5,663 results match your criteria trend variability

Speed-related but not detrended gait variability increases with more sensitive self-paced treadmill controllers at multiple slopes.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251229. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, United States of America.

Self-paced treadmills are being used more frequently to study humans walking with their self-selected gaits on a range of slopes. There are multiple options to purchase a treadmill with a built-in controller, or implement a custom written self-paced controller, which raises questions about how self-paced controller affect treadmill speed and gait biomechanics on multiple slopes. This study investigated how different self-paced treadmill controller sensitivities affected gait parameters and variability on decline, level, and incline slopes. Read More

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Bile acid indices as biomarkers for liver diseases I: Diagnostic markers.

World J Hepatol 2021 Apr;13(4):433-455

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, United States.

Background: Hepatobiliary diseases result in the accumulation of toxic bile acids (BA) in the liver, blood, and other tissues which may contribute to an unfavorable prognosis.

Aim: To discover and validate diagnostic biomarkers of cholestatic liver diseases based on the urinary BA profile.

Methods: We analyzed urine samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared the urinary BA profile between 300 patients with hepatobiliary diseases 103 healthy controls by statistical analysis. Read More

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A Narrative Review of the Recent 'Ice' Epidemic: An Australian Perspective.

Konrad Pisarski

Subst Abuse 2021 21;15:11782218211010502. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Tropical Health & Medicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Background: The use of methamphetamine or amphetamine stimulant drugs has been identified by authoritative public health bodies as a global health issue, with a worrying trend towards production and consumption of a higher purity crystalline form methamphetamine (ice) over the past decade. This trend has been well documented within Australia, resulting in a public perception of there being an 'ice' epidemic in regional/rural areas. Considering the illicit nature of ice, monitoring it is challenging and as such little information is available regarding the actual extent of methamphetamine use, harms and patterns in regional/remote Australia. Read More

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An EEG investigation of alpha and beta activity during resting states in adults with Williams syndrome.

BMC Psychol 2021 May 5;9(1):72. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Williams syndrome (WS) is neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by executive deficits of attention and inhibitory processing. The current study examined the neural mechanisms during resting states in adults with WS in order to investigate how this subserves the attention and inhibitory deficits associated with the syndrome.

Method: Adopting electroencephalography (EEG) methodology, cortical electrical activity was recorded from eleven adults with WS aged 35 + years during Eyes Closed (EC) and Eyes Open (EO) resting states, and compared to that of thirteen typically developing adults matched for chronological age (CA) and ten typically developing children matched for verbal mental ability (MA). Read More

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Analysis of intra-thallus and temporal variability of trace elements and nitrogen in Fucus vesiculosus: Sampling protocol optimization for biomonitoring.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 30;412:125268. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

CRETUS Institute, Department of Functional Biology, Ecology Unit, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

To advance the methodological standardization of the biomonitoring technique using macroalgae, we comprehensively characterized the intra-thallus and temporal patterns of variation in concentrations of a wide set of elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, N) and δN signal in 6 consecutive Fucus vesiculosus apical dichotomous sections collected monthly over a four-year period (2015-2019) at 3 sites on the NW coast of Spain. The concentrations of Al, Co, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn increased significantly from the youngest to the oldest dichotomies regardless of the sampling time and collection site; As, Cd, N and δN showed the opposite trend. Time series analysis revealed a significant and consistent seasonal variation of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Zn, N and δN concentrations, with maximum values in winter and minimum values in summer. Read More

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Determinants of usage and non-adherence to noninvasive ventilation in children and adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA.

Study Objectives: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disorder that leads to chronic respiratory insufficiency and failure. Use of home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been linked to improved outcomes including reduced mortality. Despite the importance of NIV, factors promoting optimal NIV usage and determinants of non-adherence have not been rigorously examined. Read More

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A database of global storm surge reconstructions.

Sci Data 2021 05 4;8(1):125. Epub 2021 May 4.

Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering & National Center for Integrated Coastal Research, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA.

Storm surges are among the deadliest coastal hazards and understanding how they have been affected by climate change and variability in the past is crucial to prepare for the future. However, tide gauge records are often too short to assess trends and perform robust statistical analyses. Here we use a data-driven modeling framework to simulate daily maximum surge values at 882 tide gauge locations across the globe. Read More

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Associations of continuous glucose monitoring-assessed glucose variability with intima-media thickness and ultrasonic tissue characteristics of the carotid arteries: a cross-sectional analysis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 May 4;20(1):95. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Metabolism & Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan.

Background: The association between glucose variability and the progression of atherosclerosis is not completely understood. We aimed to evaluate the associations of glucose variability with the progression of atherosclerosis in the early stages.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to investigate the associations of glucose variability, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, with intima-media thickness (IMT) and gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid arteries, which are different indicators for the progression of atherosclerosis. Read More

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Age induced interactions between heart rate variability and systolic blood pressure variability using approximate entropy and recurrence quantification analysis: a multiscale cross correlation analysis.

Phys Eng Sci Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali, India.

The purpose of this study is to study the effect of age on the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). To meet this end, multi-scale cross correlation (CC) analysis of HRV and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) was performed. The Approximate Entropy (ApEn) and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) derived indices, calculated from RR interval series (RRi) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) series at multiple temporal scales, are the basis of this CC analysis. Read More

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Persistence and spatial-temporal variability of drought severity in Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, M1C 1A4, Canada.

Drought is a natural hazard that can inflict significant damage to agriculture, society, economy, and ecosystems. The assessment of the persistence of drought severity (PDS) assists in understanding the characteristics of droughts better and enables the development of associated prediction tools and models. This work explores the persistence and spatial-temporal variability of drought severity (DS) in the diverse dryland of Iran. Read More

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Estimating dynamic population served by wastewater treatment plants using location-based services data.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, No. 1 Linghai Road, Dalian, 116026, China.

Wastewater-based epidemiology is a useful approach to estimate population-level exposure to a wide range of substances (e.g., drugs, chemicals, biological agents) by wastewater analysis. Read More

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Towards sensor-based calving detection in the rangelands: a systematic review of credible behavioral and physiological indicators.

Transl Anim Sci 2020 Jul 24;4(3):txaa155. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Institute for Future Farming Systems, School of Health, Medical, and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton North, QLD, Australia.

Calving is a critical point in both a cow and calf's life, when both become more susceptible to disease and risk of death. Ideally, this period is carefully monitored. In extensive grazing systems, however, it is often not economically or physically possible for producers to continuously monitor animals, and thus, calving frequently goes undetected. Read More

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Pathogenic Variants in Greek Breast Cancer Patients: Evidence for Strong Associations with Estrogen Receptor Positivity, Overuse of Risk-Reducing Procedures and Population Founder Effects.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, INRaSTES, National Center for Scientific Research "Demokritos", 15341 Athens, Greece.

germline pathogenic variants predispose to breast cancer and possibly to other malignancies, with their spectrum and frequency being variable among populations. Τhe majority of -associated breast tumors are hormone receptor positive; however, relevant clinical outcomes are not well defined. Herein, we illustrate the histopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of 52 Greek breast cancer patients who are carriers. Read More

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Dietary Intakes of Recipients of Faecal Microbiota Transplantation: An Observational Pilot Study.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Centre for Digestive Diseases, 1/229 Great North Rd, Five Dock, NSW 2046, Australia.

This study reports on the dietary intake of recipients of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), comparing this with dietary guidelines, and investigates the relationship between dietary intake and clinical outcomes. Males and females aged ≥ 16 years with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease undergoing FMT were invited to complete validated symptom and quality of life (QOL) questionnaires and three-day weighed food diaries. Descriptive statistics were calculated for symptom scores, QOL scores, nutrients, and food group servings, and compared to Australian population norms, nutrient reference values, and dietary guidelines. Read More

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A Preliminary Investigation of Social Network Analysis Applied to Dairy Cow Behavior in Automatic Milking System Environments.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

We have applied social network analysis (SNA) to data on voluntary cow movement through a sort gate in an automatic milking system to identify pairs of cows that repeatedly passed through a sort gate in close succession (affinity pairs). The SNA was applied to social groups defined by four pens on a dairy farm, each served by an automatic milking system (AMS). Each pen was equipped with an automatic sorting gate that identified when cows voluntarily moved from the resting area to either milking or feeding areas. Read More

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Modeling Between-Subject Variability in Subcutaneous Absorption of a Fast-Acting Insulin Analogue by a Nonlinear Mixed Effects Approach.

Metabolites 2021 Apr 12;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, I35131 Padova, Italy.

Despite the great progress made in insulin preparation and titration, many patients with diabetes are still experiencing dangerous fluctuations in their blood glucose levels. This is mainly due to the large between- and within-subject variability, which considerably hampers insulin therapy, leading to defective dosing and timing of the administration process. In this work, we present a nonlinear mixed effects model describing the between-subject variability observed in the subcutaneous absorption of fast-acting insulin. Read More

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Cold Brew Coffee-Pilot Studies on Definition, Extraction, Consumer Preference, Chemical Characterization and Microbiological Hazards.

Foods 2021 Apr 15;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany.

Cold brew coffee is a new trend in the coffee industry. This paper presents pilot studies on several aspects of this beverage. Using an online survey, the current practices of cold brew coffee preparation were investigated, identifying a rather large variability with a preference for extraction of medium roasted Arabica coffee using 50-100 g/L at 8 °C for about 1 day. Read More

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Spatio-Thermal Variability and Behaviour as Bio-Thermal Indicators of Heat Stress in Dairy Cows in a Compost Barn: A Case Study.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Biometeorology Study Group and Federal University of Technology-Paraná (UTFPR), Dois Vizinhos 85660-000, Brazil.

The spatial variability and behavioural aspects of compost-bedded pack barns remain unknown in subtropical regions. In this study, we investigated whether spatial variability occurs in the thermal environment of a compost barn and how the behaviour of dairy cows with different numbers of lactations differs in this system. The spatial sampling design comprised a grid of 108 locations inside the facility. Read More

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A Decade's Change in Vegetation Productivity and Its Response to Climate Change over Northeast China.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Kay Laboratory of Digital Earth Science, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China.

In this study, we simulated vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) using the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) between 2003 and 2012 over Northeast China, a region that is significantly affected by climate change. The NPP was then validated against the measurements that were calculated from tree ring data, with a determination coefficient () = 0.84 and the root mean square error () = 42. Read More

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Ductal Carcinoma in Situ in Young Women: Increasing Rates of Mastectomy and Variability in Endocrine Therapy Use.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone Health, Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Young women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represent a unique cohort given considerations for future risk reduction and treatment effects on fertility and quality of life. We evaluated national patterns of care in the treatment of young women and the impact of those treatments on overall survival (OS).

Methods: Women younger than 50 years of age diagnosed with pure DCIS from 2004 to 2016 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were identified. Read More

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Insights into seasonal shift in the homogeneity of periphytic protozoan fauna in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 23;168:112367. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Microbial Ecology, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China. Electronic address:

The seasonal shift in the homogeneity of the periphytic protozoan fauna was studied based on a four-season baseline survey in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Samples were collected using glass microscope slides as an artificial substratum at a depth of 2 m after the immersion time of 14 days during each of the four seasons (winter, spring, summer, and autumn, 2017). The protozoan fauna showed a clear seasonal shift in species composition and a significant variation in homogeneity in terms of both compositional and community structure during four seasons. Read More

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Temporal instability of lake charr phenotypes: Synchronicity of growth rates and morphology linked to environmental variables?

Evol Appl 2021 Apr 5;14(4):1159-1177. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability Michigan State University East Lansing MI USA.

Pathways through which phenotypic variation among individuals arise can be complex. One assumption often made in relation to intraspecific diversity is that the stability or predictability of the environment will interact with expression of the underlying phenotypic variation. To address biological complexity below the species level, we investigated variability across years in morphology and annual growth increments between and within two sympatric lake charr ecotypes in Rush Lake, USA. Read More

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Volatile aldehyde emissions from "sub-ohm" vaping devices.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 21:111188. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Indoor Environment Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS70-108B, Berkeley, California 94720, United States. Electronic address:

"Sub-ohm" atomizers with reduced resistance can deliver more power than conventional electronic cigarettes. Typical battery outputs are 100 watts or more. These devices are particularly popular among young users, and can be a significant source of volatile carbonyls in the indoor environment. Read More

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Verification of field match lines in whole breast radiation therapy using cherenkov imaging.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Norris Cotton Cancer Center at Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, 1 Medical Center Dr., Lebanon, NH, 03756, United States; Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, 1 Rope Ferry Rd., Hanover, NH, 03755, United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: In mono-isocentric radiation therapy treatment plans designed to treat the whole breastand supraclavicular lymph nodes, the fields meet at isocenter, forming the match line. Insufficient coverage at the match line can lead to recurrence and overlap over weeks of treatment can lead to increased risk of healthy tissue toxicity. Cherenkov imaging was used to assess the accuracy of delivery at the match line and identify potential incidents during patient treatments. Read More

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Declines and recovery in endangered Galapagos pinnipeds during the El Niño event.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8785. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Galapagos Science Center. Isla San Cristóbal, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Islas Galápagos, Ecuador.

Currently, the Galapagos sea lion (GSL, Zalophus wollebaeki) and Galapagos fur seal (GFS, Arctocephalus galapagoensis) are among the most important endemic species for conservation in the Galapagos Archipelago. Both are classified as "Endangered" since their populations have undergone drastic declines over the last several decades. In this study we estimated the abundance of both otariids, and their population trends based using counts conducted between 2014 and 2018 in all their rookeries, and we analyzed the influence of environmental variability on pup production. Read More

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Rising Incidence of Childhood Intussusception in Ontario: A Population-Based Study From 1997-2016.

Am Surg 2021 Apr 20:31348211011139. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of General Surgery, 9978Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

Background: Intussusception is the most common cause of bowel obstruction in children aged 3 months to 6 years of age. We sought to describe patterns of incident childhood intussusception.

Methods: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study utilizing population-based health administrative data and a validated case definition was used to identify patients <18 years of age treated for intussusception between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2016 in Ontario, Canada. Read More

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Current trend of antibiotic prescription and management for peritonsillar abscess: A cross-sectional study.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 11;6(2):183-187. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery University of Toronto Toronto Canada.

Objective: There are no consensus guidelines for managing peritonsillar abscess (PTA) despite its prevalence. In order to devise best practice guidelines, current practice patterns must first be established.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, surveying Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery trainees (residents and fellows) and consultant (academic and community). Read More

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Perioperative Opioid Exposure Patterns in Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Ten-Year Administrative Database Study.

Cureus 2021 Mar 16;13(3):e13927. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Division of Orthopaedics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, USA.

Introduction: Variation in opioid exposure has been documented in many pediatric fields; however, little is currently known about the extent of these findings during the perioperative period. The purpose of this study was to examine perioperative opioid exposure on a national level among patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using an administrative database. Our aims were to assess the impact of hospitals and a variety of demographic factors on (1) the likelihood of perioperative opioid exposure and (2) the variability in relative opioid exposure. Read More

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Risk factors for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 patients: Possible basis for diverse responses to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 15;277:119503. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran; Cancer Gene Therapy Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by an unpredictable disease course, with variable presentations of different organ systems. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are highly variable ranging from mild presentations to severe, life-threatening symptoms and the wide individual variability may be due to the broad heterogeneity in the underlying pathologies. There is no doubt that early management may have a major influence on the outcome. Read More

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Responses of phytoplankton community structure and association to variability in environmental drivers in a tropical coastal lagoon.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 1;783:146873. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Wetland Research and Training Centre, Chilika Development Authority, Balugaon 752030, Odisha, India. Electronic address:

Spatial and seasonal heterogeneity in phytoplankton communities are governed by many biotic and abiotic drivers. However, the identification of long-term spatial and temporal trends in abiotic drivers, and their interdependencies with the phytoplankton communities' structure is understudied in tropical brackish coastal lagoons. We examined phytoplankton communities' spatiotemporal dynamics from a 5-year dataset (n = 780) collected from 13 sampling stations in Chilika Lagoon, India, where the salinity gradient defined the spatial patterns in environmental variables. Read More

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