850 results match your criteria typically terrestrial


Disappearance of an ecosystem engineer, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), leads to density compensation and ecological release.

Oecologia 2022 Aug 13. Epub 2022 Aug 13.

Osa Conservation, Washington, DC, USA.

Given the rate of biodiversity loss, there is an urgent need to understand community-level responses to extirpation events, with two prevailing hypotheses. On one hand, the loss of an apex predator leads to an increase in primary prey species, triggering a trophic cascade of other changes within the community, while density compensation and ecological release can occur because of reduced competition for resources and absence of direct aggression. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari-WLP), a species that typically co-occurs with collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), undergo major population crashes-often taking 20 to 30-years for populations to recover. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of inputs of marine wrack and carrion in sandy-beach ecosystems: a global review.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

School of Science, Technology, and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia.

Sandy beaches are iconic interfaces that functionally link the ocean with the land via the flow of organic matter from the sea. These cross-ecosystem fluxes often comprise uprooted seagrass and dislodged macroalgae that can form substantial accumulations of detritus, termed 'wrack', on sandy beaches. In addition, the tissue of the carcasses of marine animals that regularly wash up on beaches form a rich food source ('carrion') for a diversity of scavenging animals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Competition for soil resources forces a trade-off between enhancing tree productivity and understorey species richness in managed beech forests.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 4;849:157825. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Technical University in Zvolen, T. G. Masaryka 24, SK-960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia; National Forest Centre, T. G. Masaryka 2175, SK-960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia.

Traditionally focussed on maximising productivity, forest management increasingly has to consider other functions performed by the forest stands, such as biodiversity conservation. Terrestrial plant communities typically possess a hump-back relationship between biomass productivity and plant species richness. However, there is evidence of a reverse relationship in forests dominated by beech, one of the most competitive and widespread tree species in temperate Europe. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Thunderstorms Producing Sferic-Geolocated Gamma-Ray Flashes Detected by TETRA-II.

J Geophys Res Atmos 2021 Aug 27;126(15):e2020JD033765. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmacology Center for Lung Biology University of South Alabama Mobile AL USA.

The terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) detected 22 X-ray/gamma-ray flash events associated with lightning between October 2015 and March 2019 across three ground-based detector locations in subtropical and tropical climates in Louisiana, Puerto Rico, and Panama. Each detector array consists of a set of bismuth germanate scintillators that record X-ray and gamma-ray bursts over the energy range 50 keV-6 MeV (million electron volts). TETRA-II events have characteristics similar to both X-ray bursts associated with lightning leaders and TGFs: sub-millisecond duration, photons up to MeV energies, and association with nearby lightning (typically within 3 km). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Weighting of Celestial and Terrestrial Cues in the Monarch Butterfly Central Complex.

Front Neural Circuits 2022 30;16:862279. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Biocenter, Zoology II, University of Wuerzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Monarch butterflies rely on external cues for orientation during their annual long-distance migration from Northern US and Canada to Central Mexico. These external cues can be celestial cues, such as the sun or polarized light, which are processed in a brain region termed the central complex (CX). Previous research typically focused on how individual simulated celestial cues are encoded in the butterfly's CX. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prioritized antibiotics screening based on comprehensive risk assessments and related management strategy in various animal farms.

J Environ Manage 2022 Jul 11;319:115702. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China. Electronic address:

Antibiotic pollution in the environment caused by animal breeding has become a serious issue. The persistent release of antibiotics with animal waste may lead to antibiotic resistances in the environment, which poses a threat to human health. This study tries to provides a practical method for screening prioritized antibiotics via a comprehensive risk assessment and determination of their major sources, and put forward corresponding regulatory measures for animal industries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Why link diverse citizen science surveys? Widespread arboreal habits of a terrestrial amphibian revealed by mammalian tree surveys in Britain.

PLoS One 2022 6;17(7):e0265156. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Bat Tree Habitat Key, Barnstaple, United Kingdom.

Terrestrial anurans, with their typically short limbs, heavy-set bodies and absent claws or toe pads are incongruous tree climbers, but even occasional arboreal locomotion could offer substantial advantages for evading predators or accessing new shelter or food resources. Despite recent interest, arboreal behaviour remains rarely and unsystematically described for terrestrial amphibians in Europe, likely due to fundamental differences in survey methods and therefore a lack of field data. However, other taxa surveys specifically target trees and tree cavities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Coordinating tiny limbs and long bodies: Geometric mechanics of lizard terrestrial swimming.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 07 27;119(27):e2118456119. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332.

Although typically possessing four limbs and short bodies, lizards have evolved diverse morphologies, including elongate trunks with tiny limbs. Such forms are hypothesized to aid locomotion in cluttered/fossorial environments but propulsion mechanisms (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tree crown damage and its effects on forest carbon cycling in a tropical forest.

Glob Chang Biol 2022 Sep 10;28(18):5560-5574. Epub 2022 Jul 10.

Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA.

Crown damage can account for over 23% of canopy biomass turnover in tropical forests and is a strong predictor of tree mortality; yet, it is not typically represented in vegetation models. We incorporate crown damage into the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES), to evaluate how lags between damage and tree recovery or death alter demographic rates and patterns of carbon turnover. We represent crown damage as a reduction in a tree's crown area and leaf and branch biomass, and allow associated variation in the ratio of aboveground to belowground plant tissue. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2022

Under the influence of nature: The contribution of natural capital to tourism spend.

PLoS One 2022 22;17(6):e0269790. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom.

Tourism and outdoor leisure is an important economic sector for many countries, and has a substantial reliance on natural capital. Natural capital may be the primary purpose for tourism, or it may be a secondary factor, where the choice of location for a leisure activity is influenced by natural capital. Typically, when valuing tourism and outdoor leisure, all expenditure associated with the activity is assigned to the ecosystem it occurs in. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of Pine and Eucalypt ashes on bacterial isolates from the skin microbiome of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra).

Sci Total Environ 2022 Oct 13;841:156677. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Environmental contamination influences the diversity of the resident skin microbial community of amphibians, ultimately affecting the individual's immune system. Wildfires are expected to impact the skin microbiome, since post-fire runoff typically transports hazardous substances, that can affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The present study is the first to assess the effects of Eucalypt and Pine wildfire ash on cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiome of amphibians, in particular the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), a common species in fire-prone Mediterranean ecosystems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2022

Whiskers as hydrodynamic prey sensors in foraging seals.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 06 13;119(25):e2119502119. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan.

The darkness of the deep ocean limits the vision of diving predators, except when prey emit bioluminescence. It is hypothesized that deep-diving seals rely on highly developed whiskers to locate their prey. However, if and how seals use their whiskers while foraging in natural conditions remains unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COSPAR Sample Safety Assessment Framework (SSAF).

Astrobiology 2022 06;22(S1):S186-S216

Conseiller Scientifique, Innovaxiom, France.

The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Sample Safety Assessment Framework (SSAF) has been developed by a COSPAR appointed Working Group. The objective of the sample safety assessment would be to evaluate whether samples returned from Mars could be harmful for Earth's systems ( environment, biosphere, geochemical cycles). During the Working Group's deliberations, it became clear that a comprehensive assessment to predict the effects of introducing life in new environments or ecologies is difficult and practically impossible, even for terrestrial life and certainly more so for unknown extraterrestrial life. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolite Profiling in Green Microalgae with Varying Degrees of Desiccation Tolerance.

Microorganisms 2022 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Botany, University of Innsbruck, Sternwartestraße 15, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Trebouxiophyceae are microalgae occupying even extreme environments such as polar regions or deserts, terrestrial or aquatic, and can occur free-living or as lichen photobionts. Yet, it is poorly understood how environmental factors shape their metabolism. Here, we report on responses to light and temperature, and metabolic adjustments to desiccation in , isolated from a lichen, and , isolated from Tundra soil, assessed growth and photosynthetic performance parameters. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ecological Transitions and the Shape of the Decapod Tree of Life.

Integr Comp Biol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

University of Bath, Department of Biology & Biochemistry, Bath, Bath and North East Somerset, UK.

Understanding the processes that shaped the distribution of species richness across the Tree of Life is a central macroevolutionary research agenda. Major ecological innovations, including transitions between habitats, may help to explain the striking asymmetries of diversity that are often observed between sister clades. Here, we test the impact of such transitions on speciation rates across decapod crustaceans, modelling diversification dynamics within a phylogenetic framework. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ecological speciation by sympatric host shifts in a clade of herbivorous sea slugs, with introgression and localized mitochondrial capture between species.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2022 09 16;174:107523. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032-8201, USA. Electronic address:

Host shifting in insect-plant systems was historically important to the development of ecological speciation theory, yet surprisingly few studies have examined whether host shifting drives diversification of marine herbivores. When small-bodied consumers feed and also mate on a preferred host, disruptive selection can split a population into host races despite gene flow. Support for host shifts is notably lacking for invertebrates associated with macroalgae, where the scale of dispersal by planktonic larvae often far exceeds the grain of host patchiness, and adults are typically less specialized than terrestrial herbivores. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2022

Terrestrial forcing of marine biodiversification.

Sci Rep 2022 05 18;12(1):8309. Epub 2022 May 18.

Escuela de Ciencias Aplicadas e Ingeniería, Universidad EAFIT, Medellín, Colombia.

The diversification of the three major marine faunas during the Phanerozoic was intimately coupled to the evolution of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients via nutrient runoff from land and the diversification of phosphorus-rich phytoplankton. Nutrient input to the oceans has previously been demonstrated to have occurred in response to orogeny and fueling marine diversification. Although volcanism has typically been associated with extinction, the eruption of continental Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) is also a very significant, but previously overlooked, source of phosphorus involved in the diversification of the marine biosphere. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Puncture performance tests reveal distinct feeding modes in pinniped teeth.

J Exp Biol 2022 06 10;225(11). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Marine Biology, Texas A&M University, Galveston Campus, Galveston, TX 77554, USA.

Marine mammals have undergone a dramatic series of morphological transformations throughout their evolutionary history that facilitated their ecological transition to life in the water. Pinnipeds are a diverse clade of marine mammals that evolved from terrestrial carnivorans in the Oligocene (∼27 million years ago). However, pinnipeds have secondarily lost the dental innovations emblematic of mammalian and carnivoran feeding, such as a talonid basin or shearing carnassials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals: An Indispensable Contrivance in Green Remediation Technology.

Plants (Basel) 2022 May 6;11(9). Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Environmental contamination is triggered by various anthropogenic activities, such as using pesticides, toxic chemicals, industrial effluents, and metals. Pollution not only affects both lotic and lentic environments but also terrestrial habitats, substantially endangering plants, animals, and human wellbeing. The traditional techniques used to eradicate the pollutants from soil and water are considered expensive, environmentally harmful and, typically, inefficacious. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Foliar water uptake as a source of hydrogen and oxygen in plant biomass.

Authors:
Akira Kagawa

Tree Physiol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Wood Anatomy and Quality Laboratory, Tsukuba, 305-8687, Japan.

Introductory biology lessons around the world typically teach that plants absorb water with their roots, but, unfortunately, absorption of water through leaves and subsequent transport and use of this water for biomass formation remains a field limited mostly to specialists. Recent studies have identified foliar water uptake as a significant net water source for terrestrial plants. The growing interest in the development of a new model that includes both foliar water uptake (in liquid form) and root water uptake to explain hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in leaf water and tree rings demands a method for distinguishing between these two water sources. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evolutionary Ecology of Plant-Arthropod Interactions in Light of the "Omics" Sciences: A Broad Guide.

Front Plant Sci 2022 25;13:808427. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.

Aboveground plant-arthropod interactions are typically complex, involving herbivores, predators, pollinators, and various other guilds that can strongly affect plant fitness, directly or indirectly, and individually, synergistically, or antagonistically. However, little is known about how ongoing natural selection by these interacting guilds shapes the evolution of plants, i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Consistent signals of a warming climate in occupancy changes of three insect taxa over 40 years in central Europe.

Glob Chang Biol 2022 07 10;28(13):3998-4012. Epub 2022 May 10.

Terrestrial Ecology Research Group, Department for Life Science Systems, School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.

Recent climate and land-use changes are having substantial impacts on biodiversity, including population declines, range shifts, and changes in community composition. However, few studies have compared these impacts among multiple taxa, particularly because of a lack of standardized time series data over long periods. Existing data sets are typically of low resolution or poor coverage, both spatially and temporally, thereby limiting the inferences that can be drawn from such studies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Methods and development trend for the measurement of plant species diversity in grasslands.]

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2022 Mar;33(3):655-663

Institute of Fragile Eco-environment/School of Geographic Science, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, Jiangsu, China.

Plant species diversity is one of the critical factors for maintaining multi-function and stability of terrestrial ecosystem. We reviewed the traditional methods for measuring plant species diversity of grassland (PSDG), and then introduced the new ideas and methods used for PSDG monitoring. Traditionally, PSDG monitoring depended heavily on ground-based investigation, which usually required large amounts of time, labor, and cost, and therefore was only suitable for small scale investigation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular Phylogeny Reveals the Past Transoceanic Voyages of Drywood Termites (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae).

Mol Biol Evol 2022 05;39(5)

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan.

Termites are major decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems and the second most diverse lineage of social insects. The Kalotermitidae form the second-largest termite family and are distributed across tropical and subtropical ecosystems, where they typically live in small colonies confined to single wood items inhabited by individuals with no foraging abilities. How the Kalotermitidae have acquired their global distribution patterns remains unresolved. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genome Characterisation of an Isoprene-Degrading sp. Isolated from a Tropical Restored Forest.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Mar 28;11(4). Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Isoprene is a climate-active biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC), emitted into the atmosphere in abundance, mainly from terrestrial plants. Soil is an important sink for isoprene due to its consumption by microbes. In this study, we report the ability of a soil bacterium to degrade isoprene. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Global patterns of soil gross immobilization of ammonium and nitrate in terrestrial ecosystems.

Glob Chang Biol 2022 07 2;28(14):4472-4488. Epub 2022 May 2.

Institute of Plant Ecology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Microbial nitrogen (N) immobilization, which typically results in soil N retention but based on the balance of gross N immobilization over gross N production, affects the fate of the anthropogenic reactive N. However, global patterns and drivers of soil gross immobilization of ammonium (I ) and nitrate (I ) are still only tentatively known. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis considering gross N production rates, soil properties, and climate and their interactions for a deeper understanding of the patterns and drivers of I and I . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In defense of elemental currencies: can ecological stoichiometry stand as a framework for terrestrial herbivore nutritional ecology?

Oecologia 2022 May 9;199(1):27-38. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, CW 405, Biological Sciences Building, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E9, Canada.

Nutritional ecologists aim to predict population or landscape-level effects of food availability, but the tools to extrapolate nutrition from small to large extents are often lacking. The appropriate nutritional ecology currencies should be able to represent consumer responses to food while simultaneously be simple enough to expand such responses to large spatial extents and link them to ecosystem functioning. Ecological stoichiometry (ES), a framework of nutritional ecology, can meet these demands, but it is typically associated with ecosystem ecology and nutrient cycling, and less often used to study wildlife nutrition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Optical Composition and Potential Driving Factors of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Large Lakes and Reservoirs in the Eastern Region of China].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2022 Apr;43(4):1930-1940

School of Geographic Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China.

Intensified urbanization has been occurring in the eastern region of China in recent decades, and excessive industrial and household sewage has been discharged into lakes and reservoirs, which has directly lowered water quality and destructed the functions of aquatic ecosystems. Lakes and reservoirs are typically drinking water sources supplying water for metropolitan areas as well as large- and medium-sized cities. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the colored fraction of DOM, and its source and optical composition strongly affect water supply safety and the health of surrounding citizens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The gut bacterial microbiome of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from lakes across an altitudinal gradient.

BMC Microbiol 2022 04 4;22(1):87. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Microorganisms inhabiting the gut play a significant role in supporting fundamental physiological processes of the host, which contributes to their survival in varied environments. Several studies have shown that altitude affects the composition and diversity of intestinal microbial communities in terrestrial animals. However, little is known about the impact of altitude on the gut microbiota of aquatic animals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Biological Soil Crust From Mesic Forests Promote a Specific Bacteria Community.

Front Microbiol 2022 16;13:769767. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Leibniz-Institute DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany.

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) harbor a diverse community of various microorganisms with microalgae as primary producers and bacteria living in close association. In mesic regions, biocrusts emerge rapidly on disturbed surface soil in forest, typically after clear-cut or windfall. It is unclear whether the bacterial community in biocrusts is similar to the community of the surrounding soil or if biocrust formation promotes a specific bacterial community. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF