29,049 results match your criteria transport medium

Regional trends and drivers of the global methane budget.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20740, United States.

The ongoing development of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) global methane (CH ) budget shows a continuation of increasing CH emissions and CH accumulation in the atmosphere over 2000-2017. Here we decompose the global budget into 19 regions (18 land and one oceanic) and five key source sectors to spatially attribute the observed global trends. A comparison of top-down (atmospheric and transport model-based) and bottom-up (inventory- and process model-based) CH emissions estimates demonstrates robust temporal trends with CH emissions increasing in 16 of the 19 regions. Read More

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September 2021

Risk assessment of airborne COVID-19 exposure in social settings.

Phys Fluids (1994) 2021 Aug 20;33(8):087118. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632.

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to many countries oscillating between various states of lock-down as they seek to balance keeping the economy and essential services running and minimizing the risk of further transmission. Decisions are made about which activities to keep open across a range of social settings and venues guided only by heuristics regarding social distancing and personal hygiene. Hence, we propose the dual use of computational fluid dynamic simulations and surrogate aerosol measurements for location-specific assessment of risk of infection across different real-world settings. Read More

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Impacts of COVID-19 on aircraft usage and fuel consumption: A case study on four Chinese international airports.

J Air Transp Manag 2021 Aug 1;95:102106. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.

COVID-19 pandemic starting in early 2020 has greatly impacted human and industrial activities. Air transport in China shrank abruptly in February 2020, following a year-long gradual recovery. The airline companies reacted to this unprecedented event by dramatically reducing the flight volume and rearranging the aircraft types. Read More

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Soil-air partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the Lesser Himalaya region: Influence of soil organic matter, atmospheric transport processes and secondary emissions.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 19;291:118006. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm, Sweden.

After decades of imposed regulations about reducing the primary emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), these pollutants are still present in the environment. Soils are important repositories of such persistent semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs), and it is assumed that SVOCs sequestered in these reservoirs are being re-mobilized due to anthropogenic influence. In this study, concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil and air, their fugacities, fluxes and the soil-air partition coefficient (K) were determined for three different land cover types (glacial, remote/mountainous and urban) of the Lesser Himalayan Region (LHR). Read More

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"Off-the-Shelf" Nerve Matrix Preservation.

Biopreserv Biobank 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Barcelona Tissue Bank (BTB), Banc de Sang i Teixits (BST), Barcelona, Spain.

Decellularized human nerves overcome the limitations of the current treatments for large peripheral nerve injuries. However, the use of decellularized nerves requires an "off-the-shelf" availability for useful and actual clinical application. In this study, we addressed the preservation of the native and decellularized human nerve matrix in an integrative approach for tissue scaffold production. Read More

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September 2021

Non-biodegradable objects may boost microbial growth in water bodies by harnessing bubbles.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Sep 15;8(9):210646. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan.

Given the ubiquity of bubbles and non-biodegradable wastes in aqueous environments, their transport through bubbles should be widely extant in water bodies. In this study, we investigate the effect of bubble-induced waste transport on microbial growth by using yeasts as model microbes and a silicone rubber object as model waste. Noteworthily, this object repeatedly rises and sinks in fluid through fluctuations in bubble-acquired buoyant forces produced by cyclic nucleation, growth and release of bubbles from object's surface. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of cobas PCR Media freezing on SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA integrity and whole genome sequencing analyses.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Aug 21;101(4):115521. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Immunopathology Axis, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Microbiology and Molecular Biology Services, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequencing is a molecular biology tool performed to support many aspects of the response to the pandemic. Freezing of primary clinical nasopharyngeal swabs and shipment to reference laboratories is usually required for sequencing. Cobas PCR Media transport medium facilitates high throughput SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR analyses on cobas platforms. Read More

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In vitro and in vivo detection of tunneling nanotubes in normal and pathological osteoclastogenesis involving osteoclast fusion.

Lab Invest 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Oral Anatomy, Division of Oral Biological Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells formed through specific recognition and fusion of mononuclear osteoclast precursors derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Detailed cellular events concerning cell fusion in osteoclast differentiation remain ambiguous. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), actin-based membrane structures, play an important role in intercellular communication between cells. Read More

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September 2021

Plants are a natural source of nitrous oxide even in field conditions as explained by N site preference.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 11;805:150262. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Hebei Key Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Plants are either recognized to produce nitrous oxide (NO) or considered as a medium to transport soil-produced NO. To date, it is not clear whether in their habitat plants conduit NO produced in soil or are a natural source. We aimed to understand role of plants in NO emissions in field conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Non-linear convective flow of the thin film nanofluid over an inclined stretching surface.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 15;11(1):18410. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Applied Mathematics for Science and Engineering Research Unit (AMSERU), Program in Applied Statistics, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, 12110, Thailand.

To enhance the surface properties of solids the mechanism of thin films is frequently used. Penetration, degradation, stiffness, illumination, diffusion, absorption, and electric performance are all characteristics of a bulk substance medium that a thin film can improve. In nanotechnology, thin film processing can be extremely useful. Read More

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September 2021

Modeling transport of soft particles in porous media.

Phys Rev E 2021 Aug;104(2-2):025112

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031, USA.

Flow-driven transport of soft particles in porous media is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering processes, such as the gel treatment for enhanced oil recovery. In many of these processes, injected deformable particles block the pores and thus increase the overall pressure drop and reduce the permeability of the particle-resided region. The change of macroscopic properties (e. Read More

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Guidelines for the use of the Attend Anywhere Platform for Telecommunications within the Pain Service.

Ir Med J 2021 08 19;114(7):403. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Sligo University Hospital, Ireland.

Introduction Remote consultation is of growing in importance and gaining popularity in both primary and secondary healthcare settings. Reduced necessity for a physical presence of the patient within the healthcare setting is of particular benefit in the current COVID-19 era. It is also of benefit to a diverse group of patients, for example: those who are geographically distant from the base hospital, those suffering from mobility issues or chronic illness, those who require chaperoning as well as those with limited access to transport. Read More

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Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Synaptic Damage in Huntington's Disease: a Focus on Defective Mitophagy and Mitochondria-Targeted Therapeutics.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal and pure genetic disease with a progressive loss of medium spiny neurons (MSN). HD is caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the exon 1 of HD gene. Clinically, HD is characterized by chorea, seizures, involuntary movements, dystonia, cognitive decline, intellectual impairment, and emotional disturbances. Read More

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September 2021

A multi-disciplinary approach to estimate the medium-term impact of COVID-19 on transport and energy: A case study for Italy.

Energy (Oxf) 2022 Jan 9;238:122015. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milano, Italy.

The aim of this paper is to estimate the potential impacts of different COVID-19 scenarios on the Italian energy sector through 2030, with a specific focus on transport and industry. The analysis takes a multi-disciplinary approach to properly consider the complex interactions of sectors across Italy. This approach includes the assessment of economic conditions using macroeconomic and input-output models, modelling the evolution of the energy system using an energy and transport model, and forecasting the reaction of travel demand and modal choice using econometric models and expert interviews. Read More

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January 2022

Fiber-optic label-free biosensor for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein detection using biofunctionalized long-period fiber grating.

Talanta 2021 Dec 13;235:122801. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Industry 4.0 Convergence Bionics Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, Republic of Korea; School of Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

With COVID-19 widespread worldwide, people are still struggling to develop faster and more accurate diagnostic methods. Here we demonstrated the label-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by employing a SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody-conjugated phase-shifted long-period fiber grating (PS-LPFG) inscribed with a CO laser. At a specific cladding mode, the wavelength separation (λ) between the two split dips of a PS-LPFG varies with the external refractive index, although it is virtually insensitive to ambient temperature variations. Read More

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December 2021

Estimation of metabolic fluxes distribution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of volatile compounds of Tequila.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 06;18(5):5094-5113

Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. M. García Barragán # 1451, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

A stoichiometric model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reconstructed to analyze the continuous fermentation process of agave juice in Tequila production. The metabolic model contains 94 metabolites and 117 biochemical reactions. From the above set of reactions, 93 of them are linked to internal biochemical reactions and 24 are related to transport fluxes between the medium and the cell. Read More

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Impacts of COVID-19 and pandemic control measures on public transport ridership in European urban areas - The cases of Vienna, Innsbruck, Oslo, and Agder.

Transp Res Interdiscip Perspect 2021 Jun 30;10:100376. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

WIENER LINIEN GmbH & Co KG, Erdbergstraße 202, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

The study uses the case of two regions with small and medium sized cities (Agder in Norway and the greater Innsbruck area in Austria) and two European capitals, Vienna and Oslo, to showcase the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public transport ridership in northern and central Europe. The comprehensive timeline of actions taken by governments and public transport providers in Austria and Norway, and their impact on public transport ridership in the first and second waves of the pandemic form the basis of a descriptive study. Comparing the data, a strong negative impact on the public transport patronage in the first wave of the pandemic was found, despite a comparable low number of cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Read More

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Comparative permeability of three saikosaponins and corresponding saikogenins in Caco-2 model by a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Aug 30;11(4):435-443. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Saikosaponins (SSs) are the main active components extracted from Bupleuri Radix (BR) which has been used as an important herbal drug in Asian countries for thousands of years. It has been reported that the intestinal bacteria plays an important role in the in vivo disposal of oral SSs. Although the deglycosylated derivatives (saikogenins, SGs) of SSs metabolized by the intestinal bacteria are speculated to be the main components absorbed into the blood after oral administration of SSs, no studies have been reported on the characteristics of SGs for their intestinal absorption, and those for SSs are also limited. Read More

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Container fleet renewal considering multiple sulfur reduction technologies and uncertain markets amidst COVID-19.

J Clean Prod 2021 Oct 18;317:128361. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Transport Studies, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China.

The onset of 2020 is marked by stricter restrictions on maritime sulfur emissions and the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this background, liner companies now face the challenge to find suitable sulfur reduction technologies, make reasonable decisions on fleet renewal, and prepare stable operation plans under the highly uncertain shipping market. Considering three sulfur reduction technologies, namely, fuel-switching, scrubber, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) dual-fuel engine, this paper develops a robust optimization model based on two-stage stochastic linear programming (SLP) to formulate a decision plan for container fleet, which can deal with various uncertainties in future: freight demand, ship charter rate, fuel price, retrofit time and Sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA) ratio. Read More

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October 2021

The Mesorhizobium huakuii transcriptional regulator AbiEi plays a critical role in nodulation and is important for bacterial stress response.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Sep 12;21(1):245. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Hubei Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Center for Resources and Utilization of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei, China.

Background: Bacterial abortive infection (Abi) systems are type IV toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, which could elicit programmed cell death and constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria under various stress conditions. However, no rhizobial AbiE family TA system has been reported so far. Here, a M. Read More

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September 2021

Dietary lysine restriction induces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle through an increase in serum threonine levels in rats.

J Biol Chem 2021 Sep 8:101179. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry. Electronic address:

We previously reported that dietary amino acid restriction induces the accumulation of triglycerides (TAG) in the liver of growing rats. However, differences in TAG accumulation in individual cell types or other tissues were not examined. In this study, we show that TAG also accumulates in the muscle and adipose tissues of rats fed a low amino acid (low-AA) diet. Read More

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September 2021

Transport of TiO and CeO nanoparticles in saturated porous media in the presence of surfactants with environmentally relevant concentrations.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Rd., Shanghai, 200234, People's Republic of China.

Nanomaterials are threatening the environment and human health, but there has been little discussion about the stability and mobility of nanoparticles (NPs) in saturated porous media at environmentally relevant concentrations of surfactants, which is a knowledge gap in exploring the fate of engineered NPs in groundwater. Therefore, the influences of the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDBS), the cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB), and the nonionic surfactant (Tween-80) with environmentally relevant concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L on nano-TiO (nTiO, negatively charged) and nano-CeO (nCeO, positively charged) transport through saturated porous media were examined by column experiments. On the whole, with increasing SDBS concentration from 0 to 20 mg/L, the concentration peak of nTiO and nCeO in effluents increased by approximately 0. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of Wear of Disc Brake Friction Linings and the Variability of the Friction Coefficient on the Basis of Vibroacoustic Signals.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 3;21(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Institute of Transport, Faculty of Transport and Civil Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, Poland.

The article presents the results of friction and vibroacoustic tests of a railway disc brake carried out on a brake stand. The vibration signal generated by the friction linings provides information on their wear and offers evaluation of the braking process, i.e. Read More

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September 2021

Testing Sentinel-1 SAR Interferometry Data for Airport Runway Monitoring: A Geostatistical Analysis.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 27;21(17). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

School of Computing and Engineering, University of West London (UWL), St Mary's Road, Ealing, London W5 5RF, UK.

Multi-Temporal Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (MT-InSAR) techniques are gaining momentum in the assessment and health monitoring of infrastructure assets. Amongst others, the Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) technique has proven to be viable for the long-term evaluation of ground scatterers. However, its effectiveness as a routine tool for certain critical application areas, such as the assessment of millimetre-scale differential displacements in airport runways, is still debated. Read More

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AMPK Phosphorylation Is Controlled by Glucose Transport Rate in a PKA-Independent Manner.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 31;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy.

To achieve growth, microbial organisms must cope with stresses and adapt to the environment, exploiting the available nutrients with the highest efficiency. In , Ras/PKA and Snf1/AMPK pathways regulate cellular metabolism according to the supply of glucose, alternatively supporting fermentation or mitochondrial respiration. Many reports have highlighted crosstalk between these two pathways, even without providing a comprehensive mechanism of regulation. Read More

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The Amino Acid-mTORC1 Pathway Mediates APEC TW-XM-Induced Inflammation in bEnd.3 Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 26;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is key to establishing and maintaining homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS); meningitis bacterial infection can disrupt the integrity of BBB by inducing an inflammatory response. The changes in the cerebral uptake of amino acids may contribute to inflammatory response during infection and were accompanied by high expression of amino acid transporters leading to increased amino acid uptake. However, it is unclear whether amino acid uptake is changed and how to affect inflammatory responses in mouse brain microvascular endothelial (bEnd. Read More

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A New Biotechnology Method of Bioelements' Accumulation Monitoring in In Vitro Culture of .

Molecules 2021 Aug 26;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 9 Medyczna Street, 30-688 Kraków, Poland.

(J.E. Lange) Imbach is one the most popular species of edible mushrooms in the world because of its taste and nutritional properties. Read More

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Hitchhiking Nanoparticles: Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Delivery of Theranostic Nanoparticles.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 9;13(37):43937-43951. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Biomedical Physics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, P. Baublio 3B, 08406 Vilnius, Lithuania.

Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising solution to permanent elimination of cancer. However, nanoparticles themselves lack specificity to tumors. Due to enhanced migration to tumors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were suggested as cell-mediated delivery vehicles of nanoparticles. Read More

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September 2021

Chemical composition characteristics and source analysis of PM in Jiaxing, China: Insights into the effect of COVID-19 outbreak.

Environ Technol 2021 Sep 9:1-29. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310000, China.

Jiaxing is a medium-sized city in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), which showed complex local and surrounding pollution sources. To study the COVID-19 impact on the ambient PM in Jiaxing, we collected the PM samples from January 2 to April 25, 2020 and analyzed their chemical compositions (including carbon components, water-soluble ions (WSIs), and inorganic elements). The concentration of PM was 83. Read More

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September 2021

Auxiliary Subunits Regulate the Dendritic Turnover of AMPA Receptors in Mouse Hippocampal Neurons.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 23;14:728498. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Institute for Physiology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

Different families of auxiliary subunits regulate the function and trafficking of native α (AMPA) receptors in the central nervous system. While a facilitatory role of auxiliary subunits in ER export and forward trafficking of newly synthesized AMPA receptors is firmly established, it is unclear whether auxiliary subunits also control endosomal receptor turnover in dendrites. Here, we manipulated the composition of AMPA receptor complexes in cultured hippocampal neurons by overexpression of two auxiliary subunits, (TARP) γ-8 or (CKAMP) 44a, and monitored dendritic receptor cycling in live-cell imaging experiments. Read More

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