21,443 results match your criteria types mental


Electrophysiological evidence for the coexistence of expectancy fulfillment and semantic integration during the processing of binding and compound nouns.

Authors:
Fei Li Xu Xu

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Foreign Languages, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. Electronic address:

This study employed electrophysiological measures to investigate the processes of expectancy fulfillment and semantic integration during the processing of binding and compound nouns in Chinese. Sequential expectancy and cloze probability between the two constituents of a two-character noun were manipulated in two experiments, resulting in four types of target characters (i.e. Read More

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Sleep Difficulties among Mexican Adolescents: Subjective and Objective Assessments of Sleep.

Behav Sleep Med 2021 May 13:1-15. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

: Self-reported sleep difficulties, such as insomnia symptoms, have been reported among adolescents. Yet, studies of their prevalence and correlates are scarce among Latin Americans. This study sought (1) to describe associations between sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with self-reported sleep difficulties and (2) to examine associations between self-reported sleep difficulties and actigraphy-based sleep. Read More

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The Australian Child Maltreatment Study (ACMS): protocol for a national survey of the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, associated mental disorders and physical health problems, and burden of disease.

BMJ Open 2021 May 11;11(5):e047074. Epub 2021 May 11.

Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and exposure to domestic violence) is widely understood to be associated with multiple mental health disorders, physical health problems and health risk behaviours throughout life. However, Australia lacks fundamental evidence about the prevalence and characteristics of child maltreatment, its associations with mental disorders and physical health, and the associated burden of disease. These evidence gaps impede the development of public health strategies to better prevent and respond to child maltreatment. Read More

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Auditory verbal hallucinations and childhood trauma subtypes across the psychosis continuum: a cluster analysis.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2021 May 13:1-19. Epub 2021 May 13.

Orygen, Melbourne, Australia.

A strong link between voice-hearing experience and childhood trauma has been established. The aim of this study was to identify whether there were unique clusters of childhood trauma subtypes in a sample across the clinical spectrum of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and to examine clinical and phenomenological features across these clusters. Combining two independent international datasets (the Netherlands and Australia), childhood trauma subtypes were examined using hierarchical cluster analysis. Read More

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Associations between interpersonal dependency and severity of prolonged grief disorder symptoms in bereaved surviving family members.

Compr Psychiatry 2021 Apr 30;108:152242. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Cornell Center for Research on End-of-Live Care, 321 Lasdon House, 420 East 70(th) Street, Weill Cornell Medicine, NY, New York 10021, United States of America; Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine, Baker Pavilion 14(th) Floor, East 68(th) Street, Weill Cornell Medicine, NY, New York 10021, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Several studies have shown that interpersonal dependency is a risk factor for prolonged grief disorder (PGD), a disorder that has been recently approved by the American Psychiatric Association Assembly for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5-Text Revision (DSM-5-TR). Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether this relationship is independent of depression, which may also be related to both loss and interpersonal dependency. Furthermore, anaclitic dependency (maladaptive and immature) compared to relatedness (more adaptive and mature) dependency, and the relationships between these types of dependency and PGD, have not been examined. Read More

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The multidimensionality of abstract concepts: a systematic review.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Institute for Advanced Studies, IUSS, Pavia, Italy.

The neuroscientific study of conceptual representation has largely focused on categories of concrete entities (biological entities, tools…), while abstract knowledge has been less extensively investigated. The possible presence of a categorical organization of abstract knowledge is a debated issue. An embodied cognition framework predicts an organization of the abstract domain into different dimensions, grounded in the brain regions engaged by the corresponding experience. Read More

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Emotional Reactions to Cybersecurity Breach Situations: Scenario-Based Survey Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 May 12;23(5):e24879. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.

Background: With the ever-expanding interconnectedness of the internet and especially with the recent development of the Internet of Things, people are increasingly at risk for cybersecurity breaches that can have far-reaching consequences for their personal and professional lives, with psychological and mental health ramifications.

Objective: We aimed to identify the dimensional structure of emotion processes triggered by one of the most emblematic scenarios of cybersecurity breach, the hacking of one's smart security camera, and explore which personality characteristics systematically relate to these emotion dimensions.

Methods: A total of 902 participants from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands reported their emotion processes triggered by a cybersecurity breach scenario. Read More

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The impact of mutual aid on mental health and perceived isolation among the single elderly: An examination of economic status.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: This study aimed to identify patterns in mutual aid relationships between older people living alone and their relatives and neighbors, and to examine the impact of mutual aid relationship patterns on mental health and perceived isolation through the mediating effect of subjective economic status.

Methods: We conducted a survey with 5000 randomly selected adults aged 65 years or older, from the five official senior care service areas of city A in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Valid responses were received from 3941 participants (78. Read More

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[Significance and case analysis of FMR1 mutation screening during early and middle pregnancy].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;38(5):450-453

The Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050011, China.

Objective: To screen for mutations of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene during early and middle pregnancy and provide prenatal diagnosis for those carrying high-risk CGG trinucleotide expansions.

Methods: Peripheral blood samples of 2316 pregnant women at 12 to 21(+6) gestational weeks were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. CGG repeats of the FMR1 gene were detected by fluorescence PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Read More

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Profiles of partner health linked to a partner-focused intervention following patient initial implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).

J Behav Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Nursing, Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Informatics, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, HSB T602 Box 357266, Seattle, WA, 98195-7266, USA.

This study examined differential responses among partners who participated in a RCT designed to compare two social cognitive theory interventions, one designed for patients only (P-only) and one for patients and their intimate partners (P + P). The interventions were delivered following the patient receiving an initial ICD implant. Partner health outcomes were examined longitudinally from baseline at hospital discharge to 3, 6, and 12 months. Read More

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Extraction of nuclei from archived postmortem tissues for single-nucleus sequencing applications.

Nat Protoc 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

McGill Group for Suicide Studies, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Canada.

Single-cell and single-nucleus sequencing techniques are a burgeoning field with various biological, biomedical and clinical applications. Numerous high- and low-throughput methods have been developed for sequencing the RNA and DNA content of single cells. However, for all these methods, the key requirement is high-quality input of a single-cell or single-nucleus suspension. Read More

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Genoppi is an open-source software for robust and standardized integration of proteomic and genetic data.

Nat Commun 2021 May 10;12(1):2580. Epub 2021 May 10.

Stanley Center at Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Combining genetic and cell-type-specific proteomic datasets can generate biological insights and therapeutic hypotheses, but a technical and statistical framework for such analyses is lacking. Here, we present an open-source computational tool called Genoppi (lagelab.org/genoppi) that enables robust, standardized, and intuitive integration of quantitative proteomic results with genetic data. Read More

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Circuit organization of the rodent medial prefrontal cortex.

Trends Neurosci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA. Electronic address:

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) orchestrates higher brain function and becomes disrupted in many mental health disorders. The rodent medial PFC (mPFC) possesses an enormous variety of projection neurons and interneurons. These cells are engaged by long-range inputs from other brain regions involved in cognition, motivation, and emotion. Read More

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Understanding importance of clinical biomarkers for diagnosis of anxiety disorders using machine learning models.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251365. Epub 2021 May 10.

Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental illnesses that cause constant and overwhelming feelings of anxiety and fear. Excessive anxiety can make an individual avoid work, school, family get-togethers, and other social situations that in turn might amplify these symptoms. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one in thirteen persons globally suffers from anxiety. Read More

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Associations between visual hallucinations and impaired visuo-spatial abilities in dementia with Lewy bodies.

Neuropsychology 2021 Mar;35(3):276-284

Cognitive Neurology Unit, Neurological Institute, Tel Aviv Medical Center.

In dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) recurrent visual hallucinations (VH) often coexist or occur consecutively to impaired visual perception. Since in-depth neuropsychological testing is time-consuming, and therefore, not routinely performed in clinical settings, we aimed to explore whether standard cognitive screening tests may be helpful to alert a clinician to the presence of VH in DLB by exploring association between visuo-spatial dysfunction and VH. The clock drawing, cube, and pentagons copying items from Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Exam and nonmotor Hooper visual organization test (HVOT) have been scored in DLB patients with and without VH using traditional and extended scoring methods. Read More

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Sex differences in experiences of multiple traumas and mental health problems in the UK Biobank cohort.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Psychology, Psychiatry and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Purpose: Experiences of reported trauma are common and are associated with a range of mental health problems. Sex differences in how reported traumas are experienced over the life course in relation to mental health require further exploration.

Methods: 157,358 participants contributed data for the UK Biobank Mental Health Questionnaire (MHQ). Read More

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A mixed methods study on the manifestations of behavioural symptoms of dementia among veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

J Adv Nurs 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Aims: To explore how behavioural symptoms of dementia are manifested among veterans in residential long-term care settings, in the context of personal, interpersonal/social and environmental triggers and how the manifestations differ between veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

Design: Secondary analysis using a mixed methods approach.

Methods: We analysed text data from a stratified random sample of 66 cases derived from the programme evaluation dataset of the Staff Training in Assisted Living Residences-Veterans Health Administration (STAR-VA) intervention from 2013 to 2016, using framework analysis. Read More

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Evaluating Measures of Intimate Partner Violence Using Consensus-Based Standards of Validity.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2021 May 10:15248380211013413. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Psychology, 14787Binghamton University (SUNY), NY, USA.

The assessment of intimate partner violence (IPV) by mental health, medical, and criminal justice practitioners occurs routinely. The validity of the assessment instrument they use impacts practitioners' ability to judge ongoing risk, establish the type of IPV occurring, protect potential victims, and intervene effectively. Yet, there is no known compendium of existing assessment measures. Read More

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A trauma-informed approach in Canadian mental health policies: A systematic mapping review.

Health Policy 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, 246 Bloor Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A1.

Trauma is a hidden epidemic and a public health concern in Canada and globally. To address the pervasiveness of trauma in general and clinical populations, a trauma-informed approach (TIA) has been widely promoted in the field of mental health (MH). This study explores how a TIA has been incorporated in Canadian MH policies across all provinces and territories, and in both government and non-government organizations. Read More

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Sleep quality mediates the effect of chronotype on resilience in the time of COVID-19.

Chronobiol Int 2021 May 9:1-10. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Translational Research and of New Surgical and Medical Technologies, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

This study aimed to explore the relationship between chronotype and resilience, sleep quality, and post-traumatic stress reactions during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. An online survey was distributed through social networks during forced home confinement, collecting data from1298 participants of 19 different Italian regions. Chronotype was evaluated using the reduced version of the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ); sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); resilience levels were measured by the 10-item version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10); post-traumatic stress reactions were assessed by the 6-item version of the Impact of Event Scale (IES6). Read More

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"Camouflaging" by adolescent autistic girls who attend both mainstream and specialist resource classes: Perspectives of girls, their mothers and their educators.

Autism 2021 May 9:13623613211012819. Epub 2021 May 9.

UCL Institute of Education, UK.

Lay Abstract: There are a range of different types of schools that support children diagnosed with autism, including mainstream schools (where pupils are taught in general classrooms) and specialist schools (where pupils are exclusively taught alongside other children with special educational needs). An intermediary option involves resource bases attached to mainstream schools, which enable children to transition between mainstream and specialist educational settings. Autistic girls use a variety of strategies to negotiate the expectations and demands of school life. Read More

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Leveraging both individual-level genetic data and GWAS summary statistics increases polygenic prediction.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, 8210 Aarhus V, Denmark; National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, 8210 Aarhus V, Denmark; Bioinformatics Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Electronic address:

The accuracy of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) to predict complex diseases increases with the training sample size. PRSs are generally derived based on summary statistics from large meta-analyses of multiple genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, it is now common for researchers to have access to large individual-level data as well, such as the UK Biobank data. Read More

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Impact of Media-based Negative and Positive Age Stereotypes on Older Individuals' Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Yale School of Public Health.

Objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, stigmatization of older persons has increased in traditional and social media. It was unknown whether this negative messaging could be detrimental to the mental health of older individuals, and whether the relatively uncommon positive messaging about older individuals could benefit their mental health.

Method: To address these gaps, we designed age-stereotype interventions based on actual news stories that appeared during the pandemic, and divided them into negative and positive versions of what we term personified (i. Read More

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50 Years of advance care planning: what do we call success?

Authors:
Kerstin Knight

Monash Bioeth Rev 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Historical and Philosophical Studies, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.

Advance care planning (ACP) is promoted as beneficial practice internationally. This article critically examines different ways of understanding and measuring success in ACP. It has been 50 years since Luis Kutner first published his original idea of the Living Will, which was thought to be a contract between health carers and patients to provide for instructions about treatment choices in cases of mental incapacity. Read More

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Longitudinal MRI brain volume changes over one year in children with mucopolysaccharidosis types IIIA and IIIB.

Mol Genet Metab 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Center for Gene Therapy, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Division of Neurology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, Department of Neurology, Columbus, OH, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: To quantify changes in segmented brain volumes over 12 months in children with mucopolysaccharidosis types IIIA and IIIB (MPS IIIA and IIIB).

Methods: In order to establish suitable outcome measures for clinical trials, twenty-five children greater than 2 years of age were enrolled in a prospective natural history study of MPS IIIA and IIIB at Nationwide Children's Hospital. Data from sedated non-contrast brain 3 T MRIs and neuropsychological measures were reviewed from the baseline visit and at 12-month follow-up. Read More

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Cooking with biomass fuels increased the risk for cognitive impairment and cognitive decline among the oldest-old Chinese adults (2011-2018): A prospective cohort study.

Environ Int 2021 May 4;155:106593. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China. Electronic address:

Backgrounds: While the pernicious effects of outdoor air pollution on cognitive ability have been previously examined, evidence regarding household air pollution is scarce.

Methods: Using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, we explored the relationship between cooking with biomass fuel and cognitive impairment and cognitive decline using a Cox proportional hazards model. We further assessed the correlation of biomass fuels and cognitive score using a generalized estimating equation. Read More

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Challenges in co-designing an intervention to increase mobility in older patients: a qualitative study.

J Health Organ Manag 2021 Apr;35(9):140-162

Department of Clinical Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore and discuss key challenges associated with having stakeholders take part in co-designing a health care intervention to increase mobility in older medical patients admitted to two medical departments at two hospitals in Denmark.

Design/methodology/approach: The study used a qualitative design to investigate the challenges of co-designing an intervention in five workshops involving health professionals, patients and relatives. "Challenges" are understood as "situations of being faced with something that needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and therefore tests a person's ability" (Cambridge Dictionary). Read More

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Effect of exercise training on psychological outcomes in adults with overweight or obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2021 May 6:e13261. Epub 2021 May 6.

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital, Department of Nutrition, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

This study systematically identified the effects of exercise on multiple psychological outcomes among adults with overweight/obesity, also assessing whether these effects differed across exercise types, genders, age, and body mass index (BMI) categories. Pubmed, Web of Science, PsychInfo, and SportDiscus were searched up to October 2019 for peer-reviewed papers assessing exercise training effects on psychosocial outcomes in adults with overweight/obesity. Thirty-six articles, 32 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), were included in this review. Read More

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Institutionalization of old demented French adults: Role of the informal carer's degree of kinship.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Geriatrics, CHU Lille, Lille, France.

Background: The institutionalization of a patient with Alzheimer's disease or other dementia (ADOD) is the last resort for the latter's family and/or caregivers. We hypothesized that the degree of kinship between the patient and his/her caregiver would influence the likelihood of institutionalization.

Objective: To assess the association between institutionalization of patients with ADOD and the degree of kinship with the family caregiver. Read More

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[Candidate SNP-markers altering TBP binding affinity for promoters of the Y-linked genes CDY2A, SHOX, and ZFY are lowering many indexes of reproductive potential in men].

Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii 2020 Nov;24(7):785-793

Institute of Cytology and Genetics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Reproductive potential is the most important conditional indicator reflecting the ability of individuals in a population to reproduce, survive and develop under optimal environmental conditions. As for humans, the concept of reproductive potential can include the level of the individual's mental and physical state, which allows them to reproduce healthy offspring when they reach social and physical maturity. Female reproductive potential has been investigated in great detail, whereas the male reproductive potential (MRP) has not received the equal amount of attention as yet. Read More

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November 2020