3,211 results match your criteria treated larval


Impact of desiccation pre-exposure on deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress in Bombina variegata juveniles.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Sep 15;250:109191. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Physiology, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia.

Global warming represents a severe threat to existing ecosystems, especially for anuran tadpoles who encounter significant fluctuations in their habitats. Decreasing water levels in permanent and temporary water bodies is a significant risk for larval survival or fitness. On the other hand, the natural environment of amphibians is extremely polluted by various xenobiotics. Read More

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September 2021

Does Habituation Affect the Efficacy of Semiochemical Oviposition Repellents Developed Against Drosophila suzukii?

Environ Entomol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Entomology, Cornell AgriTech, Cornell University, 630 W North Street, Geneva, NY 14456, USA.

The application of feeding and oviposition repellents is limited to arthropod systems in which habituation does not occur. Although several compounds appear to reduce Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Dipetra: Drosophilidae) oviposition in berries, previous studies have yet to address whether habituation is a significant risk following preexposure. We tested the response of adult female D. Read More

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September 2021

Silencing uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase gene impairs larval development in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Agriculture Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in East China/State & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Green Pesticide Invention and Application, Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Background: Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) diphosphorylase (UAP) catalyzes the formation of UDP-GlcNAc, the precursor for production of chitin in the ectodermally-derived epidermal cells and midgut, for GlcNAcylation of proteins and for generation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol anchors in all tissues in Drosophila melanogaster.

Results: Here we identified a putative HvUAP gene in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata. Knockdown of HvUAP at the second, third and fourth instar stages impaired larval development. Read More

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September 2021

Dietary cadmium (Cd) reduces hemocyte level by induction of apoptosis in Drosophila melanogasterg.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Sep 10:109188. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Life Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Ratu-Lohardaga Road, Brambe, Ranchi 835205, Jharkhand, India. Electronic address:

Drosophila melanogaster larvae ensure continuous proliferation and differentiation of hemocytes to maintain a fixed range of different blood cell types during its various stages of development. Variation in this number is often an indicator of animal well-being, its genotype or an effect of environmental perturbation, including exposure to heavy metals. The present study investigates the effect of Cd on larval hemocytes. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of (Graviola) leaves activity against experimental trichinellosis: and studies.

J Helminthol 2021 Sep 13;95:e53. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Medical Parasitology, kafrelsheikh Faculty of Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, ElGiesh street, kafrelsheikh governorate, 33516, Egypt.

Our work aimed to evaluate the possible effect of Annona muricata (Graviola) leaf extract on Trichinella spiralis in in vitro and in vivo studies. Trichinella spiralis worms were isolated from infected mice and transferred to three culture media - group I (with no drugs), group II (contained Graviola) and group III (contained albendazole) - then they were examined using the electron microscope. In the in vivo study, mice were divided into five groups: GI (infected untreated), GII (prophylactically treated with Graviola for seven days before infection), GIII (infected and treated with Graviola), GIV (infected and treated with albendazole) and GV (infected and treated with a combination of Graviola plus albendazole in half doses). Read More

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September 2021

The effects of cadmium on the development of Drosophila and its transgenerational inheritance effects.

Toxicology 2021 Sep 8;462:152931. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710119, China. Electronic address:

A new focus in toxicology research is the impact of parental exposure to environmental toxic substances on the characteristics of offspring. In the present study, newly produced eggs of Drosophila melanogaster were treated with different concentrations of cadmium (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 mg/kg) to study the effects of development. The results showed that cadmium changed the larval body length and weight, prolonged the pupation and eclosion time, and changed the relative expression levels of development-related genes (baz, β-Tub60D, tj). Read More

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September 2021

Honey bee Apis mellifera larvae gut microbial and immune, detoxication responses towards flumethrin stress.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 4;290:118107. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Honeybee Research Institute, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, PR China; Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Honeybee Biology and Beekeeping, Nanchang, 330045, PR China. Electronic address:

Mites are considered the worst enemy of honey bees, resulting in economic losses in agricultural production. In apiculture, flumethrin is frequently used to control mites. It causes residues of flumethrin in colonies which may threaten honey bees, especially for larvae. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of low-dose fipronil bait against blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) larvae feeding on white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) under simulated field conditions.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Sep 7;14(1):459. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Genesis Laboratories, Inc., Wellington, CO, USA.

Background: Lyme disease, caused primarily by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the United States. Treatment of rodent pathogen reservoirs with an oral acaricide may suppress the production of infected host-seeking ticks posing a risk for human infection. A previous study showed that an oral fipronil bait effectively controlled larval Ixodes scapularis ticks on white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) up to 15 days post-bait exposure. Read More

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September 2021

Bio-Efficacy of Two Algae against , Physiological and Cytogenetic Effects on .

Pak J Biol Sci 2021 Jan;24(5):618-628

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The bean seed beetle <i>Bruchidius incarnatus</i> is a major insect pest for stored grains that causes great economic damage. The investigated research aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two species of algae: <i>Fucus vesiculosus </i>and <i>Spirulina platensis </i>as natural alternative pesticides against <i>Bruchidius incarnatus</i> stages. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The efficacy of two tested algae with amounts of 0. Read More

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January 2021

Monthly biological larviciding associated with a tenfold decrease in larval density in fish farming ponds and reduced community-wide malaria incidence in northwestern Brazil.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Sep 3;14(1):445. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 1374, São Paulo, SP, 05508-900, Brazil.

Background: Larvicides are typically applied to fixed and findable mosquito breeding sites, such as fish farming ponds used in commercial aquaculture, to kill immature forms and thereby reduce the size of adult malaria vector populations. However, there is little evidence suggesting that larviciding may suppress community-wide malaria transmission outside Africa. Here, we tested whether the biological larvicide VectoMax FG applied at monthly intervals to fish farming ponds can reduce malaria incidence in Amazonian Brazil. Read More

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September 2021

Water Extracts Attenuate Atherosclerosis.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 23;2021:9951946. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198 Jiangsu, China.

Objectives: . (DH) is a Chinese herbal medicine, which is often used to make tea to improve immunity in China. Rumor has it that DH has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Sex-specific effects of the microbiota on adult carbohydrate intake and body composition in a polyphagous fly.

J Insect Physiol 2021 Aug 30;134:104308. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The microbiota influences hosts' health and fitness. However, the extent to which the microbiota affects host' foraging decisions and related life history traits remains to be fully understood. Our study explored the effects of microbiota manipulation on foraging preference and phenotypic traits of larval and adult stages of the polyphagous fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni, one of the main horticultural pests in Australia. Read More

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Effects of itol A on the larval growth and development of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Agric-Environment and Agric-Product Safety, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Plant Science Education, College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530004, People's Republic of China.

Background: Itol A, extracted from the Itoa orientalis Hemsl. (Flacourtiaceae), possesses bioactivity on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Our previous study showed that the effects on Spodoptera frugiperda, a destructive pest found worldwide, were similar to those of fenoxycarb (FC), a juvenile hormone analog (JHA). Read More

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COPB2 loss of function causes a coatopathy with osteoporosis and developmental delay.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 09 26;108(9):1710-1724. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Coatomer complexes function in the sorting and trafficking of proteins between subcellular organelles. Pathogenic variants in coatomer subunits or associated factors have been reported in multi-systemic disorders, i.e. Read More

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September 2021

RNAi for chitin synthase 1 rather than 2 causes growth delay and molting defect in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Oct 17;178:104934. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Chitin synthase (CHS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In most insects, CHSs have been segregated into 1 and 2 classes. CHS1 is responsible for chitin production in the ectodermally-derived epidermal cells. Read More

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October 2021

The Efficacy of Enriched with Probiotic in Enhancing Survival and Disease Resistance of Red Hybrid Tilapia ( spp.) Larvae.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Aug 16;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

The administration of probiotics via live feeds, such as and rotifers, has gained significant attention. Moreover, indiscriminate use of antibiotics in conventional aquaculture practices in order to prevent or control disease outbreaks has resulted in the occurrence of residues and antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the application of eco-friendly feed additives, such as probiotics, as a safer alternative has received increasing attention in recent years. Read More

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Green Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles Mediated by Nilgirianthus ciliates Leaf Extracts for Antimicrobial Activity on Foodborne Pathogenic Microbes and Pesticidal Activity Against Aedes aegypti with Molecular Docking.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Periyar University, Salem, 636011, India.

The present study deals with the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) using Nilgirianthus ciliatus leaf extracts, characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, HR-TEM, DLS, and zeta potential analysis. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC96), Escherichia coli (MTCC443), and Salmonella typhi (MTCC98) showed the remarkable inhibitory effect at 25 µl/mL concentration level. Furthermore, the characterized SeNPs showed a great insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti in the early larval stages with the median Lethal Concentration (LC) of 0. Read More

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Application of the Paracentrotus lividus sea-urchin embryo-larval bioassay to the marine pollution biomonitoring program in the Tunisian coast.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Research Laboratory of Bioresources: Integrative Biology & Valorization (LR 14ES06), Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Monastir, Avenue Tahar HAdded, 74,5000, Monastir, PB, Tunisia.

The pollution of the marine environment by treated and untreated effluents has increased due to human activities. Monitoring the marine ecosystem is nowadays a global concern. In this work, we evaluated the effect of contaminated and uncontaminated seawater, from different Tunisian coastal areas, on the fertilization, gastrulation, and embryo-larval development events of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus). Read More

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Integrated Tick Management in South Central Wisconsin: Impact of Invasive Vegetation Removal and Host-Targeted Acaricides on the Density of Questing Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs.

J Med Entomol 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

As tick-borne disease incidence increases and pathogens expand into new areas, the need for effective tick management strategies is paramount. In this 5-yr study (2014-2018) conducted in south central Wisconsin, we assessed whether an integrated tick management approach, deployed during peak tick activity (May-August), was more effective at reducing black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say (Ixodida: Ixodidae)), than individual interventions. Using a factorial design, invasive vegetation removal (Amur honeysuckle, Lonicera maackii Ruprecht (Dipsacales: Caprifoliaceae) and common buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica Linnaeus (Rosales: Rhamnaceae)) was coupled with deployments of permethrin-treated cotton nesting materials (tick tubes) that target the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque (Rodentia: Cricetidae)). Read More

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Monarch caterpillars are robust to combined exposure to the roadside micronutrients sodium and zinc.

Conserv Physiol 2021 9;9(1):coab061. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Human activities are increasing the environmental availability of micronutrients, including sodium and some essential metals. Micronutrients are often limiting in animal diets but may have negative effects when consumed in excess. Though prior research has documented how elevated exposure to individual micronutrients can impact organismal development and fitness, we know less about combined effects of multiple micronutrients. Read More

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Direct ingestion, trophic transfer, and physiological effects of microplastics in the early life stages of Centropristis striata, a commercially and recreationally valuable fishery species.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 28;285:117653. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Sciences, Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station, Oregon State University, USA. Electronic address:

Microplastics are ubiquitous in marine and estuarine ecosystems, and thus there is increasing concern regarding exposure and potential effects in commercial species. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the effects of microplastics on larval and early juvenile life stages of the Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata), a North American fishery. Larvae (13-14 days post hatch, dph) were exposed to 1. Read More

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September 2021

The diarrhetic shellfish-poisoning toxin, okadaic acid, provokes gastropathy, dysbiosis and susceptibility to bacterial infection in a non-rodent bioassay, Galleria mellonella.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Oct 10;95(10):3361-3376. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, SA2 8PP, UK.

Diarrhetic shellfish-poisoning (DSP) toxins such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins harm the human gastrointestinal tract, and therefore, their levels are regulated to an upper limit of 160 μg per kg tissue to protect consumers. Rodents are used routinely for risk assessment and studies concerning mechanisms of toxicity, but there is a general move toward reducing and replacing vertebrates for these bioassays. We have adopted insect larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella as a surrogate toxicology model. Read More

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October 2021

Unilateral Cysticercosis of the Parotid Gland: Case Report, Diagnosis, and Clinical Management.

Case Rep Otolaryngol 2021 31;2021:9999441. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Sonoran Ear Nose Throat, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the establishment of the larval form of the parasitic cestode, . Cysticercosis is acquired via the fecal-oral route and is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Patients typically manifest with skeletal muscle, subcutaneous, or central nervous system involvement. Read More

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Exosome-Depleted Excretory-Secretory Products of the Fourth-Stage Larval Promotes Alternative Activation of Macrophages Through Metabolic Reprogramming by the PI3K-Akt Pathway.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:685984. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Parasitology of Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

(AC), which parasitizes in the brain of the non-permissive host, such as mouse and human, is an etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningitis. Excretory-secretory (ES) products play an important role in the interaction between parasites and hosts' immune responses. Inflammatory macrophages are responsible for eosinophilic meningitis induced by AC, and the soluble antigens of fourth stage larva (AC L4), a mimic of dead AC L4, aggravate eosinophilic meningitis in AC-infected mice model promoting alternative activation of macrophages. Read More

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An insight of anopheline larvicidal mechanism of Trichoderma asperellum (TaspSKGN2).

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 6;11(1):16029. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Molecular Mycopathology Lab, Biocontrol and Cancer Research Unit, PG Department of Botany, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College (Autonomous), Rahara, Kolkata, 700118, India.

Anopheline larvicidal property of T. asperellum has been found recently in medical science. The mechanism of actions exhibited by T. Read More

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Oxidative stress induced antioxidant and neurotoxicity demonstrated in vivo zebrafish embryo or larval model and their normalization due to morin showing therapeutic implications.

Life Sci 2021 Oct 3;283:119864. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

SRM Research Institute, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, 603 203 Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; Department of Biotechnology, College of Science and Humanities, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, 603 203 Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Aims: The study examined that morin as possible antioxidant and neuroprotective due to oxidative stress (HO) in zebrafish larval model.

Materials And Methods: Zebrafish larvae were induced with oxidative stress using HO at 1 mM; their behavioural changes were assessed through partition preference and horizontal compartment test. The head section without eyes and yolk sac of zebrafish larvae were employed for enzyme assays such as SOD, CAT, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione S transferase, Acetylcholinesterase activity and nitrate levels. Read More

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October 2021

The Msn2 Transcription Factor Regulates Acaricidal Virulence in the Fungal Pathogen .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 20;11:690731. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil.

holds promise as a feasible biological control agent for tick control. The stress-response transcription factor Msn2 is known to contribute to fungal growth, conidiogenesis, stress-response and virulence towards insects; however, little is known concerning whether Msn2 is involved in infection across Arthropoda classes. We evaluated the effects of Msn2 on virulence against (Acari, Ixodidae) using wild-type, targeted gene knockout () and complemented mutant () strains. Read More

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Neonicotinoids can cause arrested pupal ecdysis in Lepidoptera.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 4;11(1):15787. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Recently, we reported a novel mode of action in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) larvae exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides: arrest in pupal ecdysis following successful larval ecdysis. In this paper, we explore arrested pupal ecdysis in greater detail and propose adverse outcome pathways to explain how neonicotinoids cause this effect. Using imidacloprid as a model compound, we determined that final-instar monarchs, corn earworms (Helicoverpa zea), and wax moths (Galleria mellonella) showed high susceptibility to arrested pupal ecdysis while painted ladies (Vanessa cardui) and red admirals (Vanessa atalanta) showed low susceptibility. Read More

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Evaluation of cross-grazing deer with sheep or cattle, as means to reduces anthelmintic usage to control gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) in New Zealand.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Oct 24;298:109534. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, PB 11222, Palmerston North, 4442, New Zealand.

Recent reports indicate that gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are contributing to significant losses in deer productivity and that anthelmintic resistance has become an issue of concern for deer farmers in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to evaluate cross-grazing of deer with sheep or cattle as an aid for control of gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematode parasites of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) in New Zealand. This was a field study replicated over two years (2012 and 2013) for 16 weeks each year at two locations (Massey University, Palmerston North and Invermay AgResearch Centre, Mosgiel). Read More

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October 2021

Repeated Ivermectin Treatment Induces Ivermectin Resistance in Strongyloides ratti by Upregulating the Expression of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Genes.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Ivermectin (IVM) is a widely used anthelmintic. However, with widespread use comes the risk of the emergence of IVM resistance, particularly in strongyloidiasis. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes play an important role in the IVM-resistance mechanism. Read More

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