3,103 results match your criteria trends correlates

Patient Engagement Initiatives in Clinical Trials: Recent Trends and Implications.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Information and Study on Clinical Research Participation, One Liberty Square, Suite 1100, Boston, MA, 02109, USA.

Background: As clinical trial protocol designs become more complex and eligible patient populations narrow, it is becoming increasingly difficult to recruit participants and retain them for the duration of the trial. This study surveyed clinical trial participants to learn about the prevalence and impact of new technologies and other supportive solutions designed to improve patient engagement and retention. Patient perceptions of these convenience-enhancing solutions and how they have changed since our last study in 2017 were examined. Read More

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Chronic High Risk Prescription Opioid Use Among Persons With HIV.

Front Sociol 2021 18;6:645992. Epub 2021 May 18.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Infectious Diseases, NY, NY, United States.

Persons with HIV (PWH) are a population at risk for adverse sequelae of opioid use. Yet, few studies have examined correlates of chronic high risk opioid use and its impact on HIV outcomes. Trends in prescribing patterns and identification of factors that impact the use of opioid prescriptions among PWH are crucial to determine prevention and treatment interventions. Read More

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Screening for colorectal cancer in the United States: correlates and time trends by type of test.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Background: It is strongly recommended that adults aged 50-75 years be screened for colorectal cancer (CRC). Recommended screening options include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, computed tomography colonography, guaiac fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), or the more recently introduced FIT-DNA (FIT in combination with a stool DNA test). CRC screening programs can benefit from knowledge of patterns of use by test type and within population subgroups. Read More

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Social Media and the Surge: Emergency physician Twitter use in the Covid-19 pandemic as a potential predictor of impending surge.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Disaster Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Rosenberg Bldg. 2nd FloorOne Deaconess Road, Boston, US.

Background: The early conversations on social media by emergency physicians offers a window into the ongoing response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Objective: This retrospective observational study of emergency physician Twitter use details how the healthcare crisis has influenced emergency physician discourse online, and may have use as a harbinger of ensuing surge.

Methods: Followers of the three main emergency physician professional organizations were identified using Twitter's application programming interface. Read More

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Is Anxiety Associated with the Gut Microbiota?

Jane A Foster

Mod Trends Psychiatry 2021 6;32:68-73. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Understanding how the microbiome influences health and disease has emerged as an important area of research across all domains of biomedical and health sciences. An extensive body of work in animal models has established a link between the gut microbiome and anxiety-like behaviour. Foundational work on germ-free mice provided the catalyst for neuroscientists to consider the microbiota-brain axis and brain health. Read More

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Compulsive exercise among college students: 5-year time trends in prevalence and demographic, substance use, and mental health correlates.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: To provide 5-year time trends in prevalence and demographic, substance use, and mental health correlates of compulsive exercise among a national sample of college men and women.

Methods: We analyzed 4 academic survey years (2016-2020; N = 8251) of the national (USA) Healthy Minds Study. Compulsive exercise was measured by self-report of any occurrence of "compulsive" exercise in the past 4 weeks. Read More

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The Impact of Political Advocacy on the Plastic Surgeon: A Data-Driven Analysis.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jun;147(6):1039-1049

From the Institute for Reconstructive Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital; the Division of Plastic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine; and the Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital.

Background: Despite successful legislative efforts by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), the Plastic Surgery Political Action Committee remains underused. Participation in advocacy and financial contributions of ASPS members fall below those of similar surgical subspecialties. This study aims to perform a data-driven investigation into the impact of Plastic Surgery Political Action Committee efforts on the practicing plastic surgeon. Read More

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Demographic and clinical correlates of acute and convalescent SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients of a U.S. emergency department.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 30;48:261-268. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States of America; Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background: Emergency Departments (EDs) have served as critical surveillance sites for infectious diseases. We sought to determine the prevalence and temporal trends of acute (by PCR) and convalescent (by antibody [Ab]) SARS-CoV-2 infection during the earliest phase of the pandemic among patients in an urban ED in Baltimore City.

Methods: We tested remnant blood samples from 3255 unique ED patients, collected between March 16th and May 31st 2020 for SARS-CoV-2 Ab. Read More

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Well-being and mental stress in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden: cohort comparisons from 1980 to 2016 of 36-year trends and socioeconomic disparities in 38-and 50-year old women.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 17;21(1):934. Epub 2021 May 17.

Primary Health Care, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 453, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Women's lives have dramatically changed in recent decades as evidenced by trends in educational attainment, employment outside the home, income, and other socioeconomic factors. Self-reported health in 18-70 year old women has been reported to be significantly lower than in men. In Sweden, the 2005 National Public Health Report showed that stressful work environments have become more common, especially for women. Read More

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Trend and Sociodemographic Correlates of Cesarean Section Utilization in Nepal: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys 2006-2016.

Biomed Res Int 2021 3;2021:8888267. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Background: Addressing inequalities in accessing emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality ratio. This study was undertaken to examine the time trends and sociodemographic correlates of cesarean section (CS) utilization in Nepal between 2006 and 2016 Data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2006, 2011, and 2016 were sourced for this study. Women who had a live birth in the last five years of the survey were the unit of analysis for this study. Read More

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A spatial model of YAP/TAZ signaling reveals how stiffness, dimensionality, and shape contribute to emergent outcomes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May 14;118(20). Epub 2021 May 14.

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Jacobs School of Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093

YAP/TAZ is a master regulator of mechanotransduction whose functions rely on translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to diverse physical cues. Substrate stiffness, substrate dimensionality, and cell shape are all input signals for YAP/TAZ, and through this pathway, regulate critical cellular functions and tissue homeostasis. Yet, the relative contributions of each biophysical signal and the mechanisms by which they synergistically regulate YAP/TAZ in realistic tissue microenvironments that provide multiplexed input signals remain unclear. Read More

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Kidney Allograft Fibrosis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies.

Transplantation 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

1 Division of Nephrology and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany 2 Institute of Experimental Medicine and Systems Biology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany 3 Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Interstitial fibrosis with tubule atrophy (IF/TA) is the response to virtually any sustained kidney injury and correlates inversely with kidney function and allograft survival. IF/TA is driven by various pathways that include hypoxia, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, cellular rejection, inflammation and others. In this review we will focus on key pathways in the progress of renal fibrosis, diagnosis and therapy of allograft fibrosis. Read More

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February 2021

Body surface area-based omega-3 fatty acids supplementation strongly correlates to blood concentrations in children.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 Jun 24;169:102285. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Pediatric Oncology, Astrid Lindgrens Childrens Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested as a complement in cancer treatment, but doses are not established. We performed a dose-finding study in 33 children in remission from cancer. Participants were allocated to a body surface area (BSA) adjusted dose (mg/m) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (40:60), ranging 233-3448 mg/m daily for 90 days. Read More

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Trends in Mail-Order Pharmacy Use in the U.S. From 1996 to 2018: An Analysis of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

Am J Prev Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Department of Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California; Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Introduction: The use of mail-order pharmacies is generally associated with lower healthcare costs and improved medication adherence. To promote the use of mail-order pharmacies, it is important to understand the time trends in their use and whether these trends vary by population subgroups.

Methods: This study used the 1996-2018 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to determine the annual prevalence of mail-order pharmacy use (defined as purchasing ≥1 prescription from a mail-order or online pharmacy) among U. Read More

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Gender Differences and Mortality Trends After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A 10-Year Analysis From a Single Tertiary Center.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Jun 6;33(6):E431-E442. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Interventional Cardiology of MedStar, Cardiovascular Research Network at MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, Suite 4B-1, Washington, D.C., 20010.

Aim: To evaluate gender differences and mortality trends in a population undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and to analyze the correlates to all-cause mortality at follow-up.

Methods: The study comprises a prospective cohort of 592 TAVI patients (53.4% female) treated between 2008 and 2018. Read More

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Respiratory, cardiac, EEG, BOLD signals and functional connectivity over multiple microsleep episodes.

Neuroimage 2021 May 2;237:118129. Epub 2021 May 2.

Centre for Sleep and Cognition, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Centre for Translational MR Imaging, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National Unviersity of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Falling asleep is common in fMRI studies. By using long eyelid closures to detect microsleep onset, we showed that the onset and termination of short sleep episodes invokes a systematic sequence of BOLD signal changes that are large, widespread, and consistent across different microsleep durations. The signal changes are intimately intertwined with shifts in respiration and heart rate, indicating that autonomic contributions are integral to the brain physiology evaluated using fMRI and cannot be simply treated as nuisance signals. Read More

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Correlates of Self-Reported HIV Testing Among Patients in Specialized Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in South Africa.

AIDS Behav 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Substance use is a recognized risk factor for HIV acquisition, transmission and progression in South Africa. Persons who use drugs (PWUD) and access specialist substance abuse treatment centers (SSATCs) are a potentially critical target group for HIV services because of the severity of their substance use and associated health risks. SSATCs represent an opportunity for integrated programming, particularly HIV testing services (HTS), to reach PWUD who are at an increased risk of or living with HIV. Read More

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Mental Health Outcome Measures in Environmental Design Research: A Critical Review.

HERD 2021 May 4:1937586721999787. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Design Studies, 5228University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Aim: During the last several decades, researchers have produced abundant evidence of the environmental impacts on stress, attention, and physical activity. More recently, scholars have turned their focus to the influence environments have on mental wellness. Therefore, a critical review of this more recent research is both timely and crucial for setting the future research agenda. Read More

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Trends and correlates of cocaine use among adults in the United States, 2006-2019.

Addict Behav 2021 Sep 20;120:106950. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cocaine is the most commonly reported illicit stimulant used in the U.S., yet limited research has examined recent changes in cocaine use patterns and co-occurring substance use and mental health characteristics among adults using cocaine. Read More

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September 2021

Cancer in Africa: The Untold Story.

Front Oncol 2021 15;11:650117. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of BioInformatics bioMathematics, and bioStatistics (BIMS), Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.

Background: Despite rising incidence and mortality rates in Africa, cancer has been given low priority in the research field and in healthcare services. Indeed, 57% of all new cancer cases around the world occur in low income countries exacerbated by lack of awareness, lack of preventive strategies, and increased life expectancies. Despite recent efforts devoted to cancer epidemiology, statistics on cancer rates in Africa are often dispersed across different registries. Read More

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Macrophage-Derived Adenosine Deaminase 2 Correlates with M2 Macrophage Phenotype in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 5;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk, Poland.

Several lines of evidence suggest that altered adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity, especially its ADA2 iso-enzyme, is associated with malignant breast cancer (BC) development. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the most challenging BC subtype due to its metastatic potential and recurrence. Herein, we analyzed the sources of ADA iso-enzymes in TNBC by investigating the effects of cell-to-cell interactions between TNBC cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. Read More

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Change in Physical Performance Correlates with Decline in Quality of Life and Frailty Status in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation with and without Chemotherapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA.

Patient-reported quality of life (QoL) metrics, frailty status, and physical functioning are emerging concepts in head and neck cancer (HNC) with implications on both treatment decision-making and prognosis. The impact of treatment-related functional decline on QoL and frailty has not been well-characterized in HNC and was the focus of this investigation.

Methods: Patients who underwent radiation therapy for HNC from 2018 to 2020 were evaluated as a prospective observational cohort. Read More

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Neural Correlates of Successful Memory Encoding in Kindergarten and Early Elementary School Children: Longitudinal Trends and Effects of Schooling.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Institute of Psychology, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, D-60323 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

From age 5 to 7, there are remarkable improvements in children's cognitive abilities ("5-7 shift"). In many countries, including Germany, formal schooling begins in this age range. It is, thus, unclear to what extent exposure to formal schooling contributes to the "5-7 shift. Read More

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Hepatitis C Virus Testing Among Men With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Who Have Sex With Men: Temporal Trends and Racial/Ethnic Disparities.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Apr 17;8(4):ofaa645. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: National guidelines recommend that sexually active people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) who are men who have sex with men (MSM) be tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at least annually. Hepatitis C virus testing rates vary by race/ethnicity in the general population, but limited data are available for PWH.

Methods: We analyzed medical records data from MSM in the HIV Outpatient Study at 9 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2019. Read More

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LSD use in the United States: Trends, correlates, and a typology of us.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Jun 20;223:108715. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Social Work, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, 02467, United States.

Background: Recent years have witnessed an increased interest in LSD. This study investigates current information on the trends and correlates of LSD use from years 2002-2018 and seeks to develop an initial typology of use and misuse.

Methods: Data is taken from the NSDUH (National Survey on Drug Use and Health) collected between 2002 and 2018 and trends and correlates of LSD use were analyzed with a survey adjusted logistic regression. Read More

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Weakened Cochlear Nonlinearity During Human Aging and Perceptual Correlates.

Ear Hear 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Caruso Department of Otolaryngology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Objective: As humans age, compressive nonlinearity-a hallmark of healthy cochlear function-changes. The nonlinear distortion-component of the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) provides a noninvasive gauge of cochlear nonlinearity. Earlier published work has suggested that weakened nonlinearity begins in middle age; the current work extends this investigation into the eight decade of life using advanced DPOAE data collection and analysis methods as well as multiple metrics of nonlinearity, including a test of loudness scaling. Read More

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February 2021

Trends in Anticoagulant Use at Nursing Home Admission and Variation by Frailty and Chronic Kidney Disease Among Older Adults with Atrial Fibrillation.

Drugs Aging 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

ICES, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is relatively common among nursing home residents, and decisions regarding anticoagulant therapy in this setting may be complicated by resident frailty and other factors.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine trends and correlates of oral anticoagulant use among newly admitted nursing home residents with AF following the approval of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults aged > 65 years with AF who were newly admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, between 2011 and 2018 (N = 36,466). Read More

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Valproate but not levetiracetam slows the EEG alpha peak frequency - A pharmaco-EEG study.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jun 31;132(6):1203-1208. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology and Epilepsy Center Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; LOEWE Center for Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (CePTER), Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Objective: Studies of the effect of valproate (VPA) on the background EEG have shown varying results. Therefore, we compared the effect of VPA and levetiracetam (LEV) on the EEG alpha peak frequency (APF).

Methods: We retrospectively examined the APF in resting-state EEG of patients undergoing inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) during withdrawal of VPA or LEV. Read More

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Trends over time in adult cannabis use: A review of recent findings.

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 04 20;38:80-85. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA.

In the United States, policies regarding the medical and nonmedical use of cannabis are changing rapidly. In 2021, a total of 34 US states have legalized cannabis for adult medical use, and 15 of these states have legalized adult non-medical use. These changing policies have raised questions about increasing prevalences of cannabis use, changing perceptions regarding frequent use, and potentially related outcomes such as comorbid psychiatric illness or driving under the influence of cannabis. Read More

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Collecting Objective Measures of Visual and Auditory Function in a National in-Home Survey of Older Adults.

J Surv Stat Methodol 2021 Apr 14;9(2):309-334. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Professor with the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Maintenance of visual and auditory function is important for preventing the onset of activity limitations and preserving quality of life in later life. To date, national panel studies focused on health and aging have mostly collected subjective (self-reported) measures of visual and auditory function. The National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), a study of Medicare beneficiaries ages sixty-five and older, recently developed a protocol for measuring objective visual and auditory function for its annual, in-home data collection conducted by trained interviewers. Read More

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