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The prostanoids, thromboxanes, mediate hemocytic immunity to bacterial infection in the lepidopteran Spodoptera exigua.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jul 16;120:104069. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Plant Medicals, College of Life Sciences, Andong National University, Andong, 36729, South Korea. Electronic address:

We report on a new insect prostanoid in a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua. Thromboxane B (TXB) was detected by LC-MS/MS in extracts of larval epidermis, midgut, fat body and hemocytes, with highest amounts in hemocytes (about 300 ng/g tissue with substantial variation). Thromboxane A (TXA) is an unstable intermediate that is non-enzymatically hydrolyzed into the stable TXB In S. Read More

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Collection and Storage of Human Plasma for Measurement of Oxylipins.

Metabolites 2021 Feb 26;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Oxylipins derived from omega-3 and -6 fatty acids are actively involved in inflammatory and immune processes and play important roles in human disease. However, as the interest in oxylipins increases, questions remain regarding which molecules are detectable in plasma, the best methods of collecting samples, and if molecules are stable during collection and storage. We thereby built upon existing studies by examining the stability of an expanded panel of 90 oxylipins, including specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), in human plasma ( = 5 subjects) during sample collection, processing, and storage at -80 °C. Read More

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February 2021

Resveratrol Suppresses Severe Acute Pancreatitis-Induced Microcirculation Disturbance through Targeting SIRT1-FOXO1 Axis.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 9;2021:8891544. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery II, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, No. 238, Jiefang Road, Wuhan, Hubei, China 430060.

Background: Resveratrol (RSV), one of the SIRT1 agonists, has the ability of alleviating severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); however, the concrete protective mechanism remains unknown. It is noteworthy that microcirculation disturbance plays a vital role in SAP, and the SIRT1/FOX1 axis can regulate microcirculation. Therefore, this study is aimed at ascertaining what is the underlying mechanism of the protective effect of RSV on SAP, and whether it is associated with alleviating microcirculation disturbance by regulating the SIRT1/FOX1 axis. Read More

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February 2021

Obesity-like metabolic effects of high-carbohydrate or high-fat diets consumption in metabolic and renal functions.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Jan 27:1-11. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Physiology, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.

Present study investigated which diet, high-carbohydrate (HCD) or high-fat (HFD), most effectively induces classical characteristics of obesity in mice. Mice were fed commercial chow (control), an HCD, or an HFD for 12weeks. HFD and HCD increased body weight, fat mass, and glycaemia, whereas the HFD augmented insulinemia. Read More

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January 2021

Differences in Levels of Biomarkers of Potential Harm among Users of a Heat-not-burn Tobacco Product, Cigarette Smokers, and Never-Smokers in Japan: A Post-Marketing Observational Study.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Scientific and Regulatory Affairs, Japan Tobacco Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: Cigarette smoking is associated with the risk of certain diseases, but non-combustible products may lower these risks. The potential long-term health effects of the next-generation non-combustible products (heat-not-burn tobacco products (HNBP) or electronic vapor products) have not been thoroughly studied. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of biomarkers of potential harm (BoPH) of one of HNBP (a novel vapor product: NTV), under the conditions of actual use. Read More

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January 2021

Maternal vitamin D deficiency influences long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and pregnancy outcome in association with alterations in one-carbon metabolism.

Nutr Res 2021 02 3;86:37-49. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Mother and Child Health, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs (IRSHA), Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune Satara Road, Pune 411043, India. Electronic address:

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder, leading to maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Abnormal placentation has been reported in preeclampsia. Nutrients like vitamin D and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are known to play a role in placental development. Read More

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February 2021

Recent advances in studies of SLCO2A1 as a key regulator of the delivery of prostaglandins to their sites of action.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jan 16;223:107803. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (SLCO2A1, also known as PGT, OATP2A1, PHOAR2, or SLC21A2) is a plasma membrane transporter consisting of 12 transmembrane domains. It is ubiquitously expressed in tissues, and mediates the membrane transport of prostaglandins (PGs, mainly PGE, PGF, PGD) and thromboxanes (e.g. Read More

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January 2021

New insights into the obligatory nature of cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE during early chick embryogenesis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Apr 15;1866(4):158889. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Gujarat 390 002, India. Electronic address:

Temporal expression patterns and activity of two cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) isoforms were analysed during early chick embryogenesis to evaluate their roles in development. COX-2 inhibition with etoricoxib resulted in significant structural anomalies such as anophthalmia (born without one or both eyes), phocomelia (underdeveloped or truncated limbs), and gastroschisis (an opening in the abdominal wall), indicating its significance in embryogenesis. Furthermore, the levels of PGE, PGD, PGF, and TXB were assessed using quantitative LC-MS/MS to identify which effector prostanoid (s) had their synthesis initiated by COX-2. Read More

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Selective inhibition of prostaglandin D biosynthesis in human mast cells to overcome need for multiple receptor antagonists: Biochemical consequences.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Apr 12;51(4):594-603. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Centre for Allergy Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The major mast cell prostanoid PGD is targeted for therapy of asthma and other diseases, because the biological actions include bronchoconstriction, vasodilation and regulation of immune cells mediated by three different receptors. It is not known if the alternative to selectively inhibit the biosynthesis of PGD affects release of other prostanoids in human mast cells.

Objectives: To determine the biochemical consequences of inhibition of the hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (hPGDS) PGD in human mast cells. Read More

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Aspirin dosage for the prevention of graft occlusion in people undergoing coronary surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Avicenna J Med 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):198-207. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Mayo Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Michigan, USA.

Background: Aspirin is almost always used after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery; however, it is unclear what optimal dose should be prescribed. In this systematic review, we evaluated the effects of high versus low-dose aspirin in patients after CABG.

Methods: A comprehensive database search was conducted in several databases from date of inception until February 2018. Read More

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October 2020

Lipopolysaccharide induces platelet activation in HIV patients: the role of different viral load patterns.

HIV Med 2021 Jan 10. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess whether gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could affect platelet function in HIV-1 patients with residual viral load.

Methods: In 23 HIV-1 patients on effective antiretroviral treatment, 10 treatment-naïve HIV-1 subjects and 20 healthy subjects (HS), LPS, zonulin, markers of platelet activation and oxidative stress were evaluated. In vitro, platelets from HS were exposed to plasma from HIV-1-infected treated and untreated patients. Read More

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January 2021

Effects of Astragalus Polysaccharides Nanoparticles on Cerebral Thrombosis in SD Rats.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 23;8:616759. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xinxiang Central Hospital, Xinxiang, China.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and improvement of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and APS-nano on cerebral thrombosis in rats.

Methods: A total of 72 SD rats were randomly divided into NC group, Model group, APS-Nano group, and APS group. The cerebral thrombosis Model of SD rats was established by injecting compound thrombus inducer into the internal carotid artery. Read More

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December 2020

Bothrops lanceolatus snake (Fer-de-lance) venom triggers inflammatory mediators' storm in human blood.

Arch Toxicol 2021 03 4;95(3):1129-1138. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, 05503-900, Brazil.

Systemic increased inflammatory mediators' levels are a hallmark in a plethora of pathological conditions, including thrombotic diseases as the envenomation by Bothrops lanceolatus snake. Multiple organ infarctions, which are not prevented by anticoagulant therapy, are the main cause of death on this envenomation. However, the potential mechanisms involved in these systemic reactions are underexplored. Read More

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Combination of Panax notoginseng saponins and aspirin potentiates platelet inhibition with alleviated gastric injury via modulating arachidonic acid metabolism.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Feb 25;134:111165. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

National Clinical Research Center for Chinese Medicine Cardiology, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China. Electronic address:

High platelet reactivity and gastric mucosal injury after aspirin (ASA) treatment are associated with poor compliance and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have been widely used for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) in addition to antiplatelet drugs in China; however, the joint effect and possible mechanism of PNS in addition to ASA on platelet activation and gastric injury remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the combinational effects of PNS with ASA, and to explore the underlying mechanism via arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism pathway using lipidomic analysis. Read More

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February 2021

Extract from (L.) Nees Inhibits Thrombosis and Platelet Aggregation by Regulating Integrin β and MAPK Pathways.

ACS Omega 2020 Dec 3;5(49):32123-32130. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, China.

Aim Of Study: The main objective of this study was to investigate the antithrombotic and antiplatelet effect of the extract from (L.) Nees and understand the mechanisms by which it exerts its antithrombotic and antiplatelet mechanisms.

Materials And Methods: The antithrombotic effective parts (RPE) were isolated using D101 macroporous adsorption resin and potential active ingredients (JAC) were isolated using the preparative liquid-phase method. Read More

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December 2020

The Joint Effect of a Combination of Components From the Fruit of Bge. Var. N.E. Br. and the Root of Bge. With Exercises on Swimming in Focal Cerebral Infraction in Rat.

Front Physiol 2020 23;11:574535. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Institute of Chinese Material Medical, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

: In our previous study, we found that the combination of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and swimming could prevent atherosclerosis through a synergistic interaction. However, whether the combined application of active components from the fruit of Bge. Var. Read More

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November 2020

Glycation and acetylation sites on fibrinogen in plasma fibrin clot of patients with type 2 diabetes: Effects of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid.

Thromb Res 2021 Feb 28;198:93-98. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; John Paul II Hospital, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affect fibrin clot properties through fibrinogen acetylation or glycation. We aimed to identify glycation and acetylation sites on fibrinogen in plasma fibrin clot of T2DM patients with respect to effects of ASA and fibrin clot properties. In fibrin clots generated from plasma of 9 T2DM patients, we performed mass-spectrometric analysis of Nε-fructosyl-(FL), Nε-carboxyethyl-(CEL) and Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and acetylation sites, before and after one-month administration of 75 mg/d ASA confirmed with determination of thromboxane B2 concentration (TXB), along with clot permeability and lysis time, and thrombin generation. Read More

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February 2021

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Aspirin When Delivered at Different Medication Times for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2020 11 7;54(6):1339-1348. Epub 2020 May 7.

Pharmacy Department, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 17, Qihelou Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100006, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Effective antiplatelet therapy can significantly reduce the incidence and mortality rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Aspirin is widely used in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases; however, there is widespread debate as to when patients should take an enteric-coated aspirin tablet on a daily basis. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of different aspirin medication times (morning or before bedtime) in terms of the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases using meta-analysis. Read More

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November 2020

Blood-brain barrier transport using a high affinity, brain-selective VNAR antibody targeting transferrin receptor 1.

FASEB J 2021 Feb 25;35(2):e21172. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Ossianix, Inc, Stevenage Bioscience Catalyst, Stevenage, UK.

Transfer across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a significant hurdle for the development of biopharmaceuticals with therapeutic effects within the central nervous system. We established a functional selection method to identify high affinity single domain antibodies to the transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) with efficient biotherapeutic delivery across the BBB. A synthetic phage display library based on the variable domain of new antigen receptor (VNAR) was used for in vitro selection against recombinant human TfR1 ectodomain (rh-TfR1-ECD) followed by in vivo selection in mouse for brain parenchyma penetrating antibodies. Read More

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February 2021

Endothelial function improvement in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia receiving PCSK-9 inhibitors on top of maximally tolerated lipid lowering therapy.

Thromb Res 2020 10 31;194:229-236. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Federico II University, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Treatment with protein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK-9i) reduced cholesterol levels and cardiovascular events in patients with hypercholesterolemia. We assessed changes in lipid profile, oxidation markers and endothelial function in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) after a 12-week treatment with a PCSK-9i.

Methods: Patients with FH starting a treatment with PCSK-9i were included. Read More

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October 2020

Residual platelet reactivity in low-dose aspirin-treated patients with class 1 obesity.

Vascul Pharmacol 2021 Feb 15;136:106819. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Internal Medicine I, Landesklinikum Mistelbach-Gänserndorf, Mistelbach, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Recent data suggest a decreased clinical efficacy of low-dose aspirin in patients weighing ≥70 kg. We therefore investigated the impact of body weight and class 1 obesity on thromboxane generation and platelet reactivity to arachidonic acid (AA) in 316 patients on dual antiplatelet therapy following angioplasty and stenting.

Methods: Platelet surface expression of P-selectin and activated glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa in response to AA were determined by flow cytometry as sensitive markers of platelet activation. Read More

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February 2021

Interplay between Nox2 Activity and Platelet Activation in Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Prospective Study.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 27;2020:4165358. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Although preclinical studies highlighted the potential role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in sepsis, only few studies evaluated the oxidative stress in patients with sepsis and septic shock. The objective of the study is to appraise the oxidative stress status and platelet function in patients with sepsis and septic shock compared to healthy controls.

Methods And Results: Patients with sepsis or septic shock admitted to the hospital Policlinico Umberto I (Sapienza University, Rome) underwent a blood sample collection within 1 hour from admission. Read More

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October 2020

Defining platelet response to acetylsalicylic acid: the relation between inhibition of serum thromboxane B and agonist-induced platelet aggregation.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Feb 10;51(2):260-264. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Sinai Center for Thrombosis Research and Drug Development, Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, 21215, USA.

Arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation (PA) and serum thromboxane B (TxB) inhibition are widely used to indicate cyclooxygenase-1 activity and the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Despite decades of investigations, the relation between these measurements remains unclear. We sought to evaluate the relation between AA-PA and serum TxB inhibition. Read More

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February 2021

MiR-223 alleviates thrombus and inflammation in thromboangiitis obliterans rats by regulating NLRP3.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020 10;24(20):10605-10611

Department of Vascular Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the regulatory effects of micro ribonucleic acid (miR)-223 on thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) rats, and to explore the potential regulatory mechanism.

Materials And Methods: Online database TargetScan was used to predict the downstream regulatory targets of miR-223. A total of 45 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, including sham operation group (Sham group), Model group, and miR-223 agonist group (miR-223 mimic group). Read More

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October 2020

Perioperative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meloxicam in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) of different age groups using nonlinear mixed effect modelling.

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Clinical Services and Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, London, UK.

Meloxicam is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in avian species. However, variability in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters in birds warrants species-specific studies for dose and dosing interval optimization. We performed a perioperative PK study of meloxicam (0. Read More

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November 2020

Chinese medicine GeGen-DanShen extract protects from myocardial ischemic injury through promoting angiogenesis via up-regulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 14;267:113475. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Tang Center of Herbal Medicine Research and Department of Anesthesia & Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Headings Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Coronary heart disease (CHD) usually refers to myocardial ischemia or myocardial necrosis caused by coronary artery stenosis. GeGen and DanShen (GD) are popular Chinese herbs for the treatment of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction (MI). This sentence needs to be a separate paragraph. Read More

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Metabolomics study of the effect of smoking and high-fat diet on metabolic responses and related mechanism following myocardial infarction in mice.

Life Sci 2020 Dec 12;263:118570. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic smoking and high fat diet on the post-MI metabolic features and inflammation resolution.

Main Methods: Eight weeks old C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control(C), smoking(S), high-fat diet(H), and smoking plus high-fat diet(SH) groups for 16 weeks. MI was induced by permanent coronary ligation. Read More

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December 2020

Aspirin non-response in pregnant women at increased risk of pre-eclampsia.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Nov 23;254:292-297. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Newcastle upon Tyne NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, UK.

Objectives: Low dose aspirin (LDA) is recommended for women at increased risk of preeclampsia (PE), however it is not always effective. The study sought to determine the prevalence of non-response to LDA and to ascertain the effect of increasing aspirin dose in non-responders.

Study Design: Single centre, cohort study of 166 women at increased risk of PE was conducted in a large maternity unit in the UK between 2013 and 2016. Read More

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November 2020

The sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors synergize with nitric oxide and prostacyclin to reduce human platelet activation.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 12 8;182:114276. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Gliflozins (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin) are the newest anti-hyperglycemic class and have offered cardiovascular and renal benefits. Because platelets are involved in the atherothrombosis process, this study is aimed to evaluate the direct effect of gliflozins on platelet reactivity. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or washed platelets (WP) were obtained from healthy volunteers. Read More

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December 2020