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Intra- and inter-hemispheric structural connectome in agenesis of the corpus callosum.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jun 5;31:102709. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Bioengineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Brain and Mind Research, Clinical Sciences, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Division of Development and Growth, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital brain malformation characterized by the complete or partial failure to develop the corpus callosum. Despite missing the largest white matter bundle connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain, studies have shown preserved inter-hemispheric communication in individuals with AgCC. It is likely that plasticity provides mechanisms for the brain to adjust in the context of AgCC, as the malformation disrupts programmed developmental brain processes very early on. Read More

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Long-term Continuity of Antipsychotic Treatment for Schizophrenia: A Nationwide Study.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Niuvanniemi Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Schizophrenia often requires long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication. This study aims to measure the continuity of antipsychotic treatment over the course of illness in schizophrenia, as well as factors involved in the interruption of treatment. For this, we followed up a national cohort of first-episode psychosis patients in Finland for up to 18 years. Read More

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Why do males emerge before females? Sexual size dimorphism drives sexual bimaturism in insects.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, Tartu, EE-51003, Estonia.

Conspecific females and males often follow different development trajectories which leads to sex differences in age at maturity (sexual bimaturism, SBM). Whether SBM is typically selected for per se (direct selection hypothesis) or merely represents a side-effect of other sex-related adaptations (indirect selection hypothesis) is, however, still an open question. Substantial interspecific variation in the direction and degree of SBM, both in invertebrates and vertebrates, calls for multi-species studies to understand the relative importance of its evolutionary drivers. Read More

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J-dimer emission in interwoven metal-organic frameworks.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 9;11(17):4391-4396. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry and Renewable Energy and Chemical Transformations Cluster, University of Central Florida 4111 Libra Dr. Orlando FL 32816 USA

J-dimer emission is an emergent property that occurs when pairs of ground state fluorophores associate, typically in a dilute solution medium. The resulting fluorescence is shifted with respect to the monomer. J-dimer emission, however, has never been observed in concentrated dispersions or in the solid state. Read More

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A near-infrared-II emissive chromium(III) complex.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Universität Basel, Departement für Chemie, St. Johanns-Ring 19, 4056, Basel, SWITZERLAND.

The combination of pi-donating amido with pi-accepting pyridine coordination units in a tridentate chelate ligand causes a strong nephelauxetic effect in a homoleptic Cr(III) complex, which shifts its luminescence to the NIR-II spectral range. Previously explored Cr(III) polypyridine complexes typically emit between 727 and 778 nm (in the red to NIR-I spectral region), and ligand design strategies have so far concentrated on optimizing the ligand field strength. The present work takes a fundamentally different approach and focusses on increasing metal-ligand bond covalence to shift the ruby-like 2E emission of Cr(III) to 1067 nm at 77 K. Read More

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Phosphinoborylenes as stable sources of fleeting borylenes.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 10;11(40):11055-11059. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg Am Hubland 97074 Würzburg Germany

Base-stabilised borylenes that mimic the ability of transition metals to bind and activate inert substrates have attracted significant attention in recent years. However, such species are typically highly reactive and fleeting, and often cannot be isolated at ambient temperature. Herein, we describe a readily accessible trimethylphosphine-stabilised borylborylene which was found to possess a labile P-B bond that reversibly cleaves upon gentle heating. Read More

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September 2020

Extremely low-frequency phonon material and its temperature- and photo-induced switching effects.

Chem Sci 2020 Aug 17;11(33):8989-8998. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113-0033 Japan

Atomic vibrations due to stretching or bending modes cause optical phonon modes in the solid phase. These optical phonon modes typically lie in the frequency range of 10 to 10 cm. How much can the frequency of optical phonon modes be lowered? Herein we show an extremely low-frequency optical phonon mode of 19 cm (0. Read More

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Synthesis of water-soluble surfactants using catalysed condensation polymerisation in green reaction media.

Polym Chem 2021 Apr 26;12(20):2992-3003. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

University of Nottingham, School of Chemistry, University Park Nottingham NG7 2RD UK

Sustainable and biobased surfactants are required for a wide range of everyday applications. Key drivers are cost, activity and efficiency of production. Polycondensation is an excellent route to build surfactant chains from bio-sourced monomers, but this typically requires high processing temperatures (≥200 °C) to remove the condensate and to lower viscosity of the polymer melt. Read More

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A Critical Review of Spatial Abilities in Down and Williams Syndromes: Not All Space Is Created Equal.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:669320. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Psychology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21) and Williams syndrome (WS) are two neurodevelopmental disorders of genetic origin that are accompanied by mild to moderate intellectual disability but exhibit distinct cognitive profiles. In this review we discuss our recent work characterizing the real-world spatial learning and memory abilities of adult individuals with DS and WS. We used several different paradigms in which participants locomote freely and have access to coherent input from all sensory modalities to investigate their fundamental egocentric (body-centered or viewpoint-dependent) and allocentric (world-centered or viewpoint-independent) spatial abilities. Read More

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Dynamics of Long-Range Temporal Correlations in Broadband EEG During Different Motor Execution and Imagery Tasks.

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:660032. Epub 2021 May 28.

Brain Embodiment Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.

Brain activity is composed of oscillatory and broadband arrhythmic components; however, there is more focus on oscillatory sensorimotor rhythms to study movement, but temporal dynamics of broadband arrhythmic electroencephalography (EEG) remain unexplored. We have previously demonstrated that broadband arrhythmic EEG contains both short- and long-range temporal correlations that change significantly during movement. In this study, we build upon our previous work to gain a deeper understanding of these changes in the long-range temporal correlation (LRTC) in broadband EEG and contrast them with the well-known LRTC in alpha oscillation amplitude typically found in the literature. Read More

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Cluster Percolation Causes Shear Thinning Behavior in Concentrated Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies.

Mol Pharm 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN, United Kingdom.

High-concentration (>100 g/L) solutions of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are typically characterized by anomalously large solution viscosity and shear thinning behavior for strain rates ≥10 s. Here, the link between protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and the rheology of concentrated solutions of COE-03 and COE-19 mAbs is studied by means of static and dynamic light scattering and microfluidic rheometry. By comparing the experimental data with predictions based on the Baxter sticky hard-sphere model, we surprisingly find a connection between the observed shear thinning and the predicted percolation threshold. Read More

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Nothing so practical as theory: a rapid review of the use of behaviour change theory in family planning interventions involving men and boys.

Reprod Health 2021 Jun 13;18(1):126. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

School of Nursing and Midwifery and Centre for Evidence and Social Innovation, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Background: There is growing recognition of the need for interventions that effectively involve men and boys to promote family planning behaviours. Evidence suggests that the most effective behavioural interventions in this field are founded on theoretical principles of behaviour change and gender equality. However, there are few evidence syntheses on how theoretical approaches are applied in this context that might guide best practice in intervention development. Read More

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Frontoparietal Network and Neuropsychological Measures, In Typically Developing Children.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Jun 10:107914. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Mind Research Network and Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, 1101 Yale Blvd N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA. Electronic address:

Resting-state activity has been used to gain a broader understanding of typical and aberrant developmental changes. However, the developmental trajectory of resting-state activity in relation to cognitive performance has not been studied in detail. The present study assessed spectral characteristics of theta (5-8 Hz) and alpha (9-13 Hz) frequency bands during resting-state in a priori selected regions of the frontoparietal network (FPN). Read More

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Good Solid-State Electrolytes Have Low, Glass-Like Thermal Conductivity.

Small 2021 Jun 12:e2101693. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

Thermal management in Li-ion batteries is critical for their safety, reliability, and performance. Understanding the thermal conductivity of the battery materials is crucial for controlling the temperature and temperature distribution in batteries. This work provides systemic quantitative measurements of the thermal conductivity of three important classes of solid electrolytes (SEs) over the temperature range 150 < T < 350 K. Read More

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Inclusion of maintenance energy improves the intracellular flux predictions of CHO.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 11;17(6):e1009022. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Centro de Engenharia Biológica, Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the leading platform for the production of biopharmaceuticals with human-like glycosylation. The standard practice for cell line generation relies on trial and error approaches such as adaptive evolution and high-throughput screening, which typically take several months. Metabolic modeling could aid in designing better producer cell lines and thus shorten development times. Read More

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Extreme-Pressure Imprint Lithography for Heat and Ultraviolet-Free Direct Patterning of Rigid Nanoscale Features.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is typically performed by filling up of molds by heated polymers or UV-curable liquid resists, inevitably requiring subsequent pattern-transfer processes. Although direct NIL techniques have been suggested alternatively, they usually require precursors or ink-type resists containing undesired organic components. Here, we demonstrate extreme-pressure imprint lithography (EPIL) that effectively produces well-defined multiscale structures with a wide range from 10 nm to 10 mm on diverse surfaces even including pure or alloy metals without using any precursors, heating, UV exposure, or pattern transfer. Read More

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Self-Powered Low-Cost UVC Sensor Based on Organic-Inorganic Heterojunction for Partial Discharge Detection.

Small 2021 Jun 10:e2100695. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, 13120, Republic of Korea.

Power outages caused by the aging of high-voltage power facilities can cause significant economic and social damage. To prevent such problems, it is necessary to implement a widespread and sustainable monitoring system. Partial discharge (PD) is a preliminary symptom of power equipment aging accompanying the light, typically in the UV range. Read More

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Empirical evidence on the impact of urban overheating on building cooling and heating energy consumption.

iScience 2021 May 1;24(5):102495. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Republic of Korea.

A primary contributor to urban overheating is the urban heat island (UHI) formed due to increased urbanization. The adverse effects of UHI on building energy use are substantial and well documented. However, such effects are typically demonstrated through numerical simulations which are susceptible to modeling uncertainties and lack of validation resulting in a pressing research gap. Read More

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Development of new strategy combining heat treatment and phage cocktail for post-contamination prevention.

Food Res Int 2021 Jul 18;145:110415. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Food and Animal Biotechnology, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Center for Food Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Heat treatment is an effective method for ensuring food safety and quality by controlling microbial contamination. However, food poisoning outbreaks have continuously occurred in heat-treated products due to improper thermal treatment and/or post-contamination of foodborne pathogens. This study proposes a novel strategy combining thermostable bacteriophages with thermal processing of food production plants to control foodborne pathogens and even bacterial contamination. Read More

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Implicit Error, Uncertainty and Confidence in Visualization: an Archaeological Case Study.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Jun 10;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

While we know that the visualization of quantifiable uncertainty impacts the confidence in insights, little is known about whether the same is true for uncertainty that originates from aspects so inherent to the data that they can only be accounted for qualitatively. Being embedded within an archaeological project, we realized how assessing such qualitative uncertainty is crucial in gaining a holistic and accurate understanding of regional spatio-temporal patterns of human settlements over millennia. We therefore investigated the impact of visualizing qualitative implicit errors on the sense-making process via a probe that deliberately represented three distinct implicit errors, i. Read More

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Emergent Admissions to the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit in the Setting of COVID-19 Pandemic-related, State-mandated Restrictions: Clinical Decision Making and Outcomes.

Neurodiagn J 2021 Jun 10:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of NeurologyUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the state of Texas-limited elective procedures to conserve beds and personal protective equipment (PPE); therefore, between March 22 and May 18, 2020, admission to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) was limited only to urgent and emergent cases. We evaluated clinical characteristics and outcomes of these patients who were admitted to the EMU. Nineteen patients were admitted (one patient twice) with average age of 36. Read More

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Ibrutinib Plus Venetoclax for First-line Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Nonrandomized Phase 2 Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.

Importance: Oral targeted therapies have advanced the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These therapies include Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, used as monotherapy, and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax, typically combined with the CD20 monoclonal antibody. Preclinical studies have shown synergy between Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax. Read More

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Is there a role for the p75 neurotrophin receptor in mediating degeneration during oxidative stress and after hypoxia?

J Neurochem 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Queensland Brain Institute, Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

Cholinergic basal forebrain (cBF) neurons are particularly vulnerable to degeneration following trauma and in neurodegenerative conditions. One reason for this is their characteristic expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 ), which is upregulated and mediates neuronal death in a range of neurological and neurodegenerative conditions, including dementia, stroke, and ischaemia. The signalling pathway by which p75 signals cell death is incompletely characterised, but typically involves activation by neurotrophic ligands and signalling through c-jun kinase, resulting in caspase activation via mitochondrial apoptotic signalling pathways. Read More

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Muscle architecture and passive lengthening properties of the gastrocnemius medialis and Achilles tendon in children who idiopathically toe-walk.

J Anat 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Children who idiopathically toe-walk (ITW) habitually operate at greater plantarflexion angles and thus, at shorter muscle-tendon unit (MTU) lengths than typically developing (TD) children. Therefore, it is often assumed that habitual use of the gastrocnemius muscle in this way will cause remodelling of the muscle-tendon architecture compared to TD children. However, the gastrocnemius muscle architecture of children who ITW has never been measured. Read More

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A Complex-Valued Oscillatory Neural Network for Storage and Retrieval of Multidimensional Aperiodic Signals.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 24;15:551111. Epub 2021 May 24.

Laboratory for Computational Neuroscience, Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

Recurrent neural networks with associative memory properties are typically based on fixed-point dynamics, which is fundamentally distinct from the oscillatory dynamics of the brain. There have been proposals for oscillatory associative memories, but here too, in the majority of cases, only binary patterns are stored as oscillatory states in the network. Oscillatory neural network models typically operate at a single/common frequency. Read More

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Characterizing public perceptions of social and cultural impacts in policy decisions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(24)

Decision Research, Springfield, OR 97475.

Social scientists and community advocates have expressed concerns that many social and cultural impacts important to citizens are given insufficient weight by decision makers in public policy decision-making. In two large cross-sectional surveys, we examined public perceptions of a range of social, cultural, health, economic, and environmental impacts. Findings suggest that valued impacts are perceived through an initial lens that highlights both tangibility (how difficult it is to understand, observe, and make changes to an impact) and scope (how broadly an impact applies). Read More

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Self-assembling ferritin-dendrimer nanoparticles for targeted delivery of nucleic acids to myeloid leukemia cells.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 9;19(1):172. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biochemical Sciences "Alessandro Rossi Fanelli", Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.

Background: In recent years, the use of ferritins as nano-vehicles for drug delivery is taking center stage. Compared to other similar nanocarriers, Archaeoglobus fulgidus ferritin is particularly interesting due to its unique ability to assemble-disassemble under very mild conditions. Recently this ferritin was engineered to get a chimeric protein targeted to human CD71 receptor, typically overexpressed in cancer cells. Read More

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A reduced state of being: The role of culture in illness perceptions of young adults diagnosed with depressive disorders in Singapore.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0252913. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore.

Illness perceptions form a key part of common-sense models which are used widely to explain variations in patient behaviours in healthcare. Despite the pervasiveness of depressive disorders worldwide and in young adults, illness perceptions of depressive disorders have not yet been well understood. Moreover, while a high proportion of cases of depressive disorders reside in South-east Asia, few have explored illness perceptions that are culturally relevant to this region. Read More

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Developing a reference protocol for structured expert elicitation in health-care decision-making: a mixed-methods study.

Health Technol Assess 2021 Jun;25(37):1-124

Leeds University Business School, Leeds, UK.

Background: Many decisions in health care aim to maximise health, requiring judgements about interventions that may have higher health effects but potentially incur additional costs (cost-effectiveness framework). The evidence used to establish cost-effectiveness is typically uncertain and it is important that this uncertainty is characterised. In situations in which evidence is uncertain, the experience of experts is essential. Read More

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Dermatologic findings in individuals with genetically confirmed Proteus syndrome.

Pediatr Dermatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Dermatology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background/objective: Proteus syndrome, caused by a mosaic activating AKT1 variant, typically presents in toddlers with progressive, asymmetric overgrowth of the skin and bones. We aimed to define the spectrum of dermatologic disease in individuals with genetically confirmed Proteus syndrome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of records from dermatologic examinations of individuals evaluated at the NIH with a molecular diagnosis of Proteus syndrome. Read More

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