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Load-dependent energy dissipation induced by the tip-membrane friction on suspended 2D materials.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15;23(35):19819-19826. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

State Key Laboratory, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The tip-membrane interface plays a critical role in characterizing the mechanical properties of ultrathin 2D materials by commonly employed nanoindentation based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). However, the reliability of the assumption that the tip-membrane interface remains pinned during nanoindentation remains unclear, which may introduce unignorable uncertainty in evaluating their true mechanical properties. In this work, it is reported that load-dependent frictional behavior would occur on the tip-membrane interface during nanoindentation tests on monolayer and multilayer suspended WS and graphene, and the curve hysteresis could be well explained by the stick-slip behavior. Read More

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September 2021

The pitfalls of using Gaussian Process Regression for normative modeling.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0252108. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States of America.

Normative modeling, a group of methods used to quantify an individual's deviation from some expected trajectory relative to observed variability around that trajectory, has been used to characterize subject heterogeneity. Gaussian Processes Regression includes an estimate of variable uncertainty across the input domain, which at face value makes it an attractive method to normalize the cohort heterogeneity where the deviation between predicted value and true observation is divided by the derived uncertainty directly from Gaussian Processes Regression. However, we show that the uncertainty directly from Gaussian Processes Regression is irrelevant to the cohort heterogeneity in general. Read More

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September 2021

Radiation Oncology's Place in Payment Reform: ASTRO Advocates for a Place at the Table.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Sep 15:OP2100294. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

American Society for Radiation Oncology, Arlington, VA.

In its current form, the Radiation Oncology Model (RO Model) prioritizes payment cuts over true value-based payment transformation. With significant modifications to the payment methodology, the reporting requirements, and recognition of the unique challenges faced by disadvantaged populations, the RO Model can protect patient access to care, preserve the physician-patient decision-making process, and ensure the delivery of high-quality, efficient radiation therapy treatment. The American Society for Radiation Oncology has spent several years advocating for a meaningful alternative payment model for radiation oncology and continues to push The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation for changes to the RO Model that will recognize these key outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

DNAzyme-Based Biosensors: Immobilization Strategies, Applications, and Future Prospective.

ACS Nano 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada.

Since their discovery almost three decades ago, DNAzymes have been used extensively in biosensing. Depending on the type of DNAzyme being used, these functional oligonucleotides can act as molecular recognition elements within biosensors, offering high specificity to their target analyte, or as reporters capable of transducing a detectable signal. Several parameters need to be considered when designing a DNAzyme-based biosensor. Read More

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September 2021

Accuracy of procalcitonin for diagnosing peripheral blood culture contamination among patients with positive blood culture for potential contaminants.

Infection 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology, University Hospital of Nancy, F-54000, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Purpose: Blood culture contamination is still a frequently observed event and may lead to unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and additional hazards and costs. However, in patients hospitalized in tertiary care, true bacteremias for pathogens that are classically considered as contaminants can be observed. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for differentiating blood culture contamination from bacteremia in patients with positive blood cultures for potential contaminants. Read More

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September 2021

Factors Associated With Changes in Pregnancy Intention Among Women Who Were Mothers of Young Children in New York City Following the COVID-19 Outbreak.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2124273. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Environmental Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.

Importance: Early evidence shows a decrease in the number of US births during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet few studies have examined individual-level factors associated with pregnancy intention changes, especially among diverse study populations or in areas highly affected by COVID-19 in the US.

Objective: To study changes in pregnancy intention following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and identify factors possibly associated with these changes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted among women who were currently pregnant or had delivered a live infant and responded to a survey emailed to 2603 women (n = 1560). Read More

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September 2021

Association of Hypothyroidism and Clinical Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Importance: Hypothyroidism is considered a cause of or a strong risk factor for depression, but recent studies provide conflicting evidence regarding the existence and the extent of the association. It is also unclear whether the link is largely due to subsyndromal depression or holds true for clinical depression.

Objective: To estimate the association of hypothyroidism and clinical depression in the general population. Read More

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September 2021

Reduced-dimensional surface hopping with offline-online computations.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15;23(35):19547-19557. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Box 8204, Raleigh, NC, 27695-8204, USA.

Molecular dynamics simulations often classically evolve the nuclear geometry on adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs), punctuated by random hops between energy levels in regions of strong coupling, in an algorithm known as surface hopping. However, the computational expense of integrating the geometry on a full-dimensional PES and computing the required couplings can quickly become prohibitive as the number of atoms increases. In this work, we describe a method for surface hopping that uses only important reaction coordinates, performs all expensive evaluations of the true PESs and couplings only once before simulating dynamics (offline), and then queries the stored values during the surface hopping simulation (online). Read More

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September 2021

ACSM Expert Consensus Statement on Exertional Heat Illness: Recognition, Management, and Return to Activity.

Curr Sports Med Rep 2021 Sep;20(9):470-484

Consortium for Health and Military Performance, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD.

Abstract: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a true medical emergency with potential for organ injury and death. This consensus statement emphasizes that optimal exertional heat illness management is promoted by a synchronized chain of survival that promotes rapid recognition and management, as well as communication between care teams. Health care providers should be confident in the definitions, etiologies, and nuances of exertional heat exhaustion, exertional heat injury, and EHS. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of the O-Glycoproteome of Tannerella forsythia.

mSphere 2021 Sep 15:e0064921. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Oral Health Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne Dental School, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbournegrid.1008.9, Victoria, Australia.

Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative oral pathogen known to possess an O-glycosylation system responsible for targeting multiple proteins associated with virulence at the three-residue motif (D)(S/T)(A/I/L/V/M/T). Multiple proteins have been identified to be decorated with a decasaccharide glycan composed of a poorly defined core plus a partially characterized species-specific section. To date, glycosylation studies have focused mainly on the two S-layer glycoproteins, TfsA and TfsB, so the true extent of glycosylation within this species has not been fully explored. Read More

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September 2021

Non-pharmacological measures implemented in the setting of long-term care facilities to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections and their consequences: a rapid review.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 09 15;9:CD015085. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry and Epidemiology (IBE), Chair of Public Health and Health Services Research, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Starting in late 2019, COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, spread around the world. Long-term care facilities are at particularly high risk of outbreaks, and the burden of morbidity and mortality is very high among residents living in these facilities.

Objectives: To assess the effects of non-pharmacological measures implemented in long-term care facilities to prevent or reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection among residents, staff, and visitors. Read More

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September 2021

Does the Volume-Outcome Association in Pancreas Cancer Surgery Justify Regionalization of Care? A Review of Current Controversies.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, The James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Introduction: Increasing hospital or surgeon volume is associated with improved outcomes among patients with pancreatic cancer. Promotion of regionalized care is based on this volume-outcome association. However, other research has exposed nuances and complexities inherent to this association that should be considered when promoting regionalized care models. Read More

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September 2021

Environmental impact of bioplastic use: A review.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 3;7(9):e07918. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

School of Science and the Environment, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Grenfell Campus, Corner Brook, NL A2H 5G4, Canada.

Throughout their lifecycle, petroleum-based plastics are associated with many environmental problems, including greenhouse gas emissions, persistence in marine and terrestrial environments, pollution, etc. On the other hand, bioplastics form a rapidly growing class of polymeric materials that are commonly presented as alternatives to conventional petroleum-based plastics. However, bioplastics also have been linked to important environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and unfavorable land use change, making it necessary to evaluate the true impact of bioplastic use on the environment. Read More

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September 2021

The Role of Psychiatric, Analgesic, and Antiepileptic Medications in Chronic Pruritus.

Cureus 2021 Aug 17;13(8):e17260. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Psychiatry, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, USA.

Chronic pruritus is a complex yet prevalent concern without a gold standard treatment. The mainstay therapy for chronic pruritus includes topical ointments such as corticosteroids, capsaicin, local anesthetics, antihistamines, and immunomodulators. There are many different subtypes of chronic pruritus, and each unique subtype may benefit from specialized treatments. Read More

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Diagnosis of "cribriform" prostatic adenocarcinoma: an interobserver reproducibility study among urologic pathologists with recommendations.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(8):3990-4001. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Pathology, Tufts Medical Center Boston, MA, USA.

Accurate diagnosis of cribriform Gleason pattern 4 (CrP4) prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) is important due to its independent association with adverse clinical outcomes and as a growing body of evidence suggests that it impacts clinical decision making in PCa management. To identify reproducible features for diagnosis of CrP4, we assessed interobserver agreement among 27 experienced urologic pathologists of 60 digital images from 44 radical prostatectomies (RP) that represented a broad spectrum of potential CrP4. The following morphologic features were correlated with the consensus diagnosis (defined as 75% agreement) for each image: partial vs. Read More

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Predicting the potential global distribution of under current and future climate change scenarios.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 8;11(17):12092-12113. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research CAS Beijing China.

Aim: Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten ecosystems and humans worldwide, and future climate change may accelerate the expansion of IAS. Predicting the suitable areas of IAS can prevent their further expansion. is an invasive weed over 30 countries in tropical and subtropical regions. Read More

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September 2021

Human-wildlife conflict in the roof of the world: Understanding multidimensional perspectives through a systematic review.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 2;11(17):11569-11586. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Kathmandu Nepal.

Human-wildlife conflicts have intensified by many folds and at different levels in recent years. The same is true in the case of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH), the roof of the world, and a region known for its wealth in biodiversity. We present a systematic literature review (SLR) using the search, appraisal, synthesis, and analysis (SALSA) framework; and for spatial and network analysis, we employed the VOSviewer software. Read More

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September 2021

Making use of transcription factor enrichment to identify functional microRNA-regulons.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 25;19:4896-4903. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

microRNAs (miRNAs) are important modulators of messenger RNA stability and translation, controlling wide gene networks. Albeit generally modest on individual targets, the regulatory effect of miRNAs translates into meaningful pathway modulation through concurrent targeting of regulons with functional convergence. Identification of miRNA-regulons is therefore essential to understand the function of miRNAs and to help realise their therapeutic potential, but it remains challenging due to the large number of false positive target sites predicted per miRNA. Read More

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Knowing When to Use Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Oligometastatic Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 7;13:7009-7031. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Oligometastatic patients are a heterogeneous and yet not well-defined population. The actual definition identifies as oligometastatic, patients with 1-5 metastases in 1-3 different organs. However, only a proportion of these patients are "true" oligometastatic and therefore derive some kinds of benefit from local ablative approaches like stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Read More

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September 2021

SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalization, severity, criticality, and fatality rates in Qatar.

Sci Rep 2021 09 14;11(1):18182. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Doha, Qatar.

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality as well as severe economic and societal disruptions. Despite scientific progress, true infection severity, factoring both diagnosed and undiagnosed infections, remains poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate SARS-CoV-2 age-stratified and overall morbidity and mortality rates based on analysis of extensive epidemiological data for the pervasive epidemic in Qatar, a country where < 9% of the population are ≥ 50 years. Read More

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September 2021

Early weight gain trajectories in first episode anorexia: predictors of outcome for emerging adults in outpatient treatment.

J Eat Disord 2021 Sep 14;9(1):112. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Psychological Medicine, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, UK.

Background: Early response to treatment has been shown to be a predictor of later clinical outcomes in eating disorders (EDs). Specifically, early weight gain trajectories in anorexia nervosa (AN) have been shown to predict higher rates of later remission in inpatient treatment. However, no study has, as of yet, examined this phenomenon within outpatient treatment of first episode cases of AN or in emerging adults. Read More

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September 2021

[CME Sonography 101/Answers: Ultrasound of the Musculoskeletal System - Update 2021].

Praxis (Bern 1994) 2021 Sep;110(12):698-699

CIM SA, Cabinet d'imagerie médicale, Genf.

CME Sonography 101/Answers: Ultrasound of the Musculoskeletal System - Update 2021 Ultrasound technologies in medicine (and in many other areas of life) continuously undergo enormous technological advances. There is increasing automation in medicine, and this is also true for diagnostic imaging. This article describes the current state of the art in musculoskeletal ultrasound and takes a look into the near future. Read More

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September 2021

Association between long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 polymorphism rs145204276 and cancer risk.

J Int Med Res 2021 Sep;49(9):3000605211039798

Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Objective: The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) growth arrest‑specific transcript 5 (GAS5) plays an important role in various tumors, and an increasing number of studies have explored the association of the GAS5 rs145204276 polymorphism with cancer risk with inconclusive results.

Methods: PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and Web of Science were searched, and nine studies involving 6107 cases and 7909 controls were deemed eligible. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the relationship between rs145204276 and cancer risk in six genetic models. Read More

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September 2021

Diagnostic accuracy of end-tidal carbon dioxide detection in determining correct placement of nasogastric tube: An updated systematic review with meta-analysis.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Aug 24;123:104071. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Misplacement of the nasogastric tube in the respiratory tract could cause serious complications and even death. Thus, nasogastric tube verification is necessary for optimal patient safety and comfort. Although end-tidal carbon dioxide detection is considered an effective approach to determine nasogastric tube location, there is a paucity of up-to-date evidence. Read More

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The role of spatial embedding in mouse brain networks constructed from diffusion tractography and tracer injections.

Neuroimage 2021 Sep 11;244:118576. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Diffusion MRI tractography is the only noninvasive method to measure the structural connectome in humans. However, recent validation studies have revealed limitations of modern tractography approaches, which lead to significant mistracking caused in part by local uncertainties in fiber orientations that accumulate to produce larger errors for longer streamlines. Characterizing the role of this length bias in tractography is complicated by the true underlying contribution of spatial embedding to brain topology. Read More

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September 2021

Deciphering the low abundance microbiota of presumed aseptic hip and knee implants.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(9):e0257471. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from clinically uninfected hip and knee implant samples has revealed polymicrobial populations. However, previous studies assessed 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a technique for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections, leaving the microbiota of presumed aseptic hip and knee implants largely unstudied. These communities of microorganisms might play important roles in aspects of host health, such as aseptic loosening. Read More

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September 2021

Using a stair horizontal-vertical illusion to increase foot clearance over an inconsistently taller stair-riser.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(9):e0257159. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Research to Improve Stair Climbing Safety, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Stair falls can be caused by inconsistent stair dimensions. During ascent, inconsistently taller stair risers lead to reduced foot clearances as the inconsistency goes unnoticed. A stair horizontal-vertical illusion increases perceived riser heights and foot clearance and could offset reduced foot clearances over inconsistently taller risers, though this might impact other stair safety measures. Read More

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September 2021

A Multiobjective Evolutionary Approach for Solving Large-Scale Network Reconstruction Problems via Logistic Principal Component Analysis.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Sep 14;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Currently, the problem of uncovering complex network structure and dynamics from time series is prominent in many fields. Despite the recent progress in this area, reconstructing large-scale networks from limited data remains a tough problem. Existing works treat connections of nodes as continuous values, leaving a challenge of setting a proper cut-off value to distinguish whether the connections exist or not. Read More

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September 2021

Characteristics of Centenarians in the Irish Hip Fracture Database.

Ir Med J 2021 08 19;114(7):401. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department Medical Gerontology, Trinity College Dublin.

Aim Hip fractures are common amongst older people and result in significant morbidity and mortality. The Irish Hip Fracture Database (IHFD) collects data, from the 16 trauma orthopaedic units in Ireland, on patients aged 60 years and older who sustain hip fractures. This study aims to describe the characteristics of those patients aged 100 years and older in this database. Read More

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Effects of rotating gantry on magnetic field and eddy currents in 0.35 T MRI-guided radiotherapy (MR-IGRT) system.

Med Phys 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Departments of Radiation Oncology and Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, 63110, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the cause of severe image artifacts that occurred during gantry rotation in a 0.35 T MRI-Linac by comparing measurements of eddy currents, center frequency, and field inhomogeneities made with the gantry in motion and stationary.

Methods: Gradient and B eddy currents were calculated from the free induction decays (FIDs) resulting from selective excitation at a temporal resolution of 200 ms/measurement. Read More

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September 2021