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, OE4350, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, 30625, Germany.

Key Points: Direct binding of rumenic acid to the cardiac myosin-2 motor domain increases the release rate for orthophosphate and increases the Ca responsiveness of cardiac muscle at low load. Physiological cellular concentrations of rumenic acid affect the ATP turnover rates of the super-relaxed and disordered relaxed states of β-cardiac myosin leading to a net increase in myocardial metabolic load. In Ca -activated trabeculae, rumenic acid exerts a direct inhibitory effect on the force-generating mechanism without affecting the number of force-generating motors. Read More

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Loss of Increases Germ Cell Apoptosis but Is Still Compatible With Sperm Production in Atlantic Salmon ().

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:657192. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Marine Research, Research Group Reproduction and Developmental Biology, Bergen, Norway.

Entering meiosis strictly depends on () gene function in mammals. This gene is missing in a number of fish species, including medaka and zebrafish, but is present in the majority of fishes, including Atlantic salmon. Here, we have examined the effects of removing on male fertility in Atlantic salmon. Read More

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Platelet Function in CKD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute for Molecular Cardiovascular Research, University Hospital Aachen, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Background: Patients with CKD are at high risk for thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Abnormalities in platelet function are central to these complications, but reports on platelet function in relation to CKD are conflicting, and vary from decreased platelet reactivity to normal or increased platelet responsiveness. The direct effects of uremic toxins on platelet function have been described, with variable findings. Read More

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Combination of Fundal Height and Ultrasound to Predict Small for Gestational Age at Birth.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

Objective:  The objective of the study was to determine whether adding longitudinal measures of fundal height (FH) to the standard cross-sectional FH to trigger third trimester ultrasound estimated fetal weight (EFW) would improve small for gestational age (SGA) prediction.

Study Design:  We developed a longitudinal FH calculator in a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of 1,939 nonobese pregnant women who underwent serial FH evaluations at 12 U.S. Read More

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Influence of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair on True Lumen Helical Morphology for Stanford Type B Dissections.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States of America.

Objective: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can change the morphology of the flow lumen in aortic dissections, which may affect aortic hemodynamics and function. This study characterizes how helical morphology of the true lumen in type B aortic dissections is altered by TEVAR.

Methods: Patients with type B aortic dissection who underwent computed tomography angiography pre- and post-TEVAR were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Small subpopulations of β-cells do not drive islet oscillatory [Ca2+] dynamics via gap junction communication.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 3;17(5):e1008948. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical campus, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America.

The islets of Langerhans exist as multicellular networks that regulate blood glucose levels. The majority of cells in the islet are excitable, insulin-producing β-cells that are electrically coupled via gap junction channels. β-cells are known to display heterogeneous functionality. Read More

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Long-term clinical and haemodynamic results after transcatheter annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Kardiologie, Universitätsklinikum Leipzig, Liebigstraße 20, Leipzig, 04103, Germany.

Aims: The study sought to investigate the long-term outcome after transcatheter mitral valve annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation (MR).

Methods And Results: Consecutive patients with symptomatic secondary MR undergoing transcatheter mitral valve annuloplasty with the Carillon device at Leipzig University Hospital between 2012 and 2018 were studied prospectively. Left ventricular (LV) function and MR severity were quantified by standardized echocardiography. Read More

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C-bouton components on rat extensor digitorum longus motoneurons are resistant to chronic functional overload.

J Anat 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neuromuscular Diseases, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Mammalian motor systems adapt to the demands of their environment. For example, muscle fibre types change in response to increased load or endurance demands. However, for adaptations to be effective, motoneurons must adapt such that their properties match those of the innervated muscle fibres. Read More

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Quantification and Monitoring of the Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Paretic Calf Muscles of Children With Cerebral Palsy With MRI: A Preliminary Study.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:630435. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Muscles from patients with cerebral palsy (CP) are often spastic and form contractures that limit the range of motion. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX) into the calf muscles are an important treatment for functional equinus; however, improvement in gait function is not always achieved. BTX is also used to test muscle weakening for risk evaluation of muscle lengthening surgery. Read More

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Behavioral Restriction Determines Left Attentional Bias: Preliminary Evidences From COVID-19 Lockdown.

Front Psychol 2021 9;12:650715. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Humanities, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

During the COVID-19 lockdown, individuals were forced to remain at home, hence severely limiting the interaction within environmental stimuli, reducing the cognitive load placed on spatial competences. The effects of the behavioral restriction on cognition have been little examined. The present study is aimed at analyzing the effects of lockdown on executive function prominently involved in adapting behavior to new environmental demands. Read More

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MicroRNA-223 Suppresses IL-1β and TNF-α Production in Gouty Inflammation by Targeting the NLRP3 Inflammasome.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:637415. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Research Center of Hyperuricemia and Gout, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, China.

MicroRNA-223 (MiR-223) serves as an important regulator of inflammatory and immune responses and is implicated in several auto-inflammatory disorders. Here, we measured miR-223 expression in acute and intercritical gout patients, after which we used RAW264.7 macrophages transfected with a miR-223 mimic/inhibitor to determine the function of miR-223 in monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty inflammation. Read More

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Depletion of TrkB Receptors From Adult Serotonergic Neurons Increases Brain Serotonin Levels, Enhances Energy Metabolism and Impairs Learning and Memory.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 15;14:616178. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Neuroscience Center, Helsinki Institute of Life Science HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) regulate each other and have been implicated in several neuronal mechanisms, including neuroplasticity. We have investigated the effects of BDNF on serotonergic neurons by deleting BDNF receptor TrkB from serotonergic neurons in the adult brain. The transgenic mice show increased 5-HT and Tph2 levels with abnormal behavioral phenotype. Read More

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Immediate effects of TENS and HVPS on pain and range of motion in subacromial pain syndrome: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey.

Background: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is one of the most common methods for managing shoulder pain, and high voltage pulsed currents (HVPS) may be used for reducing pain. However, their immediate effects on resting pain and pain-free active range of shoulder motion (pfROM) in patients with subacromial pain syndrome (SAPS) have not been studied comparatively, yet.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the immediate effects of TENS, HVPS and placebo stimulation on shoulder resting pain and pfROM in patients with SAPS. Read More

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