9,231 results match your criteria trehalose

Grapevine TPS (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase) family genes are differentially regulated during development, upon sugar treatment and drought stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 30;164:54-62. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Agriculture, Forest and Food Sciences, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, 10095, Grugliasco, Italy.

Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) performs the first step in the biosynthetic pathway of trehalose-6-phosphate and trehalose. These two molecules play key roles in the control of carbon allocation and of stress responses in plants. We investigated the organization of the TPS gene family and its developmental and environmental expression regulation in grapevine, a major horticultural crop. Read More

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Bacterial α-diglucoside metabolism: perspectives and potential for biotechnology and biomedicine.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland-Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA.

In a competitive microbial environment, nutrient acquisition is a major contributor to the survival of any individual bacterial species, and the ability to access uncommon energy sources can provide a fitness advantage. One set of soluble carbohydrates that have attracted increased attention for use in biotechnology and biomedicine is the α-diglucosides. Maltose is the most well-studied member of this class; however, the remaining four less common α-diglucosides (trehalose, kojibiose, nigerose, and isomaltose) are increasingly used in processed food and fermented beverages. Read More

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Exogenously-supplied trehalose inhibits the growth of wheat seedlings under high temperature by affecting plant hormone levels and cell cycle processes.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 May 7:1907043. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Plant Stress Biology, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Department of Biology, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

High temperature reduces the yield of crops, and exogenous trehalose can improve the stress resistance of plants. However, the mechanism by which trehalose causes phenotypic changes in plants is still unknown. Here we investigated the effects of exogenously supplied trehalose (1. Read More

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Trehalose/sodium hyaluronate eye drops in post-cataract ocular surface disorders.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Ophthalmology Unit, Misericordia Hospital, USL Toscana Sud Est, Grosseto, Italy.

Purpose: Prospective, randomised, open-label, comparative study to evaluate efficacy of trehalose/sodium hyaluronate eye drops for post-operative discomfort and tear film stability in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

Methods: Patients with healthy ocular surface, subclinical, or mild dry eye were enrolled. Tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer test, dry eye symptoms, corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), and ocular surface disease (OSDI) evaluation were performed pre-operatively and at two and four weeks after surgery. Read More

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Photoperiod-responsive changes in chromatin accessibility in phloem companion and epidermis cells of Arabidopsis leaves.

Plant Cell 2021 May;33(3):475-491

Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Gene Resources and Biotechnology for Carbon Reduction and Environmental Improvement, and College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China.

Photoperiod plays a key role in controlling the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in flowering plants. Leaves are the major organs perceiving day-length signals, but how specific leaf cell types respond to photoperiod remains unknown. We integrated photoperiod-responsive chromatin accessibility and transcriptome data in leaf epidermis and vascular companion cells of Arabidopsis thaliana by combining isolation of nuclei tagged in specific cell/tissue types with assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing and RNA-sequencing. Read More

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Characterization of the Uncommon Lipid Families in Corynebacterium glutamicum by Mass Spectrometry.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2306:227-238

Mass Spectrometry Resource, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

This book chapter provides readers the step-by-step instruction for cell growth, lipid isolation, and lipid analysis to obtain the lipidome of Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) in the genus Corynebacterium, a biotechnologically important bacterium. We separate the lipid families by preparative HPLC with an analytical C-8 column, followed by linear ion-trap multiple stage mass spectrometry (LIT MS) with high-resolution mass measurement to define the structures of cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG), glucuronosyl diacylglycerol (GlcA-DAG), α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-D-glucuronyl diacylglycerol (Man-GlcA-DAG), 1-mycolyl-2-acyl-phosphatidylglycerol (MA-PG), and acyl trehalose monomycolate (acyl-TMM) whose structures have been previously mis-assigned or not defined by mass spectrometric means. Read More

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January 2021

Nucleotide-sugar metabolism in plants: the legacy of Luis F. Leloir.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral, UNL, CONICET, FBCB, Colectora Ruta Nacional 168 km 0, 3000 Santa Fe,Argentina.

This review commemorates the 50th anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Luis F. Leloir 'for his discovery of sugar-nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates'. He and his co-workers discovered that activated forms of simple sugars, such as UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose, are essential intermediates in the interconversion of sugars. Read More

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Particulate Metabolites and Transcripts Reflect Diel Oscillations of Microbial Activity in the Surface Ocean.

mSystems 2021 May 4;6(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Light fuels photosynthesis and organic matter production by primary producers in the sunlit ocean. The quantity and quality of the organic matter produced influence community function, yet measurements of metabolites, the products of cellular metabolism, over the diel cycle are lacking. We evaluated community-level biochemical consequences of oscillations of light in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre by quantifying 79 metabolites in particulate organic matter from 15 m every 4 h over 8 days. Read More

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Multiomics Analysis Reveals New Insights into the Apple Fruit Quality Decline under High Nitrogen Conditions.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, China.

Excessive application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is common in Chinese apple production. High N reduced the contents of soluble sugar and total flavonoids by 16.05 and 19. Read More

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Subcutaneous Injection Site Pain of Formulation Matrices.

Pharm Res 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, 46285, USA.

Purpose: The objective of this work was to systematically evaluate the effects of formulation composition on subcutaneous injection site pain (ISP) using matrices comprising of common pharmaceutical excipients.

Methods: Two randomized, blinded, crossover studies in healthy subjects were conducted at a single site, where subjects received 1 mL SC injections of the buffer matrices. ISP intensity was measured using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS), which was then analyzed via heatmap, categorical grouping, subgroup analysis, and paired delta analysis. Read More

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Effect of Detergents and Osmolytes on Thermal Stability of Native and Mutant Rhodobacter sphaeroides Reaction Centers.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Apr;86(4):517-524

Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290, Russia.

Photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is one of the most well-studied transmembrane pigment-protein complexes. It is a relatively stable protein with established conditions for its isolation from membranes, purification, and storage. However, it has been shown that some amino acid substitutions can affect stability of the RC, which results in a decrease of the RCs yield during its isolation and purification, disturbs spectral properties of the RCs during storage, and can lead to sample heterogeneity. Read More

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Current approaches of preservation of cells during (freeze-) drying.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München, Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Munich, Germany.

The widespread application of therapeutic cells requires a successful stabilization of cells for the duration of transport and storage. Cryopreservation is currently considered the gold standard for the storage of active cells; however, (freeze-) drying cells could enable higher shelf life stability at ambient temperatures and facilitate easier transport and storage. During (freeze-) drying, freezing, (primary and secondary) drying and also the reconstitution step pose the risk of potential cell damage. Read More

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Disaccharide-polyethylenimine organic nanoparticles as non-toxic in vitro gene transporters and their anticancer potential.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 16;112:104918. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Nucleic Acids Research Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi 110007, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India. Electronic address:

Polyethylenimines (PEIs) have been shown as efficient gene delivery vectors due to their unique properties, however, toxicity as well as non-specific interactions with the tissues/cells because of high charge density have hampered their use in clinical applications. To counter these concerns, here, we have prepared disachharide-PEI organic nanoparticles by mixing PEIs with non-reducing disaccharides, i.e. Read More

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Inhibition of Caspase-8 Activity Improves Freezing Efficiency of Male Germline Stem Cells in Mice.

Biopreserv Biobank 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Republic of Korea.

Cryopreservation of male germline stem cells (GSCs) is an essential technique for their long-term preservation and utilization in various fields. However, the specific apoptosis pathways involved in cryoinjury during freezing remain unclear. Therefore, our study sought to identify the pathways involved in cryoinjury-induced apoptosis and thereby to improve freezing efficiency during GSC cryopreservation through the creation of a specific molecular-based cryoprotectant. Read More

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Characterization and Functional Analysis of Related to Chitin Metabolism in Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

Insects 2021 Apr 20;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212018, China.

Walker () is a serious pest on mulberry. Due to the increasing pesticide resistance, the development of new and effective environmental methods to control is needed. Trehalase is an essential enzyme in trehalose hydrolysis and energy supply, and it has been considered a promising target for insect pest control. Read More

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Single Ingestion of Trehalose Enhances Prolonged Exercise Performance by Effective Use of Glucose and Lipid in Healthy Men.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 24;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

R&D Division, Hayashibara, Co., Ltd., 675-1, Fujisaki, Naka-ku, Okayama 702-8006, Japan.

Trehalose increases blood glucose levels slowly and induces a slight insulin response. The present study aimed to study the effect of trehalose on prolonged exercise performance. The participants were 12 healthy men (age: 21. Read More

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Enriched-GWAS and Transcriptome Analysis to Refine and Characterize a Major QTL for Anaerobic Germination Tolerance in Rice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 24;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Southern Cross Plant Sciences, Southern Cross University, 1 Military Road, Lismore 2480, Australia.

Tolerance of anaerobic germination (AG) is a key trait in the development of direct seeded rice. Through rapid and sustained coleoptile elongation, AG tolerance enables robust seedling establishment under flooded conditions. Previous attempts to fine map and characterize (), a major centromere-spanning AG tolerance QTL, derived from the indica variety Ma-Zhan Red, have failed. Read More

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Transcriptomic Analysis of Rice Plants Overexpressing in Response to Salinity Stress.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

National Institute of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju 54874, Korea.

In plants, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a main enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. It plays an essential role in glycerolipid metabolism and response to various stresses. To examine the function of PsGAPDH ( GAPDH) in response to abiotic stress, we generated transgenic rice plants with single-copy/intergenic/homozygous overexpression (-OX) and investigated their responses to salinity stress. Read More

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Integrated Analysis of the Transcriptome and Metabolome Revealed Candidate Genes Involved in GA-Induced Dormancy Release in Seeds.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 17;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

is a perennial forage grass that has good palatability, high yield and high feed value, but seed dormancy is a major problem limiting the widespread cultivation of . Here, we performed transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of hulled and de-hulled seeds of treated with or without GA to investigate the changes in gene and metabolites associated with dormancy release induced by GA. The germination test revealed that the optimum concentration of GA for disruption of seed dormancy was 577 μM. Read More

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Estrogen-Related Receptor Influences the Hemolymph Glucose Content by Regulating Midgut Trehalase Gene Expression in the Last Instar Larvae of .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Biological Science Research Center, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China.

The expression of trehalase in the midgut of insects plays an important role in glucose supply to the hemolymph. Energy metabolism is usually regulated by the estrogen-related receptor (ERR). A decrease in ATP levels is caused by the ERR hindering glycolysis. Read More

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Exogenous trehalose protects photosystem II by promoting cyclic electron flow under heat and drought stresses in winter wheat.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Instruments Sharing Platform of School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200241, China.

Drought and the rising global temperature are important factors reducing wheat production. Trehalose protects the reaction center and improves photosystem II (PS II) activity under diverse stress conditions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Read More

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Simultaneous Optimization of Oral and Transdermal Nanovesicles for Bioavailability Enhancement of Ivabradine Hydrochloride.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 21;16:2917-2931. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: Ivabradine hydrochloride is selective pacemaker current (I) ion channel inhibitor used in case of chronic heart failure (CHF) with superior efficacy and lower side effects than most β-blockers. However, the drug suffers from low bioavailability (≈40%) due to extensive first-pass metabolism. Hence, this work aims to formulate nanovesicular platforms to enhance their bioavailability both orally and transdermally. Read More

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Sublethal Concentration of Emamectin Benzoate Inhibits the Growth of Gypsy Moth by Inducing Digestive Dysfunction and Nutrient Metabolism Disorder.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Forest Protection, College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, China.

Background: Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is one of the most important pests in the world. Emamectin benzoate (EMB) is widely used in the control of agricultural and forestry pests. Here, we explored the sublethal effects of EMB on gypsy moths in order to better understand the toxicological mechanism of EMB. Read More

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Optimization of wall material for phage encapsulation via freeze-drying and antimicrobial efficacy of microencapsulated phage against .

J Food Sci Technol 2021 May 19;58(5):1937-1946. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, 90112 Thailand.

Microencapsulated phage as dry powder provides a protection to the phage particles from the harsh conditions while improving efficacy for controlling . In this study, wall materials for phage encapsulation were optimized by altering the ratios of whey protein isolate (WPI) and trehalose prior to freeze-drying. Combination of WPI/trehalose at ratio of 3:1 (w/w) represented the optimal formulation with the highest encapsulation efficiency (91. Read More

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Preparation and evaluation of vancomycin spray-dried powders for pulmonary delivery.

Pharm Dev Technol 2021 May 5:1-14. Epub 2021 May 5.

Aerosol Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of the current study was to achieve a dry powder formulation of vancomycin by spray drying whilst evaluating the effect of pH and excipient type and percentage used in formulation on particle characteristics and aerosolization performance. A D-optimal design was applied to optimize the formulation comprising vancomycin and two main excipient groups; a carbohydrate bulking agent (lactose, mannitol or trehalose) and a second excipient (hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin or L-leucine) at pH 4 and 7. The physicochemical properties of particles (size, morphology, crystallinity state, residual moisture content), stability, and aerosolization characteristics were investigated. Read More

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Seasonal and temporal variations of ambient aerosols in a deciduous broadleaf forest from northern Japan: Contributions of biomass burning and biological particles.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 8;279:130540. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0819, Japan; Chubu Institute for Advanced Studies, Chubu University, Kasugai, 487-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected in a deciduous broadleaf forest in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, from January to December 2010 to understand the molecular composition and abundance of sugar compounds (SCs) in atmospheric aerosols. We analyzed the samples for anhydrosugars, primary sugars, and sugar alcohols using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The annual mean concentrations of total SCs ranged from 16. Read More

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Creation of a novel lipid-trehalose derivative showing positive interaction with the cell membrane and verification of its cytoprotective effect during cryopreservation.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Graduate School, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan. Electronic address:

Cryopreservation is important for enabling long-term cell preservation. However, physical damage due to ice crystal formation and membrane permeation by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) severely affects cryopreserved cell viability. To ensure cell survival and functional maintenance after cryopreservation, it is important to protect the cell membrane, the most vulnerable cell component, from freeze-thaw damage. Read More

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Integrative analysis of selected metabolites and the fungal transcriptome during the developmental cycle of strain G0119 correlates lignocellulose degradation with carbohydrate and triterpenoid metabolism.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

National Engineering Research Centre of Edible Fungi, Key Laboratory of Applied Mycological Resources and Utilisation, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Edible Fungi, Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Shanghai 201403, China

To systemically understand the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive substances, including triterpenoids and polysaccharides, in , the correlation between substrate degradation, carbohydrate and triterpenoid metabolism during growth was analyzed by combining changes in metabolite content and changes in related enzyme expression in over 5 growth phases. Changes in low-polarity triterpenoid content were correlated with changes in glucose and mannitol content in fruiting bodies. Additionally, changes in medium-polarity triterpenoid content were correlated with changes in the lignocellulose content of the substrate and with the glucose, trehalose and mannitol contents of fruiting bodies. Read More

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Enzymes of an alternative pathway of glucose metabolism in obligate methanotrophs.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8795. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Federal Research Center "Pushchino Scientific Center for Biological Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences", G.K. Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia, 142290.

Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria utilize methane as a growth substrate but are unable to grow on any sugars. In this study we have shown that two obligate methanotrophs, Methylotuvimicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z and Methylobacter luteus IMV-B-3098, possess functional glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and gluconate kinase (GntK). The recombinant GDHs from both methanotrophs were homotetrameric and strongly specific for glucose preferring NAD over NADP. Read More

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A straw for paediatrics: How to administer highly dosed, bitter tasting paracetamol granules.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 20;602:120615. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 7, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Paediatric practice requires various dosing forms that are acceptable for children of different ages and abilities. A straw prefilled with a drug formulation might serve as a dosing form, especially for children and patients with swallowing difficulties. Using a two-step procedure, we developed granulated coated particles of bitter tasting paracetamol that are appropriate for use in a newly developed straw with two valves to assure liquid flow towards the oral cavity. Read More

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