23 results match your criteria traveling uphill

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Quantifying energetic costs and defining energy landscapes experienced by grizzly bears.

J Exp Biol 2021 Mar 30;224(Pt 6). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of the Environment and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236, USA.

Animal movements are major determinants of energy expenditure and ultimately the cost-benefit of landscape use. Thus, we sought to understand those costs and how grizzly bears () move in mountainous landscapes. We trained captive grizzly bears to walk on a horizontal treadmill and up and down 10% and 20% slopes. Read More

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Heat Stress Challenges in Marathon vs. Ultra-Endurance Running.

Front Sports Act Living 2019 13;1:59. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Aspetar Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

Several studies have investigated the effect of hot and humid ambient conditions on running exercise up to the marathon. However, studies on exercise longer than marathon are sparse. Events exceeding 6 h can be defined as ultra-endurance and have variable characteristics (e. Read More

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November 2019

Waves and instabilities of viscoelastic fluid film flowing down an inclined wavy bottom.

Phys Rev E 2020 Aug;102(2-1):023117

Vivekananda Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan 713103, West Bengal, India.

Evolution of waves and hydrodynamic instabilities of a thin viscoelastic fluid film flowing down an inclined wavy bottom of moderate steepness have been analyzed analytically and numerically. The classical long-wave expansion method has been used to formulate a nonlinear evolution equation for the development of the free surface. A normal-mode approach has been adopted to discuss the linear stability analysis from the viewpoint of the spatial and temporal study. Read More

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Wearable Tendon Kinetics.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Aug 26;20(17). Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

This study introduces a noninvasive wearable system for investigating tendon loading patterns during outdoor locomotion on variable terrain. The system leverages shear wave tensiometry, which is a new approach for assessing tendon load by tracking wave speed within the tissue. Our wearable tensiometry system uses a battery-operated piezoelectric actuator to induce micron-scale shear waves in a tendon. Read More

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Telepresence Mobile Robots Design and Control for Social Interaction.

Int J Soc Robot 2020 Jul 13:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National Institute of Textile Engineering and Research (NITER), Dhaka, 1350 Bangladesh.

Human-robot interaction has extended its application horizon to simplify how human beings interact with each other through a remotely controlled telepresence robot. The fast growth of communication technologies such as 4G and 5G has elevated the potential to establish stable audio-video-data transmission. However, human-robot physical interactions are still challenging regarding maneuverability, controllability, stability, drive layout, and autonomy. Read More

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Exposure to ultrafine particulate air pollution in the school commute: Examining low-dose route optimization with terrain-enforced dosage modelling.

Environ Res 2019 11 17;178:108674. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Department of Geography, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Rd, Mississauga, ON, L5L 1C6, Canada. Electronic address:

Exposure to ultrafine particulate air pollution (UFP) contributes to adverse health effects in sensitive population groups such as children. There is a need to explore UFP exposure in terms of respiratory dosage, which leverages the effect of activity-specific ventilation rates. Commute-related dosage, which describes the dosage that occurs during travel between fixed locations on a routine schedule (i. Read More

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November 2019

Tracking Performance in Endurance Racing Sports: Evaluation of the Accuracy Offered by Three Commercial GNSS Receivers Aimed at the Sports Market.

Front Physiol 2018 9;9:1425. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Advances in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technology have resulted in smaller and more accurate GNSS receivers, which have become increasingly suitable for calculating instantaneous performance parameters during sports competitions, for example by providing the difference in time between athletes at any location along a course. This study investigated the accuracy of three commercially available GNSS receivers directed at the sports market and evaluated their applicability for time analysis in endurance racing sports. The receivers evaluated were a 1 Hz wrist-worn standalone receiver (Garmin Forerunner 920XT, Gar-920XT), a 10 Hz standalone receiver (Catapult Optimeye S5, Cat-S5), and a 10 Hz differential receiver (ZXY-Go). Read More

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October 2018

A different angle: comparative analyses of whole-animal transport costs when running uphill.

J Exp Biol 2017 01 24;220(Pt 2):161-166. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Centre for Geometric Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia.

Comparative work on the cost of terrestrial locomotion in animals has focused on the underpinning physiology and biomechanics. Often, much of an animal's energy budget is spent on moving around; thus, there is also value in interpreting such data from an ecological perspective. When animals move through their environment, they encounter topographical variation, and this is a key factor that can dramatically affect their energy expenditure. Read More

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January 2017

Geckos significantly alter foot orientation to facilitate adhesion during downhill locomotion.

Biol Lett 2014 Oct;10(10):20140456

Department of Biology, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Geckos employ their adhesive system when moving up an incline, but the directionality of the system may limit function on downhill surfaces. Here, we use a generalist gecko to test whether limb modulation occurs on downhill slopes to allow geckos to take advantage of their adhesive system. We examined three-dimensional limb kinematics for geckos moving up and down a 45° slope. Read More

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October 2014

The scaling of uphill and downhill locomotion in legged animals.

Integr Comp Biol 2014 Dec 14;54(6):1159-72. Epub 2014 Apr 14.

Department of Biology, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.

Animals must continually respond dynamically as they move through complex environments, and slopes are a common terrain on which legged animals must move. Despite this, non-level locomotion remains poorly understood. In this study, we first review the literature on locomotor mechanics, metabolic cost, and kinematic strategies on slopes. Read More

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December 2014

Three-dimensional, high-resolution skeletal kinematics of the avian wing and shoulder during ascending flapping flight and uphill flap-running.

PLoS One 2013 15;8(5):e63982. Epub 2013 May 15.

Department of Biology, Providence College, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Past studies have shown that birds use their wings not only for flight, but also when ascending steep inclines. Uphill flap-running or wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is used by both flight-incapable fledglings and flight-capable adults to retreat to an elevated refuge. Despite the broadly varying direction of travel during WAIR, level, and descending flight, recent studies have found that the basic wing path remains relatively invariant with reference to gravity. Read More

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January 2014

All-terrain vehicle crash factors and associated injuries in patients presenting to a regional trauma center.

J Trauma 2007 Nov;63(5):994-9

Oklahoma Institute for Disaster and Emergency Medicine, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Tulsa, OK 74135, USA.

Background: It is widely accepted that all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) can be dangerous to operators. Understanding the mechanisms of ATV crashes, especially rollovers, can provide important insight to consumers, legislators, and manufacturers on ATV safety and protection of the users.

Methods: From March 1, 2003 to July 31, 2005, all patients with ATV-related injuries presenting to a regional trauma center were enrolled in an ATV crash data bank. Read More

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November 2007

Acceptability of power variation during a simulated hilly time trial.

Int J Sports Med 2007 Feb 28;28(2):157-63. Epub 2006 Nov 28.

Research Institute of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Webster Street, Liverpool, UK.

We investigated the acceptability of power variation during a cycling time trial (TT) with simulated uphill and downhill sections. Seven cyclists first completed an 800-kJ self-paced TT on a simulated flat course. An 800-kJ TT course with four sections of uphill/downhill was then modeled. Read More

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February 2007

Energetics and optimization of human walking and running: the 2000 Raymond Pearl memorial lecture.

Am J Hum Biol 2002 Sep-Oct;14(5):641-8

School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.

Humans seem to adjust their walking and running gaits to minimise the metabolic energy cost of locomotion. The walking speed that we tend to prefer is the one that minimises energy cost per unit distance, though faster speeds might seem preferable when time is valuable. At speeds up to 2 m/s, walking requires less energy than running, and we walk. Read More

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October 2002

Pollen production, microsporangium dehiscence and pollen flow in Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxb. ex d. Don).

Ann Bot 2002 May;89(5):587-93

Department of Forestry, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, India.

Microsporangium dehiscence, pollen production and dispersal were studied in Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) during 1998 and 1999. Microsporangium dehiscence showed diurnal periodicity and was found to be related to air temperature and relative air humidity, with a strobilus taking 2 d to dehisce completely in warmer conditions and 3 d in cooler ones. The frequency of flowering in C. Read More

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Heart rate strain in cable hauler choker setters in New Zealand logging operations.

Appl Ergon 2001 Aug;32(4):389-98

New Zealand Logging Industry Research Organisation, Rotorua, New Zealand.

This study examined the physical strain experienced by cable hauler choker setters, and the applicability of heart rate indices for measuring physical strain in commercial forest harvesting operations in New Zealand. The heart rate of four choker setters were recorded continuously throughout the working day and applied to heart rate indices. Based on the relative heart rate at work (%HRR), ratio of working heart rate to resting heart rate and 50% level indices, the mean working heart rate (HRw) of 106 bt. Read More

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[Travel outside the home and perceived problems with such travel, among elderly people in a small town].

Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 1996 Jun;33(6):430-9

Social and Advanced Research Lab., Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.

To study travel outside the home by elderly people and perceived problems with such travel, a questionnaire was sent to 238 men and women aged 60-year-old and over living in a small town in Kanagawa prefecture. Public transportation in this town consists mainly of buses, and the bus ride from the nearest train station takes about 50 minutes. A total of 190 people responded (83. Read More

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Efficiency of uphill locomotion in nocturnal and diurnal lizards

J Exp Biol 1996 ;199(Pt 3):587-92

Nocturnal geckos can walk on level ground more economically than diurnal lizards. One hypothesis for why nocturnal geckos have a low cost of locomotion is that they can perform mechanical work during locomotion more efficiently than other lizards. To test this hypothesis, we compared the efficiency of the nocturnal gecko Coleonyx variegatus (average body mass 4. Read More

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January 1996

The influence of body mass in endurance bicycling.

D P Swain

Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994 Jan;26(1):58-63

Wellness Institute and Research Center, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0196.

Bicycling is a complex sport in which an athlete's energy cost is related to two principal forces: air resistance when traveling on flat terrain, and gravity when traveling uphill. Both wind tunnel data and physiological measurements suggest that air resistance scales as body mass to about the 1/3 power. Thus, large cyclists have only slightly greater frontal drags than small cyclists. Read More

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January 1994

The energy cost of common tasks in rural Nepal: levels of energy expenditure compatible with sustained physical activity.

C Panter-Brick

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1992 ;64(5):477-84

Department of Anthropology, Durham University, UK.

Three hundred and six measurements of energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry of sitting at rest and self-paced activity were made on 41 men, 48 women and 6 adolescents in a mountain village of Nepal. Except for walking and carrying uphill, measured activities fell within the range of values for light to moderate effort, despite appearing physically demanding. Villagers tended to reduce travel speed when carrying heavy loads (54-102% of body mass on various inclines), averaging a moderate level of energy expenditure which could be sustained throughout the day. Read More

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Strain while skiing and hauling a sledge or carrying a backpack.

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1986 ;55(6):597-603

Eight soldiers on skis transported three loads of different weights on the level, uphill and downhill. The load was placed either on a cargo sledge or in a backpack or divided between the sledge and the backpack. The sledge had a new type of haulage-shaft, which was fixed to both sides of the pelvis. Read More

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January 1987

Effect of air resistance on the metabolic cost and performance of cycling.

C T Davies

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1980 ;45(2-3):245-54

The metabolic cost (VO2) of cycling against a range of wind velocities (VW) was studied in a wind tunnel of 15 male cyclists and the results compared with work on a stationary cycle ergometer, uphill cycling on a treadmill, and performance times in road racing competitions. The results showed that VO2 at constant treadmill speed was proportional to V2W and was a linear function of work rate, both on the stationary ergometer and during uphill cycling on a motor driven treadmill. Maximal values of 5. Read More

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Emergency on the Karakoram Massif.

Ray Bloomberg

Phys Sportsmed 1979 Jan;7(1):128-135

Sept 15, 1978. Urdukas Camp, Baltoro Glacier, K2. Jim is dying-each night he gets worse-more painful coughing (pleurisy) and increasing hemoptysis, so that I am afraid to anticoagulate him-respirations rising alarmingly and he can travel only a few paces uphill without going into paroxysms of bloody coughing. Read More

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January 1979
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