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Effects of the Mediterranean Diet or Nut Consumption On Gut Microbiota Composition and Fecal Metabolites and their Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk Factors.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Jul 31:e2000982. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University RoviraiVirgili (URV), Reus, Spain.

Scope: To examine whether a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) compared to the consumption of nuts in the context of a habitual non-MedDiet exerts a greater beneficial effect on gut microbiota and fecal metabolites, thus contributing to explain major benefits on cardiometabolic risk factors.

Methods And Results: Fifty adults with Metabolic Syndrome were randomized to a controlled, crossover 2-months dietary-intervention trial with a 1-month wash-out period, following a MedDiet or consuming nuts (50 g/day). Microbiota composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolites were measured using NMR and LC-qTOF platforms in a targeted metabolomics approach. Read More

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Diet or exercise: The role of diet and/or exercise on changes of pro-inflammatory markers during a weight loss program in adult women with overweight.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 6;44:337-341. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Nutrition and Health, FK-KMK, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Background And Aims: Obesity is associated with increased inflammation leading to a higher risk for non-communicable diseases. There was a controversy about whether exercise has a better influence on reducing inflammation during a lifestyle modification program among individuals with obesity. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether exercise could provide a benefit in reducing inflammatory markers in the context of a weight loss program. Read More

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Feasibility of dietary folic acid reduction intervention for men on active surveillance for prostate cancer.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 3;44:270-275. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 78249, United States; College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, 110 Inner Campus Drive, Austin, TX 78705, United States. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Fortification of the US food supply has increased folic acid intake and resulted in a concomitant decrease in neural tube defects in women. However, a body evidence supports the hypothesis that increased circulating folate levels due to excessive dietary or supplemental folic acid may be harmful for men with prostate cancer. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a reduced folic acid dietary intervention in men on an active surveillance monitoring program for prostate cancer. Read More

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Replacing protein via enteral nutrition in a stepwise approach in critically ill patients: A pilot randomized controlled trial (REPLENISH pilot trial).

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 2;44:166-172. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Intensive Care Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The optimal amount of protein intake in critically ill patients is unclear. The objective of this pilot trial is to assess the feasibility of a large randomized controlled trial testing higher versus lower protein intake in critically ill patients.

Methods: In this pilot randomized controlled trial (REPLacing Protein via Enteral Nutrition in a Stepwise ApproacH in critically ill patients: A pilot randomized controlled trial (REPLENISH pilot trial), critically ill patients underwent 2-step screening for eligibility on ICU day 1 and 5. Read More

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The effects of diet and physical activity induced weight loss on the severity of tinnitus and quality of life: A randomized controlled trial.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 28;44:159-165. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background & Aims: Subjective tinnitus is the most common and manifest auditory symptom of an existing pathology in the auditory system. Although the effect of obesity on tinnitus is still uncertain, it is known that increased fat tissue increases the severity and symptoms of tinnitus. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effect of weight loss through diet and physical activity on tinnitus. Read More

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A plant-based diet in overweight adults in a 16-week randomized clinical trial: The role of dietary acid load.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 29;44:150-158. Epub 2021 May 29.

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC, USA; Adjunct Faculty, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Evidence suggests that changes in dietary acid load may influence body weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity.

Methods: Participants (n = 244) were randomly assigned to an intervention (vegan) (n = 122) or control group (n = 122) for 16 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Read More

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No additional effects of ursolic acid supplementation associated with combined exercise program on metabolic syndrome of postmenopausal women: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 19;44:143-149. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Post-Graduate Program in Human Movement Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Ursolic acid (UA) supplementation may have therapeutic effects on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of UA supplementation associated with a combined exercise program on MetS components in postmenopausal women.

Methods: Twenty-six women (61 ± 7 years) were randomized into two groups: UA (n = 13) and placebo (PLA, n = 13). Read More

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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response to curcumin supplementation in hemodialysis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 24;44:136-142. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Background And Objectives: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are vulnerable to malnutrition and cardiovascular complications due to many factors, including oxidative stress and inflammation. Curcumin supplementation is associated with attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, but its effects in HD patients are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammation in HD patients. Read More

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Effect of omega-3 supplementation on fatty liver and visceral adiposity indices in diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled trial.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 3;44:130-135. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the most common chronic liver disease is closely linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Omega-3 supplementation has been proposed as a strategy to manage T2DM and NAFLD. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 supplementation on fatty liver index, lipid accumulation product and visceral adiposity index in diabetic patients with NAFLD. Read More

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Vitamin D supplementation in people with IBS has no effect on symptom severity and quality of life: results of a randomised controlled trial.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Molecular Gastroenterology Research Group, Department of Oncology & Metabolism, The Medical School, The University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK.

Purpose: Several small trials suggest a benefit of vitamin D supplementation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The generalisability of these reports is limited by their design and scale. This study aimed to assess whether vitamin D supplementation improved IBS symptoms in a UK community setting. Read More

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Dietary sugar intake and risk of Alzheimer's disease in older women.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Jul 30:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Cardiology, Heart and Vascular Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, USA.

Background: Despite some reports of cardiometabolic disorders associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), limited studies have been conducted to examine the association between excessive sugar intake (a risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders) and AD risk.

Aim: The purpose of our study was to evaluate if excessive sugar intake has a significant long-term effect on the risk of AD.

Methods: A population sample of 37,689 participants, who enrolled in the United States (US) Women's Health Initiative - Dietary Modification Trial (WHI-DM) in 1993-2005 and its extended observational follow-up study through 1 March 2019, were analyzed. Read More

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Gut Microbiota Composition is Associated with Responses to Peanut Intervention in Multiple Parameters Among Adults with Metabolic Syndrome Risk.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Jul 30:e2001051. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Scope: Peanuts are widely consumed as a meal ingredient and a snack, and are commonly considered as a healthy food based on their nutrient profile. Peanut consumption has been associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in epidemiological studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether consuming peanuts affects the gut microbiota in adults with risk of metabolic syndrome and whether the intervention effect of peanuts is associated with gut microbiota composition. Read More

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Effects of 12-Week Multivitamin and Omega-3 Supplementation on Micronutrient Levels and Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids in Pre-menopausal Women.

Front Nutr 2021 13;8:610382. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States.

The purpose of this study was to validate the efficacy of a customized vitamin-mineral supplement on blood biomarkers in pre-menopausal females. Women (21-40 years old) who were apparently healthy were recruited from the local community (ClinicalTrials.gov trial registration NCT03828097). Read More

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Exercise and Heat Stress: Inflammation and the Iron Regulatory Response.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2021 Jul 29:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Western Australian Institute of Sport.

This study determined the impact of heat stress on postexercise inflammation and hepcidin levels. Twelve moderately trained males completed three, 60-min treadmill running sessions under different conditions: (a) COOL, 18 °C with speed maintained at 80% maximum heart rate; (b) HOTHR, 35 °C with speed maintained at 80% maximum heart rate; and (c) HOTPACE, 35 °C completed at the average running speed from the COOL trial. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 3-hr postexercise and analyzed for serum ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hepcidin concentrations. Read More

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Dietary strategies for remission of type 2 diabetes: A narrative review.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Aston Medical School, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a growing health issue globally, which until recently has been considered to be one that is both chronic and progressive. Treatments, although having lifestyle and dietary change as core components, have been focused on optimising glycaemic control using pharmaceutical agents. With data from bariatric surgery and, more recently, total diet replacement (TDR) studies which have set out to achieve remission; remission of T2DM has emerged as treatment goal. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness of a mobile phone text messaging program (KIDNEYTEXT) targeting dietary behaviours in people receiving haemodialysis.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Westmead Clinical School, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: There is little information available to inform the cost-effectiveness of eHealth interventions in improving patient health outcomes. A trial-based economic evaluation was undertaken in order to inform feasibility of conducting a mobile phone text messaging program targeting dietary behaviours in people receiving haemodialysis.

Methods: A trial-based economic evaluation from a health system perspective of a 6 month pilot randomised controlled trial was undertaken. Read More

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The impact of maternal post-partum depressive symptoms on child diet at 18 months.

Matern Child Nutr 2021 Jul 28:e13187. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia.

Post-partum depression (PPD) is a serious mental health problem, which can impair maternal behaviours and adversely affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioural development of children. This study aims to explore the impact of maternal depressive symptoms at 3 months post-partum (baseline) on child diet at 18 months of age (follow-up). This study used longitudinal data from 263 first-time mothers from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Extend. Read More

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Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) Are Associated With Diet, BMI, and Age.

Front Nutr 2021 12;8:691401. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Else Kröner-Fresenius-Center of Nutritional Medicine, TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.

Fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) are a group of fatty acids with potential anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects. The blood levels of FAHFAs and their regulation in humans have hardly been studied. We aimed to investigate serum FAHFA levels in well-characterized human cohorts, to evaluate associations with age, sex, BMI, weight loss, diabetic status, and diet. Read More

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Best practices and opportunities for integrating nutrition specific into nutrition sensitive interventions in fragile contexts: a systematic review.

BMC Nutr 2021 Jul 29;7(1):46. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN), Office of Prime Minister, Mogadishu, Somalia.

Background: Annually, undernutrition contributes globally to 45% (3.1 million) of preventable deaths in children under 5. Effect following undernutrition i. Read More

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Dietary Patterns and Years Living in the United States by Hispanic/Latino Heritage in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

J Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Previous diet findings in Hispanics/Latinos rarely reflect differences in commonly consumed and culturally relevant foods across heritage groups and by years lived in the United States.

Objectives: We aimed to identify and compare a posteriori heritage-specific dietary patterns (DPs) and evaluate their associations with "healthfulness" [using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010)] and years living in the United States.

Methods: We used baseline data from a population-based cohort of 14,099 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 y in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Read More

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Time to achieve delivery of nutrition targets is associated with clinical outcomes in critically ill children.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Optimal nutrition in critically ill children involves a complex interplay between the doses, route, and timing of macronutrient delivery.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between the time to achieve delivery of 60% of the prescribed energy and protein targets and clinical outcomes in mechanically ventilated children.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of mechanically ventilated children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) worldwide. Read More

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Temporal and mediation relations of weight loss, and changes in insulin resistance and blood pressure in response to 2-year weight-loss diet interventions: the POUNDS Lost trial.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Purpose: Body weight and insulin resistance (IR) are closely correlated, and their temporal sequences in affecting blood pressure (BP) remain poorly defined. We examined the temporal sequences of weight loss and IR change, and their relations with BP in the Pounds Lost trial, a randomized weight-loss diet intervention study.

Methods: The present study included overweight/obese adults, who were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to low-calorie diets containing 20 or 40% fat and 15 or 25% protein (diets with 65, 55, 45 and 35% carbohydrate). Read More

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Effect of a Nutritionally Balanced Diet Comprising Whole Grains and Vegetables Alone or in Combination with Probiotic Supplementation on the Gut Microbiota.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2021 Jun;26(2):121-131

Department of Food and Nutrition, and Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Dysbiosis is a microbial imbalance, which often causes diseases and can be triggered by diet. Here, we deter-mined the effect of a nutritionally balanced diet rich in vegetables and whole grains alone and/or in combination with probiotics on the gut microbiota of healthy adults. We conducted a parallel-group randomized trial enrolling 63 healthy participants who were administered either a balanced diet (B-diet group), a probiotic capsule containing PMO 08 (probiotics group), or a balanced diet plus probiotic capsule (synbiotics group) once daily for 2 weeks. Read More

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Machine Learning Identifies Stool pH as Predictor of Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Multi-Ethnic U.S. Adults.

J Nutr 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

USDA ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Background: A variety of modifiable and non-modifiable factors such as ethnicity, age, and diet have been shown to influence bone health. Previous studies are usually limited to analyses focused on the association of a few a priori variables or on a specific subset of the population.

Objective: Dietary, physiological, and lifestyle data were used to identify directly modifiable and non-modifiable variables predictive of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy U. Read More

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Low-energy sweeteners and body weight: a citation network analysis.

BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2021 1;4(1):319-332. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Objective: Reviews on the relationship of low-energy sweeteners (LES) with body weight (BW) have reached widely differing conclusions. To assess possible citation bias, citation analysis was used to quantify the relevant characteristics of cited articles, and explore citation patterns in relation to review conclusions.

Design: A systematic search identified reviews published from January 2010 to March 2020. Read More

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Pasta meal intake in relation to risks of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women : findings from the Women's Health Initiative.

BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2021 30;4(1):195-205. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the association between pasta meal intake and long-term risk of developing diabetes or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke) in postmenopausal women.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in the USA. Read More

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The Intestinal Microbiome Predicts Weight Loss on a Calorie-Restricted Diet and Is Associated With Improved Hepatic Steatosis.

Front Nutr 2021 8;8:718661. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

The Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

The microbiome has been shown in pre-clinical and epidemiological studies to be important in both the development and treatment of obesity and metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). However, few studies have examined the role of the microbiome in the clinical response to calorie restriction. To explore this area, we performed a prospective study examining the association of the intestinal microbiome with weight loss and change in hepatic steatosis on a calorie-restricted diet. Read More

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Implementation Science Strategies Promote Fidelity in The Food, Feeding, and Your Family Study.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Objective: Use of implementation science strategies to promote fidelity in the Food, Feeding, and Your Family study.

Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial with 3 conditions: control, in-class, or online, delivered in English or Spanish. Observations of 20% of classes. Read More

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Response to Prenatal and Postpartum Cholecalciferol Supplementation.

J Nutr 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Variability in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) response to prenatal and postpartum vitamin D supplementation is an important consideration for establishing vitamin D deficiency prevention regimens.

Objectives: We aimed to examine inter-individual variation in maternal and infant 25(OH)D following maternal vitamin D supplementation.

Methods: In a randomized trial of maternal vitamin D supplementation (Maternal Vitamin D for Infant Growth Trial), healthy pregnant women (n = 1300) received a prenatal cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) dose of 0, 4200, 16800 or 28000 IU/week from 17-24 weeks' gestation followed by placebo to 6 months postpartum. Read More

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Attenuation of chronic tension headache frequency and severity with daily L-arginine and aged garlic extract dietary supplementation.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, WA,, Australia.

A 74-year-old female subject with suboptimal management of episodic tension headache was treated with a daily dose of 1.5 g L-arginine and 1.2 g aged garlic extract (AGE). Read More

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