40,389 results match your criteria tumor burden


Mutational burden, MHC-I expression and immune infiltration as limiting factors for in situ vaccination by TNFα and IL-12 gene electrotransfer.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Apr 28;140:107831. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Zdravstvena pot 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

In situ vaccination is a promising immunotherapeutic approach, where various local ablative therapies are used to induce an immune response against tumor antigens that are released from the therapy-killed tumor cells. We recently proposed using intratumoral gene electrotransfer for concomitant transfection of a cytotoxic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to induce in situ vaccination, and an immunostimulatory cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12) to boost the primed immune response. Here, our aim was to test the local and systemic effectiveness of the approach in tree syngeneic mouse tumor models and associate it with tumor immune profiles, characterized by tumor mutational burden, immune infiltration and expression of PD-L1 and MHC-I on tumor cells. Read More

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Tumor- and osteoclast-derived NRP2 in prostate cancer bone metastases.

Bone Res 2021 May 14;9(1):24. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.

Understanding the role of neuropilin 2 (NRP2) in prostate cancer cells as well as in the bone microenvironment is pivotal in the development of an effective targeted therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastasis. We observed a significant upregulation of NRP2 in prostate cancer cells metastasized to bone. Here, we report that targeting NRP2 in cancer cells can enhance taxane-based chemotherapy with a better therapeutic outcome in bone metastasis, implicating NRP2 as a promising therapeutic target. Read More

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Hyperleukocytosis in Solid Tumors: A Rare Paraneoplastic Syndrome Associated with Poor Prognosis.

Am J Med Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Anatomical Pathology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

Hematological paraneoplastic syndromes are fairly uncommon. While mild leukocytosis in solid tumors is well reported, white blood cell (WBC) count over 50,000 u/L, described as paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction (PLR), is not. Indeed, when found, it is usually associated with a higher burden of disease, tumor activity and worse clinical outcomes. Read More

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Isotope tracing in adult zebrafish reveals alanine cycling between melanoma and liver.

Cell Metab 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA; Department of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA; Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

The cell-intrinsic nature of tumor metabolism has become increasingly well characterized. The impact that tumors have on systemic metabolism, however, has received less attention. Here, we used adult zebrafish harboring BRAF-driven melanoma to study the effect of cancer on distant tissues. Read More

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Tropomyosin receptor kinases in sarcomas - of joy and despair.

Curr Opin Oncol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sarcoma Center, West German Cancer Center, University Duisburg-Essen, Medical School, Essen DKTK partner site Essen, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg Institute of Pathology, University Duisburg-Essen, Medical School, Essen, Germany.

Purpose: The relatively recent discovery of neurotrophic tropomyosin receptor kinase (NTRK) gene arrangements as pan-tumor predictive biomarkers has led to impressive novel treatments for patients with TRK fusions. Although the number of patients who qualify for treatment is vanishingly small for cancer patients in general, a few histological subsets of sarcomas exhibit NTRK fusions more commonly leading to large expectations within the sarcoma community.

Recent Findings: Larotrectenib and entrectenib have recently been approved based on durable responses in TRK positive cancers with nonresectable or metastatic disease, including many sarcomas. Read More

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What Oncologists Want: Identifying Challenges and Preferences on Diagnosis Data Entry to Reduce EHR-Induced Burden and Improve Clinical Data Quality.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2021 May;5:527-540

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Purpose: Accurate recording of diagnosis (DX) data in electronic health records (EHRs) is important for clinical practice and learning health care. Previous studies show statistically stable patterns of data entry in EHRs that contribute to inaccurate DX, likely because of a lack of data entry support. We conducted qualitative research to characterize the preferences of oncological care providers on cancer DX data entry in EHRs during clinical practice. Read More

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Exploring the concepts and practices of advanced breast cancer treatment: a narrative review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):721

Department of Medical Oncology (Breast Cancer), Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences/Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

Objective: To explore the concepts and practices of advanced breast cancer treatment.

Background: Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has become a chronic disease, with a median overall survival (OS) of around 3 years and a 5-year survival rate of about 25%. OS are strongly associated with the best available care, which consists of not only application of guidelines, but also multidisciplinary specialized care, the most efficacious medicines, and so on. Read More

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A comprehensive pan-cancer analysis of gene amplification, tumor mutation burden, microsatellite instability, and PD-L1 expression in Chinese cancer patients.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):677

Department of Oncology, Wuxi People's Hospital, Wuxi, China.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors blocking programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have emerged as effective treatment options for cancer. However, immunotherapy is only effective in a subset of patients. Identifying effective biomarkers to predict the treatment response to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors remains an unmet clinical need. Read More

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Comprehensive analysis of tumor microenvironment and identification of an immune signature to predict the prognosis and immunotherapeutic response in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):569

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Tumor mutation burden (TMB) and immune microenvironment are important determinants of prognosis and immunotherapeutic efficacy for cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to develop an immune signature to effectively predict prognosis and immunotherapeutic response in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC).

Methods: TMB and immune microenvironment characteristics were comprehensively analyzed by multi-omics data in LUSC. Read More

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Analysis of tumor mutation burden combined with immune infiltrates in endometrial cancer.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):551

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is widely regarded as a predictor of response to immunotherapy. Few researchers have focused on the activity and prognosis of TMB in endometrial cancer (EC) and immune cells. Our study aimed to identify the prognostic role of TMB in EC. Read More

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Reconstruction and Analysis of the Immune-Related LINC00987/A2M Axis in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 27;8:644557. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) participate in tumor growth and immune regulation through complex signaling pathways. However, the immune-related function of the eRNA-mRNA axis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is unclear. Data on the expression of eRNAs and mRNAs were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas, GEO, and UCSC Xena, including LUAD, and pan-cancer clinical data and mutational information. Read More

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Pretreatment metastatic growth rate determines clinical outcome of advanced melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies: a multicenter cohort study.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Checkpoint inhibitors revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients. Although tumor burden and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are associated with overall survival (OS), the impact of tumor growth kinetics remains elusive and in part contradictory. The aims of this study were to develop a novel simple and rapid method that estimates pretreatment metastatic growth rate (MGR) and to investigate its prognostic impact in melanoma patients treated with antiprogrammed death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies. Read More

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[Is high tumor mutation burden predictive of immune checkpoint blockade efficacy in terms of overall survival across all cancer types?]

Bull Cancer 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

AP-HP, Sorbonne université, service d'oncologie médicale, hôpital Saint-Antoine, centre de recherche Saint-Antoine, SIRIC Curamus, unité mixte de recherche scientifique 938, équipe instabilité des microsatellites et cancer, équipe labellisée par la Ligue nationale contre le cancer, Inserm, 75012 Paris, France.

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Resistance Mechanisms to Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 and Programmed Death Ligand 1 inhibitors.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: In the past few years, administrating monoclonal humanized antibodies, namely checkpoint inhibitors, against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and its ligand (PD-L1), has yielded reassuring tumor regression rates. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors disrupt the engagement of PD-1 on T-cells and their ligands on tumor or other target cells and reactivate the tumor-specific T infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which are mostly in a state of anergy before the PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. However, a limited number of patients initially respond, and the others show a primary (innate) resistance. Read More

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A Case of a Pathological Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Periampullary Adenocarcinoma.

Oncologist 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Washington University School of Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital.

Herein, we report on a patient with known Lynch Syndrome and periampullary adenocarcinoma that exhibited a pathological complete response to neoadjuvant nivolumab plus ipilimumab. Two MSH2 mutations, high microsatellite instability (MSI-high), high tumor mutational burden (TMB) and elevated PD-L1 expression were identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Following FOLFIRINOX (Fluorouracil/Leucovorin/Irinotecan/Oxaliplatin) administration and disease progression, nivolumab (1 mg/kg) and ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) were administered every 3 weeks for 4 total cycles. Read More

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The extracellular-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) enhances metastatic burden in triple-negative breast cancer through focal adhesion protein kinase (FAK)-mediated regulation of cell adhesion.

Oncogene 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

There is overwhelming clinical evidence that the extracellular-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) is significantly dysregulated in human breast cancer. However, there is no definite understanding of the requirement of ERK5 in tumor growth and metastasis due to very limited characterization of the pathway in disease models. In this study, we report that a high level of ERK5 is a predictive marker of metastatic breast cancer. Read More

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Expanded natural killer cells augment the antimyeloma effect of daratumumab, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in a mouse model.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Research Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.

The use of natural killer (NK) cells is a promising and safe immunotherapeutic approach in the field of cancer immunotherapy. However, combination treatments are required to enhance the effector functions and therapeutic efficacy of NK cells. In this study, we investigated the potential of daratumumab (Dara), bortezomib, and dexamethasone (Dvd) to augment the antitumor effects of NK cells in a multiple myeloma (MM) xenograft mouse model. Read More

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Environmental DNA monitoring of oncogenic viral shedding and genomic profiling of sea turtle fibropapillomatosis reveals unusual viral dynamics.

Commun Biol 2021 May 12;4(1):565. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience and Sea Turtle Hospital, University of Florida, St. Augustine, FL, USA.

Pathogen-induced cancers account for 15% of human tumors and are a growing concern for endangered wildlife. Fibropapillomatosis is an expanding virally and environmentally co-induced sea turtle tumor epizootic. Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) is implicated as a causative virus, but its transmission method and specific role in oncogenesis and progression is unclear. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of selective internal radiation therapy with yttrium-90 for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 May 12;21(1):216. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06273, Korea.

Background: This retrospective analysis was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of SIRT with Y-90 microspheres and determined prognostic factors affecting patients with unresectable HCC.

Methods: A total of 97 patients diagnosed with unresectable HCC who underwent SIRT with Y-90 microspheres. Patient survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors affecting survival were assessed using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards regression. Read More

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Cumulative Burden of Postoperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Primary Retroperitoneal Sarcoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Sarcoma and General Surgery, Midlands Abdominal and Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Unit, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Correlations between postoperative complications and oncological outcomes have been reported in several malignancies, but their impact in retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is unclear. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between postoperative complications and prognosis in patients with RPS.

Methods: Patients undergoing surgery for primary RPS from 2008 to 2019 at a sarcoma center were evaluated. Read More

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Comprehensive analysis of a chemokine- and chemokine receptor family-based signature for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China.

The clinical significance and comprehensive features of chemokines and their receptors in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) have not been clarified. We aimed to characterize the expression profiles of chemokine and chemokine receptor family members and construct a chemokine- and chemokine receptor-based prognosis signature. A total of 1511 patients with LUAD from seven independent cohorts were included in the study. Read More

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Characterization of Oligometastatic Disease in a Real-World Nationwide Cohort of 3447 Patients With de Novo Metastatic Breast Cancer.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Jun 4;5(3):pkab010. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Observational studies in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) show that long-term overall survival (OS) is associated with limited tumor burden, or oligo-MBC (OMBC). However, a uniform definition of OMBC is lacking. In this real-world nationwide cohort, we aimed to define the optimal OMBC threshold and factors associated with survival in patients with OMBC. Read More

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Targeted Sequencing Analysis of Predominant Histological Subtypes in Resected Stage I Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma.

J Cancer 2021 2;12(11):3222-3229. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 185 Juqian Road, Changzhou, China.

Lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) is classified into five main histological subtypes with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics: lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA), acinar-predominant adenocarcinoma (APA), papillary-predominant adenocarcinoma (PPA), micropapillary-predominant adenocarcinoma (MPA) and solid-predominant adenocarcinoma (SPA). However, the mutational profiles of predominant histological subtypes have not been well defined. In this study, we aimed to reveal the genomic landscape of 5 main histological subtypes. Read More

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Tumor Mutation Burden and Differentially Mutated Genes Among Immune Phenotypes in Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 4;14:2953-2965. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Nowadays, immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) have been extensively applied in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the outcome of anti-program death-1/program death ligand-1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) therapy is not satisfying in -mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients and its exact mechanisms have not been fully understood. Since tumor mutation burden (TMB) and tumor immune phenotype had been thought as potential predictors for efficacy of ICBs, we further studied the TMB and immune phenotype in LUAD patients to explore potential mechanisms for poor efficacy of ICBs in positive mutated patients and to find possible factors that could impact the tumor immune phenotype which might uncover some new therapeutic strategies or combination therapies. Read More

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Multi-step screening of neoantigens' HLA- and TCR-interfaces improves prediction of survival.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9983. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Improvement of risk stratification through prognostic biomarkers may enhance the personalization of cancer patient monitoring and treatment. We used Ancer, an immunoinformatic CD8, CD4, and regulatory T cell neoepitope screening system, to perform an advanced neoantigen analysis of genomic data derived from the urothelial cancer cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas. Ancer demonstrated improved prognostic stratification and five-year survival prediction compared to standard analyses using tumor mutational burden or neoepitope identification using NetMHCpan and NetMHCIIpan. Read More

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Acute toxicity analysis of an inhibitor of BCL2, Disarib, in rats.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9982. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology, Electronics City, Bangalore, 560100, India.

Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a highly regulated process, which eliminates unwanted and damaged cells. Inhibition of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer cells. BCL2 family proteins are known to play a vital role in the regulation of apoptosis. Read More

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A Stat1 bound enhancer promotes Nampt expression and function within tumor associated macrophages.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2620. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Tumor associated macrophage responses are regulated by distinct metabolic states that affect their function. However, the ability of specific signals in the local tumor microenvironment to program macrophage metabolism remains under investigation. Here, we identify NAMPT, the rate limiting enzyme in NAD salvage synthesis, as a target of STAT1 during cellular activation by interferon gamma, an important driver of macrophage polarization and antitumor responses. Read More

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Subdivision of de-novo metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tumor burden and pretreatment EBV DNA for therapeutic guidance of locoregional radiotherapy.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 11;21(1):534. Epub 2021 May 11.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, 651 Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou, 510060, People's Republic of China.

Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy predominantly associated with infection by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Approximately 12,900 new cases of NPC occur each year, with more than 70% of cases occurring in the east and southeast Asia. NPC is different from ordinary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma due to its particular biological properties and it is highly sensitive to radiotherapy. Read More

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Self-driving armored CAR-T cells overcome suppressive milieu and eradicate CD19+ Raji lymphoma in preclinical models.

Mol Ther 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Translational Research and Development, Lentigen, a Miltenyi Biotec Company, 1201 Clopper Road, 20878 Gaithersburg, MD, USA, United States. Electronic address:

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells typically use a strong constitutive promoter to ensure maximal long-term CAR expression. However, recent evidence suggests that restricting the timing and magnitude of CAR expression is functionally beneficial, whereas constitutive CAR activation may lead to exhaustion and loss of function. We created a self-driving CD19-targeting CAR, which regulates its own function based on the presence of CD19 antigen engaged by the CAR itself, by placing self-driving CAR19 constructs under transcriptional control of synthetic AP1-NFκB or STAT5 promoters. Read More

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LILRB4 suppresses immunity in solid tumors and is a potential target for immunotherapy.

J Exp Med 2021 Jul 11;218(7). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Immune receptors expressed on TAMs are intriguing targets for tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we found inhibitory receptor LILRB4 on a variety of intratumoral immune cell types in murine tumor models and human cancers, most prominently on TAMs. LILRB4, known as gp49B in mice, is a LILRB family receptor. Read More

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