12,419 results match your criteria type myosin

Bacterial detection by NAIP/NLRC4 elicits prompt contractions of intestinal epithelial cell layers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden;

The gut epithelium serves to maximize the surface for nutrient and fluid uptake, but at the same time must provide a tight barrier to pathogens and remove damaged intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) without jeopardizing barrier integrity. How the epithelium coordinates these tasks remains a question of significant interest. We used imaging and an optical flow analysis pipeline to study the dynamicity of untransformed murine and human intestinal epithelia, cultured atop flexible hydrogel supports. Read More

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Chronic electrical stimulation reduces reliance on anaerobic metabolism in locust jumping muscle.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Apr 5:110954. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308, United States of America.

Chronic electrical stimulation (CES) is a well-documented method for changing mammalian muscle from more fast-twitch to slow-twitch metabolic and contractile profiles. Although both mammalian and insect muscles have many similar anatomical and physiological properties, it is unknown if CES produces similar muscle plasticity changes in insects. To test this idea, we separated Schistocerca americana grasshoppers into two groups (n = 37 to 47): one that was subjected to CES for 180 min each day for five consecutive days and one group that was not. Read More

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Human Cytomegalovirus miR-US25-1 Targets the GTPase RhoA To Inhibit CD34 Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Proliferation To Maintain the Latent Viral Genome.

mBio 2021 04 6;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) microRNAs play essential roles in latency and reactivation in CD34 hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) via regulation of viral and cellular gene expression. In the present study, we show that HCMV miR-US25-1 targets RhoA, a small GTPase required for CD34 HPC self-renewal, proliferation, and hematopoiesis. Expression of miR-US25-1 impairs signaling through the nonmuscle myosin II light chain, which leads to a block in cytokinesis and an inhibition of proliferation. Read More

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STARCH SYNTHASE5, a Noncanonical Starch Synthase-Like Protein, Promotes Starch Granule Initiation in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2020 Aug;32(8):2543-2565

Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

What determines the number of starch granules in plastids is an enigmatic aspect of starch metabolism. Several structurally and functionally diverse proteins have been implicated in the granule initiation process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), with each protein exerting a varying degree of influence. Here, we show that a conserved starch synthase-like protein, STARCH SYNTHASE5 (SS5), regulates the number of starch granules that form in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Read More

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[The Prognostic Factors for AML Children with CBFβ/MYH11 Positive].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(2):369-373

Department of Hematology Jinan City People's Hospital, Jinan 271199, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: To analyze the prognostic factors of AML children with CBFβ/MYH11 positive.

Methods: Twenty-eight children with CBFβ/MYH11 positive treated in our hospital from May 2012 to June 2018 were selected, the clinical data and curative were analyzed and evaluated.

Results: Five-year OS and 5-year EFS rate of CBFβ/MYH11 positive AML children was 76. Read More

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Cardioinotropic Effects in Subchronic Intoxication of Rats with Lead and/or Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 27;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Immunology and Physiology of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620049 Yekaterinburg, Russia.

Subchronic intoxication was induced in outbred male rats by repeated intraperitoneal injections with lead oxide (PbO) and/or cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles (NPs) 3 times a week during 6 weeks for the purpose of examining its effects on the contractile characteristics of isolated right ventricle trabeculae and papillary muscles in isometric and afterload contractions. Isolated and combined intoxication with these NPs was observed to reduce the mechanical work produced by both types of myocardial preparation. Using the in vitro motility assay, we showed that the sliding velocity of regulated thin filaments drops under both isolated and combined intoxication with CdO-NP and PbO-NP. Read More

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Histochemical Characterisation and Gene Expression Analysis of Skeletal Muscles from Maremmana and Aubrac Steers Reared on Grazing and Feedlot Systems.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Agro-ambientali, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

This study aimed to characterise the fibre composition of (TB) and (SM) muscles from 20 Maremmana (MA) and 20 Aubrac (AU) steers, and the effect of grazing activity in comparison with feedlot system. The histochemical method was performed with the m-ATPase method with an acid pre-incubation, thus allowing to distinguish type I, IIA, and IIB fibres. Additionally, on total RNA extracted from SM muscle, the expressions of atp1a1, mt-atp6, and capn1 genes were evaluated, in order to find potential associations with muscle fibre histochemical characteristics. Read More

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Modelling extracellular matrix and cellular contributions to whole muscle mechanics.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(4):e0249601. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Mathematics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Skeletal muscle tissue has a highly complex and heterogeneous structure comprising several physical length scales. In the simplest model of muscle tissue, it can be represented as a one dimensional nonlinear spring in the direction of muscle fibres. However, at the finest level, muscle tissue includes a complex network of collagen fibres, actin and myosin proteins, and other cellular materials. Read More

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gain-of-function mutation modulates the stiffness of smooth muscle cells and compromises vascular mechanics.

iScience 2021 Apr 2;24(4):102246. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Institute for NanoBioTechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.

Heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2A), a key hypoxia-sensing regulator, are associated with erythrocytosis, thrombosis, and vascular complications that account for morbidity and mortality of patients. We demonstrated that the vascular pathology of HIF2A GOF mutations is independent of erythrocytosis. We generated HIF2A GOF-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiated them into endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Read More

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Proteomics study on the effect of silybin on cardiomyopathy in obese mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 30;11(1):7136. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Endocrinology, Hebei General Hospital, Graduate School of Hebei North University, No. 348 Heping West Road, Shijiazhaung, 050000, Hebei, China.

Due to the increase in the number of obese individuals, the incidence of obesity-related complications such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes is higher. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of silybin on protein expression in obese mice. Firstly, serum was collected, and it was used to detect serum lipids and other serological indicators. Read More

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Emerging views of OPTN (optineurin) function in the autophagic process associated with disease.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 13:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Macroautophagy/autophagy is a highly conserved process in eukaryotic cells. It plays a critical role in cellular homeostasis by delivering cytoplasmic cargos to lysosomes for selective degradation. OPTN (optineurin), a well-recognized autophagy receptor, has received considerable attention due to its multiple roles in the autophagic process. Read More

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Safety and Transcriptome Analysis of Live Attenuated Vaccine Strain S2 on Non-pregnant Monkeys Without Abortive Effect on Pregnant Monkeys.

Front Vet Sci 2021 9;8:641022. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

National/OIE Reference Laboratory for Animal Brucellosis, China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control (IVDC), Beijing, China.

Brucellosis, caused by spp., is an important zoonotic disease leading to enormous economic losses in livestock, posing a great threat to public health worldwide. The live attenuated strain S2, a safe and effective vaccine, is widely used in animals in China. Read More

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GDF11 prevents the formation of thoracic aortic dissection in mice: Promotion of contractile transition of aortic SMCs.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is an aortic disease associated with dysregulated extracellular matrix composition and de-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily associated with cardiovascular diseases. The present study attempted to investigate the expression of GDF11 in TAD and its effects on aortic SMC phenotype transition. Read More

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Transcriptomic analysis of the trade-off between endurance and burst-performance in the frog Xenopus allofraseri.

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 23;22(1):204. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Station d'Ecologie Expérimentale du CNRS, USR 2936, 09200, Moulis, France.

Background: Variation in locomotor capacity among animals often reflects adaptations to different environments. Despite evidence that physical performance is heritable, the molecular basis of locomotor performance and performance trade-offs remains poorly understood. In this study we identify the genes, signaling pathways, and regulatory processes possibly responsible for the trade-off between burst performance and endurance observed in Xenopus allofraseri, using a transcriptomic approach. Read More

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Physiological and pathophysiological concentrations of fatty acids induce lipid droplet accumulation and impair functional performance of tissue engineered skeletal muscle.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

Fatty acids (FA) exert physiological and pathophysiological effects leading to changes in skeletal muscle metabolism and function, however, in vitro models to investigate these changes are limited. These experiments sought to establish the effects of physiological and pathophysiological concentrations of exogenous FA upon the function of tissue engineered skeletal muscle (TESkM). Cultured initially for 14 days, C2C12 TESkM was exposed to FA-free bovine serum albumin alone or conjugated to a FA mixture (oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and α-linoleic acids [OPLA] [ratio 45:30:24:1%]) at different concentrations (200 or 800 µM) for an additional 4 days. Read More

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Activation of TRPV4 channels leads to a consistent tocolytic effect on human myometrial tissues.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol X 2021 Apr 2;10:100124. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, and Centre de Recherche du CHUS, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

Background: Human myometrium is a therapeutic target for labor induction and preterm labor.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the physiological role of alternative calcium conductance on contractions triggered by uterotonic drugs in human myometrium. Membrane conductances, supported by TRPV channels, may provide alternative pathways to control either free intracellular and/or submembrane Ca-concentration, which in turn will modulate membrane polarization and contractile responses. Read More

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[Variation analysis of genes associated with Usher syndrome type 1 in 136 Chinese deafness families].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Mar;56(3):236-241

Genetic and Prenatal Diagnosis Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

To investigate the variation of genes associated with Usher syndrome type 1(USH1)in 136 Chinese deafness families from Henan province. The data of 136 deafness families tested by next-generation sequencing(NGS) which identified in the center of genetics and prenatal diagnosis of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from November 2016 to December 2019 were analysized and the variation frequency of six genes related to Usher syndrome type 1(, , , , , ) were summarized. Five deafness families were detected nine pathogenic or likely pathogenic variations in two genes, accounting for 3. Read More

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Muscle Precursor Cells Enhance Functional Muscle Recovery and Show Synergistic Effects With Postinjury Treadmill Exercise in a Muscle Injury Model in Rats.

Am J Sports Med 2021 03;49(4):1073-1085

Investigation performed at Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Skeletal muscle injuries represent a major concern in sports medicine. Cell therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for muscle injuries, although the preclinical data are still inconclusive and the potential clinical use of cell therapy has not yet been established.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of muscle precursor cells (MPCs) on muscle healing in a small animal model. Read More

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Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Models to Study Muscle Function, Plasticity, and Disease.

Front Physiol 2021 26;12:619710. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States.

Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable plasticity that permits functional adaptations to a wide range of signals such as motor input, exercise, and disease. Small animal models have been pivotal in elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle adaptation and plasticity. However, these small animal models fail to accurately model human muscle disease resulting in poor clinical success of therapies. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluation of vitamin A status on myogenic gene expression and muscle fiber characteristics.

J Anim Sci 2021 Mar;99(3)

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA.

A randomized complete block design experiment with 30 yearling crossbred steers (average BW = 436.3 ± 39.8 kg) fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet was used to evaluate the effects dietary vitamin A (Rovimix A 1000; DSM Nutritional Products Ltd. Read More

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cMyBPC phosphorylation modulates the effect of omecamtiv mecarbil on myocardial force generation.

J Gen Physiol 2021 Jul;153(7)

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM), a direct myosin motor activator, is currently being tested as a therapeutic replacement for conventional inotropes in heart failure (HF) patients. It is known that HF patients exhibit dysregulated β-adrenergic signaling and decreased cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBPC) phosphorylation, a critical modulator of myocardial force generation. However, the functional effects of OM in conditions of altered cMyBPC phosphorylation have not been established. Read More

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Elevation of fast but not slow troponin I in the circulation of patients with Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Muscle Nerve 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Edgewise Therapeutics, BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.

Introduction/aims: One of the hallmarks of injured skeletal muscle is the appearance of elevated skeletal muscle proteins in circulation. Human skeletal muscle generally consists of a mosaic of slow (type I) and fast (type IIa, IIx/d) fibers, defined by their myosin isoform expression. Recently, measurement of circulating fiber-type specific isoforms of troponin I has been used as a biomarker to suggest that muscle injury in healthy volunteers (HV) results in the appearance of muscle proteins from fast but not slow fibers. Read More

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Dysregulation of GSK3β-Target Proteins in Skin Fibroblasts of Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) Patients.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Neuropediatrics, University Hospital Essen, Duisburg-Essen University, Germany.

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common monogenetic muscular disorder of adulthood. This multisystemic disease is caused by CTG repeat expansion in the 3'-untranslated region of the DM1 protein kinase gene called DMPK. DMPK encodes a myosin kinase expressed in skeletal muscle cells and other cellular populations such as smooth muscle cells, neurons and fibroblasts. Read More

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Skeletal muscle specific mitochondrial dysfunction and altered energy metabolism in a murine model (oim/oim) of severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

Mol Genet Metab 2021 Apr 20;132(4):244-253. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, United States of America; Department of Child Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, United States of America. Electronic address:

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable connective tissue disorder with patients exhibiting bone fragility and muscle weakness. The synergistic biochemical and biomechanical relationship between bone and muscle is a critical potential therapeutic target, such that muscle weakness should not be ignored. Previous studies demonstrated mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle of oim/oim mice, which model a severe human type III OI. Read More

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Spectrum of Mutations in an Indigenous South African Population Further Elucidates the Nonsyndromic Autosomal Recessive Phenotype of DFNB2 to Include Both Homozygous and Compound Heterozygous Mutations.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Feb 15;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

gene encodes unconventional myosin VIIA, which, when mutated, causes a phenotypic spectrum ranging from recessive hearing loss DFNB2 to deaf-blindness, Usher Type 1B (USH1B). mutations are reported in nine DFNB2 families to date, none from sub-Saharan Africa.In DNA, from a cohort of 94 individuals representing 92 families from the Limpopo province of South Africa, eight variations were detected among 10 individuals. Read More

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February 2021

Diagnostic and therapeutic caveats in Griscelli syndrome.

Scand J Immunol 2021 Mar 3:e13034. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Dermatology Department, Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, Mexico City, Mexico.

Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with characteristic pigment distribution, and there are currently 3 types according to the underlying genetic defect and clinical features. We present the case of a girl born from consanguineous parents who presented with predominant neurologic symptoms, silvery hair and granulomatous skin lesions. Cerebral magnetic resonance revealed diffuse white matter lesions, and central nervous system (CNS) lymphocytic infiltration was suspected. Read More

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Type V myosin focuses the polarisome and shapes the tip of yeast cells.

J Cell Biol 2021 May;220(5)

Institute of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

The polarisome is a cortical proteinaceous microcompartment that organizes the growth of actin filaments and the fusion of secretory vesicles in yeasts and filamentous fungi. Polarisomes are compact, spotlike structures at the growing tips of their respective cells. The molecular forces that control the form and size of this microcompartment are not known. Read More

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