100 results match your criteria triggered 3-dimensional

Demonstration of Microsurgical Technique and Nuances for the Resection of a Midbrain Tectal Glioma via the Transcollicular Approach: 3-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Mar;20(4):E304-E305

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Tectal gliomas are a rare subset of intrinsic brainstem lesions. The microsurgical resection of these lesions remains a major challenge.1,2 Transcollicular approaches on one side, via the superior or inferior colliculi or both, are neurologically well tolerated without obvious or major auditory or oculomotor consequences. Read More

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Flow-Mediated Susceptibility and Molecular Response of Cerebral Endothelia to SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Stroke 2021 01 9;52(1):260-270. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine (Y.K., J.A., D.S.L., J.D.H.), University of California, Los Angeles.

Background And Purpose: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with an increased rate of cerebrovascular events including ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. The mechanisms underlying cerebral endothelial susceptibility and response to SARS-CoV-2 are unknown yet critical to understanding the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with cerebrovascular events.

Methods: Endothelial cells were isolated from human brain and analyzed by RNA sequencing. Read More

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January 2021

3-Dimensional organization and dynamics of the microsporidian polar tube invasion machinery.

PLoS Pathog 2020 09 18;16(9):e1008738. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.

Microsporidia, a divergent group of single-celled eukaryotic parasites, harness a specialized harpoon-like invasion apparatus called the polar tube (PT) to gain entry into host cells. The PT is tightly coiled within the transmissible extracellular spore, and is about 20 times the length of the spore. Once triggered, the PT is rapidly ejected and is thought to penetrate the host cell, acting as a conduit for the transfer of infectious cargo into the host. Read More

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September 2020

Developing an Injectable Nanofibrous Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel With an Integrin αvβ3 Ligand to Improve Endothelial Cell Survival, Engraftment and Vascularization.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 29;8:890. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, United States.

Endothelial cell (EC) transplantation via injectable collagen hydrogel has received much attention as a potential treatment for various vascular diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of transplanted ECs is limited by their poor viability, which partially occurs as a result of cellular apoptosis triggered by the insufficient cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) engagement. Integrin binding to the ECM is crucial for cell anchorage to the surrounding matrix, cell spreading and migration, and further activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Read More

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Hybrid MPI-MRI System for Dual-Modal In Situ Cardiovascular Assessments of Real-Time 3D Blood Flow Quantification-A Pre-Clinical In Vivo Feasibility Investigation.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2020 12 30;39(12):4335-4345. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Non-invasive quantification of functional parameters of the cardiovascular system, in particular the heart, remains very challenging with current imaging techniques. This aspect is mainly due to the fact, that the spatio-temporal resolution of current imaging methods, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET), does not offer the desired data repetition rates in the context of real-time data acquisition and thus, can cause artifacts and misinterpretations in accelerated data acquisition approaches. We present a fast non-invasive and quantitative dual-modal in situ cardiovascular assessment using a hybrid imaging system which combines the new imaging modality Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) and MRI. Read More

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December 2020

Identification of a novel TLR5 agonist derived from the P97 protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

Immunobiology 2020 07 20;225(4):151962. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Canada; The Swine and Poultry Infectious Diseases Research Centre (CRIPA), Saint-Hyacinthe, Canada; Centre d'Excellence en Recherche sur les Maladies Orphelines-Fondation Courtois (CERMO-FC), Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Canada. Electronic address:

By modulating specific immune responses against antigens, adjuvants are used in many vaccine preparations to enhance protective immunity. The C-terminal domain of the protein P97 (P97c) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, which is the etiologic agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, has been shown to increase the specific humoral response against an antigen when this antigen is merged with P97c and delivered by adenovectors. However, the immunostimulating mechanism of this protein remains unknown. Read More

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Stabilizer Cell Gene Therapy: A Less-Is-More Strategy to Prevent Cardiac Arrhythmias.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 09 27;13(9):e008420. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Departments of Medicine/Cardiology (M.B.L., Z.Q., J.N.W.), David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles.

Background: In cardiac gene therapy to improve contractile function, achieving gene expression in the majority of cardiac myocytes is essential. In preventing cardiac arrhythmias, however, this goal may not be as important since transduction efficiencies as low as 40% suppressed ventricular arrhythmias in genetically modified mice with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

Methods: Using computational modeling, we simulated 1-, 2-, and 3-dimensional tissue under a variety of conditions to test the ability of genetically engineered nonarrhythmogenic stabilizer cells to suppress triggered activity due to delayed or early afterdepolarizations. Read More

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September 2020

Triggering of eruptions at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge.

Sci Rep 2020 06 23;10(1):10219. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Oregon State University/Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Hatfield Marine Science Center, 2115 SE OSU Dr., Newport, OR, 97365, USA.

The submarine volcano Axial Seamount has exhibited an inflation predictable eruption cycle, which allowed for the successful forecast of its 2015 eruption. However, the exact triggering mechanism of its eruptions remains ambiguous. The inflation predictable eruption pattern suggests a magma reservoir pressure threshold at which eruptions occur, and as such, an overpressure eruption triggering mechanism. Read More

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Triggered Imaging With Auto Beam Hold and Pre-/Posttreatment CBCT During Prostate SABR: Analysis of Time Efficiency, Target Coverage, and Normal Volume Changes.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2021 Mar-Apr;11(2):e210-e218. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Somogy County Mor Kaposi Teaching Hospital, Dr Jozsef Baka Center, Kaposvar, Hungary. Electronic address:

Purpose: Our purpose was to investigate time efficiency and target coverage for prostate stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) using triggered imaging (TI) and auto beam hold.

Methods And Materials: A total of 20 patients were treated with volumetric modulated arc-based SABR. Treatment verification consisted of pre- and post-radiation therapy cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with gold marker-based TI every 3 seconds. Read More

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A Case of Nervus Intermedius Neuralgia.

World Neurosurg 2020 05 14;137:89-92. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Teikyo University Medical School, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Nervus intermedius neuralgia is an extremely rare craniofacial neuralgia characterized by paroxysmal episodes of pain located deep in the ear, typically triggered by sensory or mechanical stimuli at the wall of the auditory canal without underlying pathology. Pain is sometimes associated with disorders of lacrimation, salivation, and taste.

Case Description: We present a case of a surgically treated 68-year-old man with left paroxysmal deep ear pain for 20 years before presentation. Read More

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How Flat Is the Tibial Osteotomy in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

J Arthroplasty 2020 03 9;35(3):870-876. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Institute of Orthopedic Research and Education, Houston, TX; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX; Joseph Barnhart Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Background: Cementless total knee arthroplasty has been developed to decrease the incidence of failure in younger and more active patients. However, failures are still more common in cementless versus cemented components. It is hypothesized that this is triggered by incomplete bone-tray contact. Read More

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Nephron generation in kidney cortices through injection of pretreated mesenchymal stem cell-differentiated tubular epithelial cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 10 13;518(1):141-147. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Laboratory of Organ and Tissue Reconstruction, Department of Regeneration Science and Engineering, Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Transplantation of artificially treated metanephroi or pluripotent stem cell-injected blastocyst-derived whole kidneys will be established in the near future as a useful therapeutic method for renal failure. We have attempted in vivo nephron generation for kidney repair by exploiting cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs). In a previous report, we showed stimulative cross-talks between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and tubular epithelial cells (TECs) on cell proliferation and morphological changes, the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into TECs by TEC-CM, and nephron generation from TECs or MSCs in rat subcutaneous spaces. Read More

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October 2019

Feasibility of a Real-Time Clinical Augmented Reality and Artificial Intelligence Framework for Pain Detection and Localization From the Brain.

J Med Internet Res 2019 06 28;21(6):e13594. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort Lab, Biologic & Materials Sciences Department, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Background: For many years, clinicians have been seeking for objective pain assessment solutions via neuroimaging techniques, focusing on the brain to detect human pain. Unfortunately, most of those techniques are not applicable in the clinical environment or lack accuracy.

Objective: This study aimed to test the feasibility of a mobile neuroimaging-based clinical augmented reality (AR) and artificial intelligence (AI) framework, CLARAi, for objective pain detection and also localization direct from the patient's brain in real time. Read More

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Toward "plug and play" prospective motion correction for MRI by combining observations of the time varying gradient and static vector fields.

Magn Reson Med 2019 09 7;82(3):1214-1228. Epub 2019 May 7.

UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Purpose: The efficacy of a Wireless Radio frequency triggered Acquisition Device (WRAD) is evaluated for high frequency (50 Hz) prospective motion correction in a 3-dimensional spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence.

Methods: The device measures the rate of change in the gradient vector fields (slew) using a 3-dimensional assembly of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) inductors and the direction of the static magnetic field using a 3-axis Hall effect magnetometer. The slew vector encoding is highly efficient, because the Maxwell-term position encoding is observable, allowing overconstrained pose measurement using 3 sinusoidal gradient pulses lasting 880 μs. Read More

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September 2019

Spinal Arachnoiditis Ossificans: Report of Quadruple-Triggered Case.

World Neurosurg 2019 Mar 3;123:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Policlinico "G. Rodolico" University Hospital, Catania, Italy.

Background: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare condition often associated with previous spine surgery. Here we describe a unique case of a patient affected by ankylosing spondylitis (AS), presenting with progressive neurologic deterioration due to AO. We also review the literature on evaluation and management of patients suffering from AO. Read More

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Samarium(II) folding cascades involving hydrogen atom transfer for the synthesis of complex polycycles.

Nat Commun 2018 11 15;9(1):4802. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

The expedient assembly of complex, natural product-like small molecules can deliver new chemical entities with the potential to interact with biological systems and inspire the development of new drugs and probes for biology. Diversity-oriented synthesis is a particularly attractive strategy for the delivery of complex molecules in which the 3-dimensional architecture varies across the collection. Here we describe a folding cascade approach to complex polycyclic systems bearing multiple stereocentres mediated by reductive single electron transfer (SET) from SmI. Read More

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November 2018

Acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest wall trauma with underlying coronary aneurysm: a case report.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2018 06 18;18(1):118. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Cardiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, #36 Sanhao Street, Heping district, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, 110004, People's Republic of China.

Background: Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile disease with mucocutaneous and cardiovascular involvement affecting infants and young children. Though coronary artery abnormalities are common in Kawasaki disease, no consensus has been reached regarding the treatment of acute coronary artery diseases in this population.

Case Presentation: We described a case of myocardial infarction triggered by blunt chest wall trauma in a 20 years old girl. Read More

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Acceleration of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography Using Compressed Sensing at 1.5 and 3 T: A Clinical Feasibility Study.

Invest Radiol 2018 11;53(11):681-688

Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Objectives: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an established technique in routine magnetic resonance examination. By applying the compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique to conventional MRCP sequences, scan time can be markedly reduced. With promising results at 3 T, there is a necessity to evaluate the performance at 1. Read More

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November 2018

Complex strain induced structural changes observed in fibrin assembled in human plasma.

G Portale J Torbet

Nanoscale 2018 May;10(21):10063-10072

Dutch-Belgian Beamline (DUBBLE), ESRF - The European Synchrotron, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

The structure of the core scaffold of blood clots, the interlinked 3-dimensional network of fibrin fibers, is modified by mechanical forces generated by platelet driven clot retraction, wound repair and shear stress through blood flow. Here X-ray diffraction is used to investigate how uniaxial strain, ε (ε = extension/original length), alters fiber structure in highly aligned human plasma clots covalently cross-linked by Factor XIIIa. Three stretch sensitive axially repeating structures are identified. Read More

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MR Imaging of Thoracic Aortic Disease.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Apr;27(2):95-102

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

A number of congenital defects and acquired disease processes affect the thoracic aorta, and traditionally, computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of imaging, especially in evaluation of the acute aorta. However, recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging such as electrocardiographically (ECG) triggered breath-hold sequences and ultrafast 3-dimensional MR angiography (MRA) are bringing MR imaging to the forefront of imaging of the thoracic aorta. By providing high-resolution morphological imaging and sophisticated vascular flow analysis for functional data, this modality can provide a comprehensive, reproducible evaluation of the thoracic aorta. Read More

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Sequential transfection of RUNX2/SP7 and ATF4 coated onto dexamethasone-loaded nanospheresenhances osteogenesis.

Sci Rep 2018 01 23;8(1):1447. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, 6F, CHA Biocomplex, 689 Sampyeong-dong Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, 134-88, Korea.

The timing of gene transfection greatly influences stem cell differentiation. Sequential transfection is crucial for regulation of cell behavior. When transfected several days after differentiation initiation, genes expressed at the late stage of differentiation can regulate cell behaviors and functions. Read More

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January 2018

Impact of iterative reconstruction vs. filtered back projection on image quality in 320-slice CT coronary angiography: Insights from the CORE320 multicenter study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(48):e8452

Department of Medicine/Cardiology Division, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Department of Medicine/Cardiology Division, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Department of Radiology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Toshiba Medical Systems, Otawara, Minato-Ku, Tokyo, Japan Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Canada Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard University, Boston, MA.

Iterative reconstruction has been shown to reduce image noise compared with traditional filtered back projection with quantum denoising software (FBP/QDS+) in CT imaging but few comparisons have been made in the same patients without the influence of interindividual factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of adaptive iterative dose reduction in 3-dimensional (AIDR 3D) and FBP/QDS+-based image reconstruction on image quality in the same patients.We randomly selected 100 patients enrolled in the coronary evaluation using 320-slice CT study who underwent CT coronary angiography using prospectively electrocardiogram triggered image acquisition with a 320-detector scanner. Read More

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December 2017

18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in Necrotizing Autoimmune Myopathy: "The Scarface Sign".

Clin Nucl Med 2018 Feb;43(2):147-149

Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM) is a relatively newly recognized subgroup of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. The common histopathologic features are myocyte necrosis without significant inflammation. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy can be associated with connective tissue disorders but can also be triggered by viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus or malignancy, be statin-induced NAM, or be idiopathic. Read More

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February 2018

Compressed-Sensing Accelerated 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography: Application in Suspected Pancreatic Diseases.

Invest Radiol 2018 03;53(3):150-157

Objectives: The aims of this study were to prospectively evaluate image quality, duct visibility, and diagnostic performance in duct-related pathologies of compressed-sensing (CS) accelerated 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) prototype protocols and compare these with those of conventional 3D MRCP protocol in patients with suspected pancreatic diseases.

Material And Methods: The institutional review board approved this prospective study and all patients provided written informed consent. A total of 80 patients (47 men and 33 women; median age, 57 years; age range, 24-87 years) underwent 3D MRCP at 3. Read More

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Clinical Feasibility of 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography Using Compressed Sensing: Comparison of Image Quality and Diagnostic Performance.

Invest Radiol 2017 10;52(10):612-619

From the *Department of Radiology, and †College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; ‡Siemens Healthcare Gmbh, Erlangen, Germany; §Siemens Healthcare Korea; and ∥Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of fast 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using compressed sensing (CS) in comparison with conventional navigator-triggered 3D-MRCP.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement of informed consent was waived. A total of 84 patients (male-to-female ratio, 41:43; mean age, 47. Read More

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October 2017

Designing 3-Dimensional In Vitro Oviduct Culture Systems to Study Mammalian Fertilization and Embryo Production.

Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Jul 14;45(7):1731-1744. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584CM, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The oviduct was long considered a largely passive conduit for gametes and embryos. However, an increasing number of studies into oviduct physiology have demonstrated that it specifically and significantly influences gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development. While oviduct epithelial cell (OEC) function has been examined during maintenance in conventional tissue culture dishes, cells seeded into these two-dimensional (2-D) conditions suffer a rapid loss of differentiated OEC characteristics, such as ciliation and secretory activity. Read More

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Microdomain-Specific Modulation of L-Type Calcium Channels Leads to Triggered Ventricular Arrhythmia in Heart Failure.

Circ Res 2016 Sep 29;119(8):944-55. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

From the Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Imperial Centre for Translational and Experimental Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute (J.L.S.-A., A.B., A.V.G., S.S., N.B., M.B.S., C.M., A.R.L., P.P.P., J.G.), Department of Medicine (Y.E.K.), and Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute (P.P.P.), Imperial College London, United Kingdom; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (T.O., N.A.T.); NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom (A.R.L.); Institute of Experimental Cardiovascular Research, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany (S.S., V.O.N.); and Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Kandi, Telangana, India (A.B.).

Rationale: Disruption in subcellular targeting of Ca(2+) signaling complexes secondary to changes in cardiac myocyte structure may contribute to the pathophysiology of a variety of cardiac diseases, including heart failure (HF) and certain arrhythmias.

Objective: To explore microdomain-targeted remodeling of ventricular L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) in HF.

Methods And Results: Super-resolution scanning patch-clamp, confocal and fluorescence microscopy were used to explore the distribution of single LTCCs in different membrane microdomains of nonfailing and failing human and rat ventricular myocytes. Read More

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September 2016

Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

J Dairy Sci 2016 Sep 16;99(9):7714-7725. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel; The Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel. Electronic address:

Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. Read More

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September 2016

Multidetector Computed Tomography for Congenital Anomalies of the Aortic Arch: Vascular Rings.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2016 Jul 13;69(7):681-93. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Servicio de Radiodiagnóstico, Radiología Pediátrica, Imagen Cardiaca Pediátrica y Cardiopatías Congénitas, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain.

The development of multidetector computed tomography has triggered a revolution in the study of the aorta and other large vessels and has replaced angiography in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the aortic arch, particularly vascular rings. The major advantage of multidetector computed tomography is that it permits clear 3-dimensional assessment of not only vascular structures, but also airway and esophageal compression. The current update aims to summarize the embryonic development of the aortic arch and the developmental anomalies leading to vascular ring formation and to discuss the current diagnostic and therapeutic role of multidetector computed tomography in this field. Read More

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A New Group of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Trihalo-hydroxy-cyclopentene-diones.

Environ Sci Technol 2016 07 28;50(14):7344-52. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University , Nanjing 210023, China.

We report the detection, synthesis, preparative isolation, structure characterization and identification, and formation of a new group of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs): trihalo-hydroxy-cyclopentene-diones (trihalo-HCDs). With ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/electrospray ionization-triple quadruple mass spectrometry analyses (full scans, multiple reaction monitoring, and product ion scans) and high-resolution mass spectrometry analyses (full scans), the new group of DBPs was identified with formulae and proposed with structures. However, due to a lack of commercially available standard compounds, structure identification of this new group of DBPs was challenging. Read More

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