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Serial dependence does not originate from low-level visual processing.

Cognition 2021 Apr 7;212:104709. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Psychophysics, Brain Mind Institute, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Perception depends not only on the current sensory input but also on the preceding history of stimuli. In serial dependence (SD), for example, the orientation of a Gabor patch is mistakenly reported as more similar to previous trials than it actually is. This bias is typically observed for moderate orientation differences (<45°) and extends over a few trials in the past. Read More

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Healthy Aging-Nutrition Matters: Start Early and Screen Often.

Adv Nutr 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

The amount of time spent in poor health at the end of life is increasing. This narrative review summarizes consistent evidence indicating that healthy dietary patterns and maintenance of a healthy weight in the years leading to old age are associated with broad prevention of all the archetypal diseases and impairments associated with aging including: noncommunicable diseases, sarcopenia, cognitive decline and dementia, osteoporosis, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, hearing loss, obstructive sleep apnea, urinary incontinence, and constipation. In addition, randomized clinical trials show that disease-specific nutrition interventions can attenuate progression-and in some cases effectively treat-many established aging-associated conditions. Read More

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Sex differences in resting EEG power in Fragile X Syndrome.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Mar 31;138:89-95. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3230 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Electrophysiological alterations may represent a neural substrate of impaired neurocognitive processes and other phenotypic features in Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). However, the role of biological sex in electroencephalography (EEG) patterns that differentiate FXS from typical development has not been determined. This limits use of EEG in both the search for biomarkers of impairment in FXS as well as application of those markers to enhance our understanding of underlying neural mechanisms to speed treatment discovery. Read More

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Endothelial cell secreted VEGF-C enhances NSC VEGFR3 expression and promotes NSC survival.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Apr 1;53:102318. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. Electronic address:

Although delivery of neural stem cell (NSC) as a therapeutic treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) provides promise, NSC delivery typically has extremely low survival rates. Here, we investigate endothelial cell (EC) and pericyte (PC) interactions with NSC, where our results demonstrate that EC, and not PC, promote NSC cell proliferation and reduce cytotoxicity under glucose deprivation (GD). Additionally, NSC proliferation was increased upon treatment with EC conditioned media, inhibited with antagonism of VEGFR3. Read More

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CODEX, a neural network approach to explore signaling dynamics landscapes.

Mol Syst Biol 2021 Apr;17(4):e10026

Institute of Cell Biology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Current studies of cell signaling dynamics that use live cell fluorescent biosensors routinely yield thousands of single-cell, heterogeneous, multi-dimensional trajectories. Typically, the extraction of relevant information from time series data relies on predefined, human-interpretable features. Without a priori knowledge of the system, the predefined features may fail to cover the entire spectrum of dynamics. Read More

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Topical therapy of atopic dermatitis with a focus on pimecrolimus.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Christine Kühne-Center for Allergy Research and Education, University Hospital, Bonn, Germany.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing, inflammatory skin disease characterized by impaired skin barrier function and immune system dysregulation that results in dryness, skin microbiome dysbiosis, and intense pruritus. It is highly heterogeneous and its management is demanding. Patients with AD are at greater risk of comorbidities such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as other atopic diseases. Read More

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Learning ultrasound rendering from cross-sectional model slices for simulated training.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Computer-assisted Applications in Medicine, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Purpose: Given the high level of expertise required for navigation and interpretation of ultrasound images, computational simulations can facilitate the training of such skills in virtual reality. With ray-tracing based simulations, realistic ultrasound images can be generated. However, due to computational constraints for interactivity, image quality typically needs to be compromised. Read More

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Facilitated crystal handling using a simple device for evaporation reduction in microtiter plates.

J Appl Crystallogr 2021 Feb 1;54(Pt 1):376-382. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Macromolecular Crystallography, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany.

In the past two decades, most of the steps in a macromolecular crystallography experiment have undergone tremendous development with respect to speed, feasibility and increase of throughput. The part of the experimental workflow that is still a bottleneck, despite significant efforts, involves the manipulation and harvesting of the crystals for the diffraction experiment. Here, a novel low-cost device is presented that functions as a cover for 96-well crystallization plates. Read More

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February 2021

High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema in Ohio at an Elevation of 339 Meters.

Open Access Emerg Med 2021 31;13:151-153. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Mercy Health St. Elizabeth Boardman Hospital, Youngstown, OH, USA.

Background: HAPE (High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema) is a life-threatening form of high-altitude illness caused by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. It has been most commonly reported in individuals who live at lower elevations and travel to elevations above 2500 m, typically in those who do so without any acclimatization. It can also occur in residents of high altitudes who descend to lower altitudes and then return to their native altitude without acclimatization. Read More

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Combined Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and CURB-65 Score as an Accurate Predictor of Mortality for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Elderly.

Int J Gen Med 2021 30;14:1133-1139. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Respiratory Diseases of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is common among the elderly; it typically has a poor prognosis and high mortality. This study evaluated the factors predicting CAP-related in-hospital mortality in the elderly to identify a simpler and more accurate predictor.

Patients And Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study. Read More

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Low-temperature (< 200 °C) degradation of electronic nicotine delivery system liquids generates toxic aldehydes.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7800. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 99354, USA.

Electronic cigarette usage has spiked in popularity over recent years. The enhanced prevalence has consequently resulted in new health concerns associated with the use of these devices. Degradation of the liquids used in vaping have been identified as a concern due to the presence of toxic compounds such as aldehydes in the aerosols. Read More

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Carnosine functionalized magnetic metal-organic framework nanocomposites for synergistic enrichment of phosphopeptides.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 May 12;1157:338383. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China; Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China. Electronic address:

Protein phosphorylation regulates the conformations and function of proteins, which plays an important part in organisms. However, systematic and in-depth analysis of phosphorylation often hinders on account of the low abundance and suppressed ionization of phosphopeptides. Various materials based on single enrichment mechanism show potential in phosphopeptides enrichment, but the enrichment performance is typically not satisfactory. Read More

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State predictive information bottleneck.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):134111

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

The ability to make sense of the massive amounts of high-dimensional data generated from molecular dynamics simulations is heavily dependent on the knowledge of a low-dimensional manifold (parameterized by a reaction coordinate or RC) that typically distinguishes between relevant metastable states, and which captures the relevant slow dynamics of interest. Methods based on machine learning and artificial intelligence have been proposed over the years to deal with learning such low-dimensional manifolds, but they are often criticized for a disconnect from more traditional and physically interpretable approaches. To deal with such concerns, in this work we propose a deep learning based state predictive information bottleneck approach to learn the RC from high-dimensional molecular simulation trajectories. Read More

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Auger: The future of precision medicine.

Nucl Med Biol 2021 Mar 19;96-97:50-53. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA; Chemical Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

First reported by Lise Meitner in 1922 and independently by Pierre Auger in 1923, the Auger effect has been explored as a potential source for targeted radiotherapy. The Auger effect is based on the emission of a low energy electron (typically <25 keV) from an atom post electron capture (EC), internal conversion (IC), or incident X-rays excitation. This phenomenon can cause the emission of a primary electron and multiple electron tracks typically in the nearest proximity of the emission site (2-500 nm). Read More

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MetricUNet: Synergistic image- and voxel-level learning for precise prostate segmentation via online sampling.

Med Image Anal 2021 Mar 23;71:102039. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Biomedical Engineering, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China; Department of Research and Development, Shanghai United Imaging Intelligence Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China; Department of Artificial Intelligence, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Fully convolutional networks (FCNs), including UNet and VNet, are widely-used network architectures for semantic segmentation in recent studies. However, conventional FCN is typically trained by the cross-entropy or Dice loss, which only calculates the error between predictions and ground-truth labels for pixels individually. This often results in non-smooth neighborhoods in the predicted segmentation. Read More

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Automated picking of amyloid fibrils from cryo-EM images for helical reconstruction with RELION.

J Struct Biol 2021 Apr 5:107736. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Laboratory of Chemical Physics National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892-0520 USA.

Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an important tool for determining the molecular structure of proteins and protein assemblies, including helical assemblies such as amyloid fibrils. In reconstruction of amyloid fibril structures from cryo-EM images, an important early step is the selection of fibril locations. This fibril picking step is typically done by hand, a tedious process when thousands of images need to be analyzed. Read More

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Comparison of a one-step real-time RT-PCR and a nested real-time RT-PCR for a genogroup II norovirus reveals differences in sensitivity depending upon assay design and visualization.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0248581. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Food, Nutrition, and Bioprocessing Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States of America.

Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis and a major source of foodborne illness. Detection of NoV in food and environmental samples is typically performed using molecular techniques, including real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and less frequently, nested real-time PCR. In this study, we conducted a controlled comparison of two published NoV detection assays: a broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR and a two-step nested real-time PCR assay. Read More

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Global Perspectives on Improving Chronic Disease Prevention and Management in Diverse Settings.

Prev Chronic Dis 2021 04 8;18:E33. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Office of Research Training and Special Programs, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define chronic diseases as conditions that last 1 year or more and that require ongoing medical attention or limit activities of daily living, or both (1). Chronic diseases may be influenced by a combination of genetics, lifestyle and social behaviors, health care system factors, community influences, and environmental determinants of health (2). These risk factors often coexist and interact with each other. Read More

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High-Quality Thin Films of UiO-66-NH2 by Coordination Modulated Layer-by-Layer Liquid Phase Epitaxy.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Technische Universitat Munchen, Chemistry, GERMANY.

We report the fabrication of macroscopically and microscopically homogeneous, crack-free metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66-NH 2 (UiO: Universitet i Oslo; [Zr 6 O 4 (OH) 4 (bdc-NH 2 ) 6 ]; bdc-NH 2 2- : 2-amino-1,4-benzene dicarboxylate) thin films on silicon oxide surfaces. A DMF-free, low-temperature coordination modulated (CM), layer-by-layer liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) using the controlled secondary building block approach (CSA). Efficient substrate activation was determined as a key factor to obtain dense and smooth coatings by comparing UiO-66-NH 2 thin films grown on ozone and piranha acid-activated substrates. Read More

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Current Analysis of Skeletal Phenotypes in Down Syndrome.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, 723 West Michigan Street, SL 306, Indianapolis, IN, 46202-3275, USA.

Purpose: Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy 21 (Ts21) and results in skeletal deficits including shortened stature, low bone mineral density, and a predisposition to early onset osteoporosis. Ts21 causes significant alterations in skeletal development, morphology of the appendicular skeleton, bone homeostasis, age-related bone loss, and bone strength. However, the genetic or cellular origins of DS skeletal phenotypes remain unclear. Read More

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A case-control study of visual, auditory and audio-visual sensory interactions in children with autism spectrum disorder.

J Vis 2021 Apr;21(4)

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

To assess the relative integrity of early visual and auditory processes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we used frequency-tagged visual and auditory stimulation and high-density electroencephalogram recordings of unimodal and dual-modality responses in a case-control design. To test for the specificity of effects on ASD, we recorded from a smaller group of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Horizontal 3 cycle per degree (cpd) gratings were presented at 5 Hz, and a random stream of /ba/, /da/, /ga/ syllables was presented at 6 Hz. Read More

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How body composition techniques measure up for reliability across the age-span.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Reliability of body composition measurement techniques is essential to the accurate reporting of intervention outcomes. However, the between-day precision error of commonly used techniques, as well as the reference multi-compartment model, in a population-representative sample are currently unknown.

Objectives: To quantify technical and biological precision error of body composition techniques in comparison to the referent 4-compartment (4C) model. Read More

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Isospin Pomeranchuk effect in twisted bilayer graphene.

Nature 2021 Apr 7;592(7853):220-224. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

In condensed-matter systems, higher temperatures typically disfavour ordered phases, leading to an upper critical temperature for magnetism, superconductivity and other phenomena. An exception is the Pomeranchuk effect in He, in which the liquid ground state freezes upon increasing the temperature, owing to the large entropy of the paramagnetic solid phase. Here we show that a similar mechanism describes the finite-temperature dynamics of spin and valley isospins in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene. Read More

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Topical Review: Assessment of Binocular Sensory Processes in Low Vision.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Centre for Eye Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Guide Dogs New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Significance: This article summarizes the evidence for a higher prevalence of binocular vision dysfunctions in individuals with vision impairment. Assessment for and identification of binocular vision dysfunctions can detect individuals experiencing difficulties in activities including reading, object placement tasks, and mobility.Comprehensive vision assessment in low vision populations is necessary to identify the extent of remaining vision and to enable directed rehabilitation efforts. Read More

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ApoA1 neutralizes pro-inflammatory effects of Dengue virus NS1 protein and modulates the viral immune evasion.

J Virol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratório de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia Estrutural, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590, Brazil.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease highly endemic to tropical and subtropical countries. Symptomatic patients can rapidly progress to severe conditions of hemorrhage, plasma extravasation and hypovolemic shock that leads to death. Severe dengue patients' blood tests typically report low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), that is responsible for reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and regulation of lipid composition on peripheral tissues. Read More

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Advanced molecular pathology for rare tumours: A national feasibility study and model for centralised medulloblastoma diagnostics.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Newcastle University Centre for Cancer, Wolfson Childhood Cancer Research Centre, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Aims: Application of advanced molecular pathology in rare tumours is hindered by low sample numbers, access to specialised expertise/technologies, and tissue/assay QC and rapid reporting requirements. We assessed the feasibility of co-ordinated real-time centralised pathology review (CPR), encompassing molecular diagnostics and contemporary genomics (RNA-seq/DNA methylation array). Methods This nationwide trial in medulloblastoma (<80 UK diagnoses/year) introduced a national reference centre (NRC), and assessed its performance and reporting to World Health Organisation standards. Read More

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Can Precision Electrophile Signaling Make a Meaningful and Lasting Impression in Drug Design?

Chembiochem 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

For several years, drugs with reactive electrophilic appendages have been developed. These units typically confer prolonged residence time of the drugs on their protein targets, and may assist targeting shallow binding sites and/or improving the drug-protein target spectrum. Studies on natural electrophilic molecules have indicated that, in many instances, natural electrophiles use similar mechanisms to alter signaling pathways. Read More

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Sarcopenia and Neuroscience: Learning to Communicate.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience and School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

In the 1990s and early 2000s, the common definition for sarcopenia was age-related loss of skeletal muscle, and low levels of muscle mass were central to sarcopenia diagnosis. In more recent consensus definitions, however, low muscle strength displaces low muscle mass as a defining feature of sarcopenia. The change stems from growing evidence that muscle weakness is a better predictor of adverse health outcomes (e. Read More

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Digital health interventions in palliative care: a systematic meta-review.

NPJ Digit Med 2021 Apr 6;4(1):64. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

The Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Digital health interventions (DHIs) have the potential to improve the accessibility and effectiveness of palliative care but heterogeneity amongst existing systematic reviews presents a challenge for evidence synthesis. This meta-review applied a structured search of ten databases from 2006 to 2020, revealing 21 relevant systematic reviews, encompassing 332 publications. Interventions delivered via videoconferencing (17%), electronic healthcare records (16%) and phone (13%) were most frequently described in studies within reviews. Read More

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Direct detection of coupled proton and electron transfers in human manganese superoxide dismutase.

Nat Commun 2021 04 6;12(1):2079. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 985870 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.

Human manganese superoxide dismutase is a critical oxidoreductase found in the mitochondrial matrix. Concerted proton and electron transfers are used by the enzyme to rid the mitochondria of O. The mechanisms of concerted transfer enzymes are typically unknown due to the difficulties in detecting the protonation states of specific residues and solvent molecules at particular redox states. Read More

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