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Perioperative high inspired oxygen fraction induces atelectasis in patients undergoing abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

J Clin Anesth 2021 Apr 7;72:110285. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Study Objective: We evaluated the feasibility of use and effects on postoperative atelectasis and complications of lower inspired oxygen fraction (FIO) compared to conventional oxygen therapy.

Design: Single center, randomized clinical trial.

Setting: University hospital, operating room and postoperative recovery area. Read More

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Trunk kinematics and muscle activation patterns during stand-to-sit movement and the relationship with postural stability in aging.

Gait Posture 2021 Mar 24;86:292-298. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Science, Baltimore, MD, 21201, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Stand-to-sit (StandTS) movement is an important functional activity that can be challenging for older adults due to age-related changes in neuromotor control. Although trunk flexion, eccentric contraction of the rectus femoris (RF), and coordination of RF and biceps femoris (BF) muscles are important to the StandTS task, the effects of aging on these and related outcomes are not well studied.

Research Question: What are the age-related differences in trunk flexion, lower extremity muscle activation patterns, and postural stability during a StandTS task and what is the relationship between these variables?

Methods: Ten younger and ten older healthy adults performed three StandTS trials at self-selected speeds. Read More

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Mesosulfuron-methyl influenced biodegradability potential and N transformation of soil.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 30;416:125770. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

The wide application of mesosulfuron-methyl (MS) in soil may affect soil microbial community, yet the information is limited. In this work, two distinct soil types from Anyang (AY) and Nanjing (NJ) were spiked with MS (0, 0.006, 0. Read More

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Effect of nanomolar concentrations of lanthanum on Desmodesmus quadricauda cultivated under environmentally relevant conditions.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Mar 26;235:105818. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Czech Academy of Sciences, Biology Centre, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Department of Plant Biophysics and Biochemistry, Branišovská 31/1160, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic; University of South Bohemia, Department of Experimental Plant Biology, Branišovská 31/1160, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Toxicity of lanthanides is generally regarded as low, and they even have been suggested to be beneficial at low concentrations. This research was conducted to investigate effects of Lanthanum (La) on Desmodesmus quadricauda, a freshwater green microalga. The algal cultures were treated with nanomolar La concentrations under controlled environmentally relevant conditions. Read More

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Effects of low-carbohydrate diet and ketogenic diet on glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic mice.

Nutrition 2021 Mar 4;89:111230. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:

Objective: With the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, it is urgent to find a suitable treatment. Recently, the ketogenic diet has shown beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose, but some concerns have been raised about its probable side effects, such as hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Because a low-carbohydrate diet replaces part of the fat with carbohydrates on the basis of the ketogenic diet, we would like to know whether it does better in treating type 2 diabetes. Read More

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AFB-induced mice liver injury involves mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 7;216:112213. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB) pollutes foodstuffs and feeds, causing a food safety problem and seriously endangering human and animal health. Liver is the principal organ for AFB accumulation and biotransformation, during which AFB can cause acute and chronic liver damage, however, the specific mechanism is not completely clear. Mitochondria are the primary organelle of cellular bio-oxidation, providing 95% energy for liver to execute its multiple functions. Read More

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Effects of using letrozole in combination with the GnRH antagonist protocol for patients with poor ovarian response: a meta-analysis.

Authors:
Dr Ying Qin

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 Apr 7:102139. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, No. 9 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510120, China. Tel:+8619102030591. Electronic address:

This meta-analysis aimed to compare the outcomes of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist/letrozole protocol with those of the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol for poor responders undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). We searched for relevant articles in PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and retrieved 452 records. Eventually, we selected five eligible trials with data for 564 patients characterized as poor ovarian responders. Read More

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Inhibition of the CDK5/caspase-3 pathway by p5-TAT protects hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviates radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction.

Neuroscience 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou City, China; Institute of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Soochow University; Suzhou Key Laboratory for Radiation Oncology. Electronic address:

Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction is a common complication associated with cranial radiation therapy. Inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis and proliferation plays a critical role in this complication. Relieving hippocampal apoptosis may significantly protect hippocampal neurogenesis and proliferation. Read More

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Agmatine has beneficial effect on harmaline-induced essential tremor in rat.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 7:135881. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Kocaeli University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Kocaeli, Turkey. Electronic address:

Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most prevalent movement disorders and the most common cause of abnormal tremors. However, it cannot be treated efficiently with the currently available pharmacotherapy options. The pathophysiology of harmaline-induced tremor, most commonly used model of ET, involves various neurotransmitter systems including glutamate as well as ion channels. Read More

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Therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with life-threatening COVID-19: a randomized control clinical trial.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Apr 7:106334. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Research & Innovation Centre, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) following life-threatening COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Open-label, randomized clinical trial of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with life-threatening COVID-19 [positive real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction test, plus acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, organ failure, hyperinflammation]. The study was terminated after 87/120 patients were enrolled. Read More

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Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 radiosensitizes HNSCC xenograft by inhibition of DNA damage repair, nucleotide metabolism, and radiation-induced tumor vasculogenesis.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Electronic address:

Purpose: Recent pre-clinical studies suggest combining the HSP90 inhibitor AT13387 (Onalespib) with radiation (IR) against colon cancer and HNSCC. These studies emphasized that AT13387 down-regulates HSP90 client proteins involved in oncogenic signaling and DNA repair mechanisms as major drivers of enhanced radiosensitivity. Given the large array of client proteins HSP90 directs, we hypothesized that other key proteins or signaling pathways may be inhibited by AT13387 and contribute to enhanced radiosensitivity. Read More

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Hydrogen-saturated saline mediated neuroprotection through autophagy via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in early and medium stages of rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease rats.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Life science research center, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, 271000, China. Electronic address:

Some cardiovascular symptoms in the early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) were related to degeneration of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) catecholaminergic neurons. To date, little is known about the effects of hydrogen water on early stage of PD. Here, protective actions of hydrogen-saturated saline (HS) on rotenone-induced PD rats, as well as its underlying mechanisms were investigated. Read More

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Isorhynchophylline ameliorates paraquat-induced acute kidney injury by attenuating oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage via regulating toll-interacting expression.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:115521. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province, China. Electronic address:

Isorhynchophylline (IRN) is an alkaloid with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities in cardiovascular and brain diseases, but its role in paraquat (PQ)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is yet unknown. The model of PQ-induced AKI in rats was established by intraperitoneal injection of PQ (25 mg/kg). We found that the tail vein injection of IRN (4 mg/kg) significantly increased the survival rate of PQ-intoxicated rats. Read More

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Sound therapy can modulate the functional connectivity of the auditory network.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 7:110323. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

The functional connectivity of the auditory network is considered to be important in the development of tinnitus. We hypothesized that sound therapy, as a commonly used effective treatment for tinnitus, can modulate the functional connectivity of the auditory network. In this prospective observational study, we recruited 27 tinnitus patients who had undergone 12 weeks of sound therapy and 27 matched healthy controls. Read More

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Glucocorticoids suppressed osteoblast differentiation by decreasing Sema3A expression via the PIK3/Akt pathway.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Apr 7:112595. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School and Hospital of Stomatology & Institute of Stomatological Research, Sun Yat-sen University, 510055,Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guangzhou 510055, China. Electronic address:

Glucocorticoids(GCs) are extensively used to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Excessive prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis. The inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by GCs is suggested as a major cause for GCs-induced osteoporosis (GIO). Read More

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miR-140-3p inhibits colorectal cancer progression and its liver metastasis by targeting BCL9 and BCL2.

Cancer Med 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

Recent studies have identified microRNAs (miRNAs) as a compelling novel class of biomarker in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and metastasis. Here, we demonstrated that the level of plasma exosomal miR-140-3p in CRC patients was lower than that in healthy controls. The decreased miR-140-3p level was also observed in CRC patients with liver metastasis. Read More

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Effect of cataract surgery on wet age-related macular degeneration activity.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and age-related cataract are often coexisting causes of visual impairment. Yet, the timing of cataract surgery in wet AMD patients is controversial.

Methods: One hundred and eleven eyes of 111 patients with wet AMD underwent cataract surgery at Helsinki University Hospital in Finland during 2014-2018. Read More

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A decade of improved glycemic control in young children with type 1 diabetes: A population-based cohort study.

Pediatr Diabetes 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.

Early-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with high risk of early cardiovascular complications and premature death. The strongest modifiable risk factor is HbA1c. Other modifiable factors, such as overweight, also increase the risk of complications. Read More

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The Impact of Telmisartan on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Hypertensive Male Siblings of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were found to be at increased risk for cardiometabolic disorders. This risk may be exacerbated by concurrent poorly-controlled hypertension. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are the most frequently used anti-hypertensive drugs. Read More

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Prednisone-induced sustained remission in a patient with familial fibronectin glomerulopathy (GFND).

CEN Case Rep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 675, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Glomerulopathy with Fibronectin Deposits (GFND) is a rare, autosomal dominant disease characterized by proteinuria, hematuria and progressive renal failure associated with glomerular deposition of fibronectin, frequently resulting in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). There is no established treatment for this condition beyond conservative measures such as blood pressure control and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. We present a case of GFND associated with progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nephrotic range proteinuria showing a sustained response to prednisone treatment. Read More

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Does Inhaled Methoxyflurane Implement Fast and Efficient Pain Management in Trauma Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pain Ther 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 39 Shi-er-qiao Road, Chengdu, 610072, Sichuan Province, China.

Introduction: Evidence on the use of inhaled methoxyflurane in the management of trauma pain is conflicting and obfuscated. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of inhaled methoxyflurane for trauma pain on the basis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Methods: RCTs assessing the efficacy of methoxyflurane in adults or adolescents with acute trauma pain published in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched. Read More

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Dose modifications of ribociclib and endocrine therapy for treatment of ER+ HER2- metastatic breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8000, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Purpose: Treatment for estrogen receptor positive (ER+), human epidermal receptor 2 negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has improved with the approval of CDK 4/6 inhibitors. Clinical trials with the CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib, suggest that 35% to 57.5% of the patients require a dose reduction during ribociclib treatment. Read More

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Ruthenium (II)/allopurinol complex inhibits breast cancer progression via multiple targets.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratório de Genética Molecular E Citogenética Humana, sala 213, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas I, Campus Samambaia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Avenida Esperança, s/n, Cx Postal: 131, Goiânia, Goiás, CEP 74690-900, Brazil.

Metal complexes based on ruthenium have established excellent activity with less toxicity and great selectivity for tumor cells. This study aims to assess the anticancer potential of ruthenium(II)/allopurinol complexes called [RuCl(allo)(PPh)] (1) and [RuCl(allo)(dppb)] (2), where allo means allopurinol, PPh is triphenylphosphine and dppb, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry, molar conductance measurements, as well as the X-ray crystallographic analysis of complex 2. Read More

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Individual Rather Than Simultaneous Priming with Glutathione and Putrescine Reduces Chromium Cr Toxicity in Contrasting Canola (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

The chromium (Cr) toxicity mechanisms have not been fully revealed yet in plants mainly due to its complex electronic chemistry. Both putrescine (PUT) and glutathione (GSH) are reported to be involved in plethora of plant cellular processes. Therefore, we hypothesized that exogenous individual or co-application of PUT and GSH could alleviate the Cr stress in genetically diverse canola cultivars. Read More

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Dicer represses the interferon response and the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 8;296:100264. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA. Electronic address:

Recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are deficient in expressing type I interferons (IFN), the cytokines that play key roles in antiviral responses. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and biological implications of this finding are poorly understood. In this study, we developed a synthetic RNA-based assay that can simultaneously assess multiple forms of antiviral responses. Read More

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January 2021

Anti-GPR56 monoclonal antibody potentiates GPR56-mediated Src-Fak signaling to modulate cell adhesion.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 8;296:100261. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

The Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine and Center for Translational Cancer Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor family shown to play important roles in cell adhesion, brain development, immune function, and tumorigenesis. GPR56 is highly upregulated in colorectal cancer and correlates with poor prognosis. Several studies have shown GPR56 couples to the Gα class of heterotrimeric G-proteins to promote RhoA activation. Read More

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January 2021

Switching from conventional therapy to burosumab injection has the potential to prevent nephrocalcinosis in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Osaka Hospital, Japan Community Healthcare Organization (JCHO), Osaka, Japan.

Objectives: X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is a congenital fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23-related metabolic bone disease that is treated with active vitamin D and phosphate as conventional therapies. Complications of these therapies include nephrocalcinosis (NC) caused by excessive urine calcium and phosphate concentrations. Recently, an anti-FGF23 antibody, burosumab, was developed and reported to be effective in poorly-controlled or severe XLH patients. Read More

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Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, bioavailability and food effect of single doses of soticlestat in healthy subjects.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Quantitative Clinical Pharmacology, Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Co, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Aims: Soticlestat is a first-in-class selective inhibitor of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts brain cholesterol to 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24HC), a positive allosteric modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Soticlestat is under development as treatment for rare developmental and epileptic encephalopathies.

Methods: In this first-in-human study, 48 healthy men and women received single ascending doses of soticlestat oral solution or placebo. Read More

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Trends in hepatitis C virus-associated mortality rates in Japan, 1998-2017.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biomedicine, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering in Health Systems, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.

Background And Aim: The current prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis C virus-associated mortality in Japan falls short of the World Health Organization goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030. We aimed to evaluate the trends in hepatitis C virus-associated mortality in Japan.

Methods: This nationwide observational study used the Japanese Vital Statistics from 1998 to 2017 and included all Japanese hepatitis C virus-associated deaths (84,936) of adults aged ≥40 years. Read More

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Effectiveness and Safety of Moxibustion Robots on Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

Chin J Integr Med 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Acupuncture and Rehabilitation, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 610075, China.

Objective: To conduct a pilot trial to explore the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion robots in treating primary dysmenorrhea (PD) and evaluate its feasibility in clinic.

Methods: A total of 70 participants with PD were allocated to either moxibustion robot (MR) group (35 cases) or manual moxibustion (MM) group (35 cases) using computer-generated randomization. One acupoint Guanyuan (CV 4) was selected to receive moxa heat stimulation. Read More

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