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Role of the high-affinity reductive iron acquisition pathway of Candida albicans in prostaglandin E2 production, virulence, and interaction with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Med Mycol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Pathogenic Yeast Research Group, Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.

Components of the iron reductive pathway of Candida albicans have been implicated in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and virulence. However, it is unknown whether other components of this pathway influence PGE2. We investigated the role of the iron reductive pathway of C. Read More

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Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in solid tumours: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 13;149:134-152. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Medical, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; Breast Cancer Unit, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale di Cremona, Cremona, Italy.

Background: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-inhibitors (PARPis) showed antitumour activity in BRCA1/2-mutated cancers, with more heterogeneous outcomes in tumours harbouring mutations that impair other genes involved in the DNA homologous recombination repair (HRR) or wild-type (wt).

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better assess the role of PARPis in the treatment of metastatic solid tumours, with and without BRCA1/2 mutations. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS). Read More

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Residential surrounding greenness and DNA methylation: An epigenome-wide association study.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 12;154:106556. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: DNA methylation is a potential biological mechanism through which residential greenness affects health, but little is known about its association with greenness and whether the association could be modified by genetic background. We aimed to evaluate the association between surrounding greenness and genome-wide DNA methylation and potential gene-greenness interaction effects on DNA methylation.

Methods: We measured blood-derived DNA methylation using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (Illumina) for 479 Australian women, including 66 monozygotic, 66 dizygotic twin pairs, and 215 sisters of these twins. Read More

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Transcriptomic diversity in longissimus thoracis muscles of Barbari and Changthangi goat breeds of India.

Genomics 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

ICAR-National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal 132001, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

The present study is an attempt to examine the differential expression of genes in longissimus thoracis muscles between meat and wool type Indian goat breeds. Barbari goat is considered the best meat breed while Changthangi is famous for its fine fibre quality. RNA sequencing data was generated from four biological replicates of longissimus thoracis muscles of Barbari and Changthangi goats. Read More

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Draft genome of Korthalsia laciniosa (Griff.) Mart., a climbing rattan elucidates its phylogenetic position.

Genomics 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Forest Genetics and Biotechnology Division, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi P. O, Thrissur, Kerala 680653, India.

Korthalsia laciniosa (Griff.) Mart. is a climbing rattan used as a source of durable and flexible cane. Read More

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Vital roles of Pks11, a highly reducing polyketide synthase, in fungal conidiation, antioxidant activity, conidial cell wall integrity, and UV tolerance of Beauveria bassiana.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Apr 13:107588. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Lingnan Guangdong Laboratory of Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Fungal polyketide synthases play important and differential roles in synthesizing secondary metabolites and regulating several cell events, including asexual development, environmental adaptation, and pathogenicity. This study shows the important functions of a highly reducing polyketide synthase, Pks11, in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen used worldwide for pest biocontrol. The deletion of pks11 led to severe defects in conidial yields on different media and a decrease of 36. Read More

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Clonal multi-omics reveals Bcor as a negative regulator of emergency dendritic cell development.

Immunity 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Immunology Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; Single Cell Open Research Endeavour (SCORE), The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Despite advances in single-cell multi-omics, a single stem or progenitor cell can only be tested once. We developed clonal multi-omics, in which daughters of a clone act as surrogates of the founder, thereby allowing multiple independent assays per clone. With SIS-seq, clonal siblings in parallel "sister" assays are examined either for gene expression by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) or for fate in culture. Read More

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Mutant p53 in cell-cell interactions.

Genes Dev 2021 Apr;35(7-8):433-448

The Francis Crick Institute, London NW1 1AT, United Kingdom.

p53 is an important tumor suppressor, and the complexities of p53 function in regulating cancer cell behaviour are well established. Many cancers lose or express mutant forms of p53, with evidence that the type of alteration affecting p53 may differentially impact cancer development and progression. It is also clear that in addition to cell-autonomous functions, p53 status also affects the way cancer cells interact with each other. Read More

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[Effect of jerusalem artichoke extract on the functioning of malate dehydrogenase in the liver of rats with alloxan diabetes].

Biomed Khim 2021 Mar;67(2):144-149

Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia.

An increase in the activity and the appearance of a new isoform of NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1. Read More

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Polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young: A detailed patho-molecular analysis and discussion of a case.

Clin Neuropathol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Aim: Polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young (PLNTY) is a rare entity with a diffuse, infiltrative pattern, awaiting to be included in the WHO CNS tumor classification; it occurs in pediatric and young patients with seizures and harbors mutually exclusive BRAFV600E or FGFR mutations. Nonetheless, the presence of these mutations may not be obligatory for diagnosis. The conventional histology of these tumors resembles that of oligodendrogliomas. Read More

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Cytosolic D-type CpG-oligonucleotides induce a type i interferon response by activating the cGAS-STING signaling pathway.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Cytosolic DNA receptor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) has been shown to be critically involved in the detection of cytosolic, self- and non-self-DNA, initiating a type I Interferon (IFN) response through the adaptor protein Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Current studies propose that canonical binding of dsDNA by cGAS depends on DNA length, but not base sequence. In contrast, activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is sequence-dependent. Read More

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Differential Expression Profiles and Function Prediction of Transfer RNA-Derived Fragments in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

Biomed Res Int 2021 30;2021:5594081. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Gynecology, Huangshi Love & Health Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi, 435000 Hubei, China.

Background: The present study is aimed at providing systematic insight into the composition and expression of transfer RNA (tRNA) derivative transcription in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC).

Methods: tRNA derivative expression profiles in three pairs of HGSOC and adjacent normal ovarian tissues were conducted by tRNA-derived small RNA fragment (tRF) and tRNA half (tiRNA) sequencing. The differentially expressed tRFs and tiRNAs between HGSOC and paired adjacent normal samples were screened. Read More

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Clinical and Molecular Differentiation Between Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney and Normal Tissue: A Two-Case Report.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:659709. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Urology, Kunming Children's Hospital, Kunming, China.

Background: Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK) is a rare type of tumor that lacks typical clinical manifestations. Herein, we presented clinical data of 2 children with MRTK. In addition, we used a high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), GO analysis, and KEGG signaling pathway analysis to examine gene expression differences at the transcripts level between 2 patients with MRTK and 3 patients with non-tumor diseases without other symptoms. Read More

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The Anesthetic Management of a Parturient With Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type I Undergoing Cesarean Delivery.

Cureus 2021 Mar 12;13(3):e13849. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, USA.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare disorder of bone fragility caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which encode type I procollagen. It commonly manifests with bone fractures, joint dislocations, and easy bruising. OI patients presenting for surgery may pose multiple challenges to the anesthesiologist such as management of a potentially difficult airway and heightened positional fracture risks. Read More

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Transcriptional profile in rat muscle: down-regulation networks in acute strenuous exercise.

PeerJ 2021 2;9:e10500. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Superior Institute of Biomedic Sciences, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

Background: Physical exercise is a health promotion factor regulating gene expression and causing changes in phenotype, varying according to exercise type and intensity. Acute strenuous exercise in sedentary individuals appears to induce different transcriptional networks in response to stress caused by exercise. The objective of this research was to investigate the transcriptional profile of strenuous experimental exercise. Read More

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Single-cell melanoma transcriptomes depicting functional versatility and clinical implications of STIM1 in the tumor microenvironment.

Theranostics 2021 5;11(11):5092-5106. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Previous studies have implicated the functions of stromal interaction molecule 1 () in immunity and malignancy, however, the specificity and effects of expression in malignant and non-malignant cells in the tumor microenvironment are unclear. In the current study, we posed two central questions: (1) does expression elicit different cellular programs in cell types within the melanoma tumor microenvironment (2) whether the expression of and -coexpressed genes (SCGs) serve as prognostic indicators of patient's outcomes? To answer these questions, we dissected cell-specific -associated cellular programs in diverse cell types within the melanoma tumor microenvironment by measuring cell-type specificity of expression and SCGs. A distinct set of SCGs was highly affected in malignant melanoma cells, but not in the other cell types, suggesting the existence of malignant-cell-specific cellular programs reflected by expression. Read More

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Role of the IL23/IL17 Pathway in Crohn's Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 30;12:622934. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

First Department of Medicine, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and represents one of the main entities of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD affects genetically susceptible patients that are influenced by environmental factors and the intestinal microbiome, which results in excessive activation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant cytokine responses. Various studies have implicated the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL17 and IL23 in the pathogenesis of CD. Read More

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Integrated Profiling Identifies CCNA2 as a Potential Biomarker of Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 9;14:2433-2448. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Taizhou Central Hospital (Taizhou University Hospital), Taizhou, Zhejiang, 318000, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Breast cancer is the main reason for cancer-related deaths in women and the most common malignant cancer among women. In recent years, immunosuppressive factors have become a new type of treatment for cancer. However, there are no effective biomarkers for breast cancer immunotherapy. Read More

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Altered perivascular fibroblast activity precedes ALS disease onset.

Nat Med 2021 Apr 15;27(4):640-646. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Affinity Proteomics, Department of Protein Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SciLifeLab, Stockholm, Sweden.

Apart from well-defined factors in neuronal cells, only a few reports consider that the variability of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression can depend on less-defined contributions from glia and blood vessels. In this study we use an expression-weighted cell-type enrichment method to infer cell activity in spinal cord samples from patients with sporadic ALS and mouse models of this disease. Here we report that patients with sporadic ALS present cell activity patterns consistent with two mouse models in which enrichments of vascular cell genes preceded microglial response. Read More

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Deconvoluting global cytokine signaling networks in natural killer cells.

Nat Immunol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Cytokine signaling via signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins is crucial for optimal antiviral responses of natural killer (NK) cells. However, the pleiotropic effects of both cytokine and STAT signaling preclude the ability to precisely attribute molecular changes to specific cytokine-STAT modules. Here, we employed a multi-omics approach to deconstruct and rebuild the complex interaction of multiple cytokine signaling pathways in NK cells. Read More

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Investigation of type I interferon responses in ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8272. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Gerontology, School of Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Type I interferon (IFN) dysregulation is a major contributory factor in the development of several autoimmune diseases, termed type I interferonopathies, and is thought to be the pathogenic link with chronic inflammation in these conditions. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis (AAV) is an autoimmune disease characterised by necrotising inflammation of small blood vessels. The underlying biology of AAV is not well understood, however several studies have noted abnormalities in type I IFN responses. Read More

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Changes in the gene expression profile during spontaneous migraine attacks.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8294. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark.

Migraine attacks are delimited, allowing investigation of changes during and outside attack. Gene expression fluctuates according to environmental and endogenous events and therefore, we hypothesized that changes in RNA expression during and outside a spontaneous migraine attack exist which are specific to migraine. Twenty-seven migraine patients were assessed during a spontaneous migraine attack, including headache characteristics and treatment effect. Read More

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Antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype distribution, virulence profile and molecular typing of piliated clinical isolates of pneumococci from east coast, Peninsular Malaysia.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8220. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, Sultanah Nur Zahirah Hospital, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Pilus has been recently associated with pneumococcal pathogenesis in humans. The information regarding piliated isolates in Malaysia is scarce, especially in the less developed states on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Therefore, we studied the characteristics of pneumococci, including the piliated isolates, in relation to antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes, and genotypes at a major tertiary hospital on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Read More

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Single cell regulatory landscape of the mouse kidney highlights cellular differentiation programs and disease targets.

Nat Commun 2021 04 15;12(1):2277. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Renal, Electrolyte, and Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Determining the epigenetic program that generates unique cell types in the kidney is critical for understanding cell-type heterogeneity during tissue homeostasis and injury response. Here, we profile open chromatin and gene expression in developing and adult mouse kidneys at single cell resolution. We show critical reliance of gene expression on distal regulatory elements (enhancers). Read More

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Collagen IV differentially regulates planarian stem cell potency and lineage progression.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China;

The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a precise physical and molecular environment for cell maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation in the stem cell niche. However, the nature and organization of the ECM niche is not well understood. The adult freshwater planarian maintains a large population of multipotent stem cells (neoblasts), presenting an ideal model to study the role of the ECM niche in stem cell regulation. Read More

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Metagenomic analysis reveals global-scale patterns of ocean nutrient limitation.

Science 2021 Apr;372(6539):287-291

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Nutrient supply regulates the activity of phytoplankton, but the global biogeography of nutrient limitation and co-limitation is poorly understood. adapt to local environments by gene gains and losses, and we used genomic changes as an indicator of adaptation to nutrient stress. We collected metagenomes from all major ocean regions as part of the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (Bio-GO-SHIP) and quantified shifts in genes involved in nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron assimilation. Read More

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IFIT5 Negatively Regulates the Type I IFN Pathway by Disrupting TBK1-IKKε-IRF3 Signalosome and Degrading IRF3 and IKKε.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China

IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs), known as canonical IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), play critical roles in regulating immune responses against pathogens and maintaining homeostasis. How the IFIT5 regulates innate immune responses is rarely reported and remains enigmatic. In this study, we discover that human IFIT5 (hIFIT5) functions as a negative regulator of the type I IFN (IFN) pathway in HEK293T cell lines. Read More

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Draft Genome Sequence and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Biosynthetic Potential of Jeongeupia naejangsanensis Type Strain DSM 24253.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Apr 15;10(15). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Science, Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy

is a Gram-negative, cellulose-degrading betaproteobacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain DSM 24253 and identify the genes implicated in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate bioplastic polymers. Read More

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STING and cGAS gene expressions were downregulated among HIV-1-infected persons after antiretroviral therapy.

Virol J 2021 Apr 15;18(1):78. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Belém, Pará, Brazil.

Background: The HIV-1 epidemic is still considered a global public health problem, but great advances have been made in fighting it by antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART has a considerable impact on viral replication and host immunity. The production of type I interferon (IFN) is key to the innate immune response to viral infections. Read More

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MiR-126, IL-7, CXCR1/2 receptors, inflammation and circulating endothelial progenitor cells: The study on targets for treatment pathways in a model of subclinical cardiovascular disease (type 1 diabetes mellitus).

J Transl Med 2021 Apr 16;19(1):140. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Translational & Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.

Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a pro-inflammatory state whilst the proangiogenic miR-126-3p/-5p may play a role in CVD. Animal studies established miR-126 to be pro-angiogenic. We hypothesised miR-126-3p/-5p are reduced in T1DM whilst pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased. Read More

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