105,979 results match your criteria treat childhood

Pulse therapy with vincristine and dexamethasone for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCCG-ALL-2015): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai, China.

Background: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses are generally used throughout maintenance treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, previous studies remain inconclusive about the benefit of this maintenance therapy and the absence of randomised, controlled trials in patients with low-risk or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia provides uncertainty. We therefore aimed to determine if this therapy could be safely omitted beyond 1 year of treatment without leading to an inferior outcome in any risk subgroup of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Read More

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New-onset Hypogammaglobulinemia and Infectious Complications Associated with Rituximab Use in Childhood-onset Rheumatic Diseases.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Pediatric Rheumatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA, United States.

Objective: To investigate the incidence and risk factors for hypogammaglobulinemia and infectious complications associated with rituximab treatment in childhood-onset rheumatic diseases.

Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective study of patients (n = 85) treated at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH) from 2009 to 2019. Study subjects included patients (ages 6 to 24) who received rituximab for the treatment of a childhood-onset rheumatic disease. Read More

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Treatment-induced cerebral sinus venous thrombosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic malignancies: New risk factors to consider.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jul 29:e29210. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is one of the many side effects encountered during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. Due to the rarity of cases, lack of data, and consensus management, no recommendations exist to target the population at risk.

Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of 229 consecutive patients diagnosed with ALL with an age range of 1-21 years, treated at the Children's Cancer Center of Lebanon between October 2007 and February 2018. Read More

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Aetiology and severity of childhood pneumonia in primary care in Malawi: a cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 29;11(7):e046633. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Queen's University Belfast Wellcome-Wolfson Institute for Experimental Medicine, Belfast, UK.

Objective: To determine the aetiology of community acquired pneumonia in children presenting to primary care in Northern Malawi, and to ascertain predictors for identification of children requiring hospitalisation.

Design: The BIOmarkers TO diagnose PnEumonia study was a prospective cohort study conducted from March to June 2016.

Setting: Primary care in Northern Malawi. Read More

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Identification of tissue of origin and guided therapeutic applications in cancers of unknown primary using deep learning and RNA sequencing (TransCUPtomics).

J Mol Diagn 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

INSERM U830, Équipe Labellisée Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, Diversity and Plasticity of Childhood Tumors Lab, PSL Research University, Institut Curie Research Center, Paris, France; Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie Hospital, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Cancers of unknown primary (CUP) are metastatic cancers for which the primary tumor is not found despite thorough diagnostic investigations. Multiple molecular assays have been proposed to identify the tissue of origin (TOO) and inform clinical care, however none has been able to combine accuracy, interpretability and easy access for routine use. We developed a classifier tool based on the training of a variational autoencoder (VAE) to predict tissue of origin based on RNA-seq data. Read More

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Happy Talk: A pilot effectiveness study of a targeted-selective speech-language and communication intervention for children from areas of social disadvantage.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle, UK.

Background: Despite the public health implications of language difficulties associated with social disadvantage, there is a dearth of effectiveness studies investigating the effects of targeted speech and language programmes in this area.

Aims: To determine the effects of a targeted selective community-based child language intervention programme (Happy Talk), which simultaneously engaged with parents and early childhood educators, in the Republic of Ireland.

Methods & Procedures: A mixed methods methodology was applied with quantitative outcome and qualitative process data collected. Read More

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Clinician-Identified Factors in Success of Parent-Directed Behavioral Therapy for Children's Tantrums.

Adm Policy Ment Health 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are the most common behavioral health problems in young American children. When not well-managed in early childhood, DBD can progress to lifetime mental health problems with personal, economic, as well as societal impacts. The evidence-based intervention of choice for DBD is outpatient parent-directed behavioral therapy (PDT). Read More

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Advances in paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Role of lipidomics.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul;27(25):3815-3824

Department of Woman, Child, and General and Specialized Surgery, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples 80138, Italy.

Due its close relationship with obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major worldwide health issue even in childhood. The most accepted pathophysiological hypothesis is represented by the "multiple hits" theory, in which both hepatic intracellular lipid accumulation and insulin resistance mainly contribute to liver injury through several factors. Among these, lipotoxicity has gained particular attention. Read More

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Smoking and cannabis use among childhood cancer survivors: results of the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.


Background: Unhealthy behaviors among childhood cancer survivors increase the risks for cancer treatment adverse effects. We aimed to assess tobacco and cannabis use prevalence in this population and to identify factors associated with these consumptions.

Methods: This study involved 2,887 5-year survivors from the French childhood cancer survivor study (FCCSS) cohort. Read More

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A Retrospective Examination of the Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is an evidence-based approach for children aged 2-7 years with disruptive behavior problems. This study examined the effectiveness of PCIT with and without concurrent pharmacotherapy. A convenience sample was collected from a retrospective chart review of preschool-aged children treated with PCIT at the Mayo Clinic Young Child Clinic between 2016 and 2020. Read More

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Exploratory Qualitative Analysis of Early Literacy Engagement in Latinx Parents of a Child With a Cleft.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul-Aug 01;32(5):1817-1821

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington and Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA.

Abstract: Literacy interventions are needed for children born with orofacial clefts, particularly for Latinx children who may experience multiple risk factors. To collect formative data for intervention design, focus groups and interviews were completed with 18 Latinx parents of children ages 13 to 49 months with orofacial clefts. Interviews focused on literacy experiences and practices. Read More

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Monitoring Of High-Dose Methotrexate (Mtx)-Related Toxicity and Mtx Levels in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Pilot-Study in Indonesia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 1;22(7):2025-2031. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Hematology Oncology Division, Department of Child Health Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran/Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia.

The administration of high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) requires an accurate monitoring of blood MTX levels to determine the regimen of leucovorin rescue and urine alkalinization to prevent toxicity. However, it is technically and logistically challenging to screen patients routinely in limited-resource settings. This study aimed to evaluate blood MTX levels at 24- and 48-hours from start of infusion in relation to clinical toxicity in childhood ALL. Read More

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Immediate effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient health, health-care use, and behaviours: results from an international survey of people with rheumatic diseases.

Lancet Rheumatol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The impact and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with rheumatic disease are unclear. We developed the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Patient Experience Survey to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with rheumatic disease worldwide.

Methods: Survey questions were developed by key stakeholder groups and disseminated worldwide through social media, websites, and patient support organisations. Read More

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Rituximab use in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus: Indications, efficacy and safety in an Indian cohort.

Lupus 2021 Jul 27:9612033211034567. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, 28928Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Institute of Child Health, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Children with systemic lupus erythematosus have a more challenging and difficult course as compared to their adult counterparts. Today, the aim of therapy for any child with lupus is to keep the child in a state of sustained remission with minimal or no use of steroids. This laudable goal is often difficult to achieve for the child with lupus. Read More

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Repurposing of the childhood vaccines: could we train the immune system against the SARS-CoV-2?

Divakar Sharma

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Hericure Healthcare Pvt Ltd, Pune, India.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic is a globalized health concern caused by a beta-coronavirus named Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since, December 2019 when this outbreak flared in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 cases have been continuously rising all over the world. Due to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, subsequent waves are flowing in a faster manner as compared to the primary wave, which is more contagious and causing higher mortality around the world. Read More

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Early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome after open prenatal spina bifida aperta repair.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Zurich Center for Spina Bifida, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Aim: To investigate neurodevelopmental outcome of children with open prenatal spina bifida aperta (SBA) repair.

Method: Prenatal SBA repair was performed in 130 fetuses at the Zurich Center between 2010 and 2019. Seventy-seven children underwent 1 year assessment with the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (Griffiths) and 65 with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) at 2 years. Read More

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Hypogonadism in male and female: which is the best treatment?

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Regina Margherita Children Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy -

Background: Subjects with hypo-or hypergonadotropic hypogonadism need hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to initiate puberty and maintain it with a normal hormonal status. While general recommendations for the management of HRT in adults have been published, no systematic suggestions focused on adolescents and young adults. The focus of this review is the HRT in males and females with hypogonadism, from puberty to late reproductive age, covering the different management options, encompassing sex steroid or gonadotropin therapy, with discussion of benefits, limitations and specific considerations of the different treatments. Read More

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Combined Antiseizure Efficacy of Cannabidiol and Clonazepam in a Conditional Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome.

J Exp Neurol 2021 ;2(2):81-85

Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Dravet Syndrome (DS) is a severe childhood epilepsy caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel Na1.1. DS is a devastating disease that typically begins at six to nine months of age. Read More

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January 2021

Frequency of Uropathogens and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Childhood Urinary Tract Infection at Kamenge University Hospital, Bujumbura, Burundi.

East Afr Health Res J 2017 1;1(1):47-52. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Département de Pédiatrie, Le Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Kamenge, Bujumbura, Burundi.

Background: Increasing resistance to antimicrobials is a worldwide problem. The aim of our study was to determine the pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in children.

Methods: This is a prospective cohort study conducted over a 10-month period with 101 children hospitalised at Kamenge University Hospital for acute UTI. Read More

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Risk of radiation-induced second malignant neoplasms from photon and proton radiotherapy in paediatric abdominal neuroblastoma.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 9;19:45-52. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, UK.

Background And Purpose: State-of-the-art radiotherapy modalities have the potential of reducing late effects of treatment in childhood cancer survivors. Our aim was to investigate the carcinogenic risk associated with 3D conformal (photon) radiation (3D-CRT), intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) and pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBS-PT) in the treatment of paediatric abdominal neuroblastoma.

Materials And Methods: The risk of radiation-induced second malignant neoplasm (SMN) was estimated using the concept of organ equivalent dose (OED) for eleven organs (lungs, rectum, colon, stomach, small intestine, liver, bladder, skin, central nervous system (CNS), bone, and soft tissues). Read More

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Enhancing Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Solid Tissue Cancers: The Role of Diet, the Microbiome & Microbiome-Derived Metabolites.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:624434. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Immunology, QIMR Berghofer, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Host immunity plays a central role in the regulation of anti-tumour responses during checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT). The mechanisms involved in long lasting remission remain unclear. Animal studies have revealed that the microbiome influences the host immune response. Read More

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Separating From the Mothership: A Coordinated Individual and Parent-Based Approach to Severe Agoraphobia in a Young Adult.

Cogn Behav Pract 2021 Aug 24;28(3):422-434. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Yale Child Study Center.

Families are invested in an older adolescent gradually separating from the family to live independently as an adult, but for many families, adolescent psychopathology makes this transition difficult. Addressing such psychopathology is critical in preventing "failure to launch," a breakdown in gaining age-appropriate independence from parents. This case study illustrates a promising approach directed at helping an 18-year-old female with agoraphobia and panic disorder who, upon intake, was at risk for long-lasting, prohibitive dependence on her parents. Read More

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Transcriptional reprogramming in neonatal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

Exp Hematol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave, St. Louis, MO 63110. Electronic address:

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and lineage committed hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) undergo profound shifts in gene expression during neonatal and juvenile stages of life. Temporal changes in HSC/HPC gene expression underlie concomitant changes in self-renewal capacity, lineage biases and hematopoietic output. Moreover, they can modify disease phenotypes. Read More

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Pediatric brain tumors: the era of molecular diagnostics, targeted and immune-based therapeutics, and a focus on long term neurologic sequelae.

Curr Probl Cancer 2021 Jul 16:100777. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. Division of Hematology/Oncology/Stem Cell Transplantation/Neuro-Oncology. Chicago, Illinois.

Pediatric brain tumors are the second most common malignancy of childhood after acute leukemia and the number one cause of cancer-related mortality. Over the past decade, advanced molecular diagnostics have led to the discovery of new molecularly-defined tumor types with prognostic and therapeutic implications. Methylation profiles, whole genome sequencing, and transcriptomics have defined subgroups and revealed heterogeneity within commonly defined tumor entities. Read More

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Acta Trop 2021 Jul 21:106050. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centro de Investigaciones sobre Endemias Nacionales, Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.

This study compared the serological and electrocardiographic evolution among patients with chronic T. cruzi infection treated during childhood or left untreated. A retrospective cohort study was conducted during a mean follow-up period of 25 years in 82 patients: half of them underwent treatment (nifurtimox 8, benznidazole 33) before being 15 years old, whereas the other half remained untreated. Read More

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Late isolated central nervous system relapse in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with intensified systemic therapy and delayed reduced dose cranial radiation: A report from the Children's Oncology Group study AALL02P2.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jul 24:e29256. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: Patients with late, ≥18 months postdiagnosis, isolated central nervous relapse (iCNS-R) of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have excellent outcomes with chemotherapy plus cranial radiotherapy, with 5-year overall survival (OS) approaching 80% in POG 9412. Subsequent relapse and radiation-related morbidity remain the causes of treatment failure and long-term sequelae. COG AALL02P2 aimed to maintain outcomes in patients with late iCNS-R using intensified chemotherapy and a decrease in cranial irradiation from 1800 to 1200 cGy. Read More

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Targeting cancer stem cells in medulloblastoma by inhibiting AMBRA1 dual function in autophagy and STAT3 signalling.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Cell and Gene Therapy, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a childhood malignant brain tumour comprising four main subgroups characterized by different genetic alterations and rate of mortality. Among MB subgroups, patients with enhanced levels of the c-MYC oncogene (MB) have the poorest prognosis. Here we identify a previously unrecognized role of the pro-autophagy factor AMBRA1 in regulating MB. Read More

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Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity and the later development of epilepsy in a chemotherapy-associated brain damage.

Brain Dev 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: Chemotherapy in childhood leukemia potentially induces brain lesions and neurological sequelae. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is known as a treatment-associated complication; however, the full clinical spectra of PSH remain to be elusive.

Case Report: A 5-year-old girl was diagnosed of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M5. Read More

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