1,429 results match your criteria transpiration rates

Effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Suillus variegatus) on the growth, hydraulic function, and non-structural carbohydrates of Pinus tabulaeformis under drought stress.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 10;21(1):171. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, People's Republic of China.

Background: A better understanding of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics in trees under drought stress is critical to elucidate the mechanisms underlying forest decline and tree mortality from extended periods of drought. This study aimed to assess the contribution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus (Suillus variegatus) to hydraulic function and NSC in roots, stems, and leaves of Pinus tabulaeformis subjected to different water deficit intensity. We performed a continuous controlled drought pot experiment from July 10 to September 10, 2019 using P. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aeroponic systems: A unique tool for estimating plant water relations and NO uptake in response to salinity stress.

Plant Direct 2021 Apr 29;5(4):e00312. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Midreshet Ben-Gurion Israel.

The study of transpiration, water, and nutrient uptake during abiotic stress in the root zone is hindered because of the hidden nature of the root zone. In this study, a modified aeroponic system was used to evaluate whole plant transpiration, nitrate and water uptake in the growth and development of tomato plants in response to salinity. Tomato seedlings were exposed to three levels of salinity (1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolome profiling reveals impact of water limitation on grain filling in contrasting rice genotypes.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 25;162:690-698. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, India. Electronic address:

Drought significantly decreases crop productivity, especially in high water consuming crops like rice. Grain filling is one of the important critical growth phases in rice and drought during this phase leads to significant reduction in yield. In this study, a comparison was made between IR64 (drought susceptible) and Apo (drought tolerant) rice genotypes to capture the response to water limitation (50% field capacity (FC)) compared with the control (100%FC) during grain filling. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anti-herbivore silicon defences in a model grass are greatest under Miocene levels of atmospheric CO.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia.

Silicon (Si) has an important role in mitigating diverse biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, mainly via the silicification of plant tissues. Environmental changes such as atmospheric CO concentrations may affect grass Si concentrations which, in turn, can alter herbivore performance. We recently demonstrated that pre-industrial atmospheric CO increased Si accumulation in Brachypodium distachyon grass, yet the patterns of Si deposition in leaves and whether this affects insect herbivore performance remains unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of water-nitrogen coupling on photosynthetic characteristics, yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency for mountain apple trees under surge-root irrigation in Northern Shaanxi area of China.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Mar;32(3):967-975

State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-Hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China.

Taking 7-year-old apple trees (Hanfu) as the test material, an experiment with three irrigation levels including high water (W, 85%-100%, was the field water holding capacity), medium water (W, 70%-85%) and low water (W, 55%-70%), and three nitrogen application levels, high (N, 600 kg·hm), medium (N, 400 kg·hm) and low (N, 200 kg·hm), was conducted to investigate the effects of water and nitrogen coupling on photosynthetic characteristics, yield and water and nitrogen utilization of apple trees in mountainous areas under surge-root irrigation (SRI). The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate (), transpiration rate (), stomatal conductance (), intercellular CO concentration (), leaf instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) of apple trees leaves decreased with decreasing nitrogen application rates under the same irrigation amount, but increased. Under the same nitrogen application rate, foliar , , and WUE decreased with decreasing irrigation amount, but increased. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of biochar amendment and reduced irrigation on growth, physiology, water-use efficiency and nutrients uptake of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) on two different soil types.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 25;770:144769. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Plant and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Alle 13, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark; Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Biochar has shown beneficial effects in agricultural production, yet the combined effects of biochar and reduced irrigation on crop growth and water-use efficiency (WUE) in diverse soil types have not been fully explored. A split-root pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of addition of 2% softwood (SWB) and wheat straw biochar (WSB) on growth, physiology, WUE and nutrients uptake of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants grown in a Ferrosol and an Anthrosol, respectively, under three irrigation treatments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Different tolerance to salinity of two populations of Oenothera drummondii with contrasted biogeographical origin.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 6;162:336-348. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080, Sevilla, Spain.

Oenothera drummondii is a native species from the coastal dunes of the Gulf of Mexico that has nowadays extended to coastal areas in temperate zones all over the world, its invasion becoming a significant problem locally. The species grows on back beach and incipient dunes, where it can suffer flooding by seawater, and sea spray. We were interested in knowing how salinity affects this species and if invasive populations present morphological or functional traits that would provide greater tolerance to salinity than native ones. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Scrutinizing the impact of water deficit in plants: Transcriptional regulation, signaling, photosynthetic efficacy, and management.

Physiol Plant 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Suboptimal availability of water limits plant growth, development, and performance. Drought is one of the leading factors responsible for worldwide crop yield reduction. In the future, owing to climate changes, more agricultural land will be affected by prolonged periods of water deficit. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

OsJAZ9 is involved in water-deficit stress tolerance by regulating leaf width and stomatal density in rice.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 2;162:161-170. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067, India. Electronic address:

Drought stress poses a severe threat to grain yield in rice. Our previous report demonstrated the role of OsJAZ9 in potassium homeostasis by modulating Jasmonic Acid (JA) signalling. While both potassium (K) and JA are known to have an important role in drought stress response, JA's repressor, i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exogenously Used 24-Epibrassinolide Promotes Drought Tolerance in Maize Hybrids by Improving Plant and Water Productivity in an Arid Environment.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Biology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

The influence of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), applied to leaves at a concentration of 5 μM, on plant physio-biochemistry and its reflection on crop water productivity (CWP) and other agronomic traits of six maize hybrids was field-evaluated under semi-arid conditions. Two levels of irrigation water deficiency (IWD) (moderate and severe droughts; 6000 and 3000 m water ha, respectively) were applied versus a control (well-watering; 9000 m water ha). IWD reduced the relative water content, membrane stability index, photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal conductance, and rates of transpiration and net photosynthesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The Physiological Response of Lettuce to Red and Blue Light Dynamics Over Different Photoperiods.

Front Plant Sci 2020 12;11:610174. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, Lithuania.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dynamic red and blue light parameters on the physiological responses and key metabolites in lettuce and also the subsequent impact of varying light spectra on nutritive value. We explored the metabolic changes in carotenes, xanthophylls, soluble sugars, organic acids, and antioxidants; the response of photosynthetic indices [photosynthetic (Pr) and transpiration (Tr) rates]; and the intracellular to ambient CO concentration ratios ( / ) in lettuce ( L. "Lobjoits Green Cos"). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Facile Bioself-Assembled Crystals in Plants Promote Photosynthesis and Salt Stress Resistance.

ACS Nano 2021 03 23;15(3):5165-5177. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education)/Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Salty soil is a global problem that has adverse effects on plants. We demonstrate that bioself-assembled molybdenum-sulfur (Mo-S) crystals formed by the foliar application of MoCl and cysteine augment the photosynthesis of plants treated with 200 mM salt for 7 days by promoting Ca signal transduction and free radical scavenging. Reductions in glutathione and phytochelatins were attributed to the biosynthesized Mo-S crystals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Boron uptake and distribution by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) as affected by different nitrogen forms under low and high boron supply.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 13;161:156-165. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Institute for Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Kiel University, Hermann Rodewald Strasse 2, D-24118, Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:

Ammonium (NH) and nitrate (NO) conversely alter pH of the rooting medium, and thus differentially affect the equilibrium between boric acid and borate in soil solution. This can alter boron (B) uptake by plants, which is passive under high, but facilitated (boric acid) or active (borate) under low B supply. Therefore, the effect of NH and NO forms was investigated on the growth, B uptake rate and accumulation, and expression of B transporters in Brassica napus grown with low (1 μM) or high (100 μM) B for five days in the nutrient solution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Squandering water in drylands: the water-use strategy of the phreatophyte Ziziphus lotus in a groundwater-dependent ecosystem.

Am J Bot 2021 02 14;108(2):236-248. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Biology and Geology, Universidad de Almería, Carretera de Sacramento s.n, La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, 04120, Spain.

Premise: Water is the most limiting factor in dryland ecosystems, and plants are adapted to cope with this constraint. Particularly vulnerable are phreatophytic plants from groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) in regions that have to face water regime alterations due to the impacts of climate and land-use changes.

Methods: We investigated two aspects related to the water-use strategy of a keystone species that dominates one of the few terrestrial GDEs in European drylands (Ziziphus lotus): where it obtains water and how it regulates its use. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Alleviation of Copper-Induced Stress in Pea ( L.) through Foliar Application of Gibberellic Acid.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente (Di3A), Università degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia, 5-95123 Catania, Italy.

Copper (Cu) is an essential metal for plants. However, its excess in soil can adversely affect plant metabolism. The current study evaluated the effects of gibberellic acid (GA) foliar applications on the performance of pea plants grown either in Cu-contaminated (Cu+) and non-contaminated (Cu-) soil. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Detection of Potassium Deficiency and Momentary Transpiration Rate Estimation at Early Growth Stages Using Proximal Hyperspectral Imaging and Extreme Gradient Boosting.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 1;21(3). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Porter School of Environment and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.

Potassium is a macro element in plants that is typically supplied to crops in excess throughout the season to avoid a deficit leading to reduced crop yield. Transpiration rate is a momentary physiological attribute that is indicative of soil water content, the plant's water requirements, and abiotic stress factors. In this study, two systems were combined to create a hyperspectral-physiological plant database for classification of potassium treatments (low, medium, and high) and estimation of momentary transpiration rate from hyperspectral images. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Water use of Prosopis juliflora and its impacts on catchment water budget and rural livelihoods in Afar Region, Ethiopia.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 29;11(1):2688. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

CABI, Rue des Grillons 1, 2800, Delémont, Switzerland.

Dense impenetrable thickets of invasive trees and shrubs compete with other water users and thus disrupt ecosystem functioning and services. This study assessed water use by the evergreen Prosopis juliflora, one of the dominant invasive tree species in semi-arid and arid ecosystems in the tropical regions of Eastern Africa. The objectives of the study were to (1) analyze the seasonal water use patterns of P. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Plasticity of the Cuticular Transpiration Barrier in Response to Water Shortage and Resupply in : A Role of Cuticular Waxes.

Front Plant Sci 2020 11;11:600069. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Henan Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology, College of Life Sciences, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang, China.

The cuticle is regarded as a non-living tissue; it remains unknown whether the cuticle could be reversibly modified and what are the potential mechanisms. In this study, three tea germplasms (, , and ) were subjected to water deprivation followed by rehydration. The epicuticular waxes and intracuticular waxes from both leaf surfaces were quantified from the mature 5th leaf. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Photosynthesis and Related Physiological Parameters Differences Affected the Isoprene Emission Rate among 10 Typical Tree Species in Subtropical Metropolises.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jan 22;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Volatile organic compound (VOCs) emission is an important cause of photochemical smog and particulate pollution in urban areas, and urban vegetation has been presented as an important source. Different tree species have different emission levels, so adjusting greening species collocation is an effective way to control biogenic VOC pollution. However, there is a lack of measurements of tree species emission in subtropical metropolises, and the factors influencing the species-specific differences need to be further clarified. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Impact of Ambient and Elevated [CO] in Low Light Levels on Growth, Physiology and Nutrient Uptake of Tropical Perennial Legume Cover Crops.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 20;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Biological Science, State University of Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, BA 45650-000, Brazil.

At early stages of establishment of tropical plantation crops, inclusion of legume cover crops could reduce soil degradation due to erosion and nutrient leaching. As understory plants these cover crops receive limited irradiance and can be subjected to elevated CO at ground level. A glasshouse experiment was undertaken to assess the effects of ambient (450 µmol mol) and elevated (700 µmol mol) levels of [CO] on growth, physiological changes and nutrient uptake of six perennial legume cover crops (Perennial Peanut, Ea-Ea, Mucuna, Pigeon pea, Lab lab, Cowpea) under low levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; 100, 200, and 400 µmol m s). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Changes in photosynthetic traits and their responses to increasing fertilization rates in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) during decades of genetic improvement.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Soybean Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China.

Backround: Changes in photosynthetic traits (PTs) during the long-term genetic improvement of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) yield have been studied, but detailed information on whether PT responses to environmental stress have improved, and their correlations with seed yield, are still unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Protection of Photosynthesis by Halotolerant ET101 in Tomato () and Rice () Plants During Salinity Stress: Possible Interplay Between Carboxylation and Oxygenation in Stress Mitigation.

Front Microbiol 2020 8;11:547750. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, India.

Tomato () and rice () are the two most important agricultural crops whose productivity is severely impacted by salinity stress. Soil salinity causes an irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus in plants at all developmental stages leading to significant reduction in agricultural productivity. Reduction in photosynthesis is the primary response that is observed in all glycophytic plants during salt stress. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Varied Expression of Senescence-Associated and Ethylene-Related Genes during Postharvest Storage of Vegetables.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 15;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

The genus comprises a highly diverse range of vegetable crops varying in morphology, harvestable crop product, and postharvest shelf-life that has arisen through domestication, artificial selection and plant breeding. Previous postharvest studies on the shelf-life of species has mainly focused on the variable rates of physiological changes including respiration and transpiration. Therefore, further understanding of the molecular basis of postharvest senescence in vegetables is needed to understand its progression in improving their postharvest shelf-life. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Harnessing nighttime transpiration dynamics for drought tolerance in grasses.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Apr 19;16(4):1875646. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Non-negligible nighttime transpiration rates (TR) have been identified in grasses such as wheat and barley. Evidence from the last 30 years indicate that in drought-prone environments with high evaporative demand, TR could amount to 8-55% of daytime TR, leading several investigators to hypothesize that reducing TR might represent a viable water-saving strategy that minimizes seemingly 'wasteful' water loss that is not traded for CO fixation. More recently however, evidence suggests that actual in TR during pre-dawn hours, which are presumably controlled by the circadian clock, mediate drought tolerance - not through water conservation - but by enabling maximized gas exchange early in the morning before midday depression sets in. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exploring the Potential of on Physiological Performances and Defense Response against Fusarium Crown Rot on Durum Wheat.

Pathogens 2021 Jan 8;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Laboratory of Genetics and Plant Breeding, National Institute of Agronomy of Tunis, 43, Av Charles Nicolle, Tunis 1082, Tunisia.

Coating seeds with bio-control agents is a potentially effective approach to reduce the usage of pesticides and fertilizers applied and protect the natural environment. This study evaluated the effect of seed coating with , strain INAT (MT731365), on seed germination, plant growth and photosynthesis, and plant resistance against , in durum wheat under controlled conditions. Compared to control plants, seed coating with promoted the wheat growth (shoot and roots length and biomass), and photosynthesis and transpiration traits (chlorophyll, ɸPSII, rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, etc. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Early Changes in Nitrate Uptake and Assimilation Under Drought in Relation to Transpiration.

Front Plant Sci 2020 23;11:602065. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Division of Controlled Environment Horticulture, Faculty of Life Sciences, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Soil drying combined with nitrogen (N) deficiency poses a grave threat to agricultural crop production. The rate at which nitrate (NO) is taken up depends partly on the uptake and transpiration of water. Rapid changes in nitrate assimilation, in contrast to other N forms, may serve as a component of the plant stress response to drought because nitrate assimilation may lead to changes in xylem pH. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Lead uptake and translocation pathways in soybean seedlings: the role of ion competition and transpiration rates.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal, Área Contaminación y Bioindicadores, FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, CONICET, Av. Vélez Sársfield 1611, X5016CGA, Córdoba, Argentina.

Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean) crop plants have been found to have high lead (Pb) levels in aerial organs; however, knowledge about the processes involved in the incorporation, and subsequent translocation and accumulation of the metal in the plants is scarce. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Abscisic acid-mediated modifications in water transport continuum are involved in cadmium hyperaccumulation in Sedum alfredii.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 16;268:129339. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

College of Resources, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. Electronic address:

Abscisic acid (ABA) play a crucial role in plant acclimation to heavy-metals stresses. Nevertheless, the effects of ABA on long-distance transport and its consequences for cadmium (Cd) accumulation are insufficiently understood. Here, we investigated the effects of ABA on the development of the whole-plant water transport pathway and implications for Cd uptake and transport to the shoot of Sedum alfredii. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Glyphosate hormesis mitigates the effect of water deficit in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 7;77(4):2029-2044. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Agricultural Sciences, Laboratory of Ecophysiology Applied to Agriculture, Department of Crop Production, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil.

Background: The current climate change scenario may affect water availability in the soil, impacting the agricultural sector. Planting of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has increased because of its potential for cultivation under drought conditions during the off-season in Brazil and its high potential for use in biofuel production. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of red light on photosynthetic acclimation and the gene expression of certain light signalling components involved in the microRNA biogenesis in the extremophile Eutrema salsugineum.

J Biotechnol 2021 Jan 7;325:35-42. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

K.A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

The photosynthetic acclimation of extremophile Eutrema salsugineum plants to red light (RL) (14 days, 150 μmol photons m s, 660 nm) and the expression of the key photoreceptor apoprotein genes, transcription factors (TFs) and associated with phytochrome system MIR (microRNA) genes were studied. RL exposure induced an increase in the content of anthocyanin and total phenolic compounds and the level of Chls was decreased. The photosystem 2 electron transport rate and the number of open reaction centres (q) were not changed in RL plants, however, the levels of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the regulated quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching Y(NPQ) were significantly higher in the RL plants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021