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Directly Patterning Conductive Polymer Electrodes on Organic Semiconductor via In Situ Polymerization in Microchannels for High-Performance Organic Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Aggregation Science, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin, China.

Conductive polymers are considered promising electrode materials for organic transistors, but the reported devices with conductive polymer electrodes generally suffer from considerable contact resistance. Currently, it is still highly challenging to pattern conductive polymer electrodes on organic semiconductor surfaces with good structure and interface quality. Herein, we develop an in situ polymerization strategy to directly pattern the top-contacted polypyrrole (PPy) electrodes on hydrophobic surfaces of organic semiconductors by microchannel templates, which is also applicable on diverse hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. Read More

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Effects of Counter Anions on AC and DC Electrical Conductivity in Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Crosslinked by Metal-Ligand Coordination.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 20;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Molecular Physics, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland.

There is an urgent need for the development of elastic dielectric materials for flexible organic field effect transistors (OFETs). In this work, detailed analysis of the AC and DC electrical conductivity of a series of flexible poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymers crosslinked by metal-ligand coordination in comparison to neat PDMS was performed for the first time by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The ligand was 2,2-bipyridine-4,4-dicarboxylic amide, and Ni, Mn, and Zn were introduced for Cl, Br, and I salts. Read More

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Ultrasensitive and Reliable Organic Field-Effect Transistor-Based Biosensors in Early Liver Cancer Diagnosis.

Anal Chem 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are considered as one of the cost-effective biosensor devices with rapid detection capabilities and multiparameter responses. However, the functionalization processes on normal organic devices might impact the device performance for its further sensitive and reliable sensing applications. Herein, we develop a novel organic material, 2,6-bis(4-formylphenyl)anthracene (BFPA) for use as the protective and functional layer of OFET-based biosensors, enabling ultrasensitive determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) with femtomolar accuracy in human serum. Read More

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Enhancement of Memory Properties of Pentacene Field-Effect Transistor by the Reconstruction of an Inner Vertical Electric Field with an n-Type Semiconductor Interlayer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 15;13(11):13452-13458. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Artificial Functional Materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China.

Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as nonvolatile memory units are essential for lightweight and flexible electronics, yet the practical application remains a great challenge. The positively charged defects in pentacene film at the interface between pentacene and polymer caused by environmental conditions, as revealed by theoretical and experimental research works, result in unacceptable high programming/erasing (P/E) gate voltages in pentacene OFETs with polymer charge-trapping dielectric. Here, we report a pentacene OFET in which an n-type semiconductor layer was intercalated between a polymer and a blocking insulator. Read More

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Enhancement of Charge Injection in Organic Field-Effect Transistors Through Semiconducting Organic Buffer Layer.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Jul;21(7):3923-3928

School of Electrical Engineering, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

We investigate the effect of a semiconducting organic buffer layer (SOBL) on the injection and transport of charges in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, two different injection barriers at the source/organic semiconductor interface are respectively studied with the aid of a numerical simulation: one is intermediate (0.4 eV), and the other is large energy barriers (0. Read More

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Multifunctional Benzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-]benzofuran Derivative with High Mobility and Luminescent Properties.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 8;13(10):12250-12258. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Advanced Materials, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Development of multifunctional materials and devices has garnered enormous attention in the field of organic optoelectronics; nevertheless, achieving high mobility together with strong luminescence in a single semiconductor remains a major bottleneck. Here, a new multifunctional semiconductor molecule, 2,7-diphenylbenzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-]benzofuran (BTBF-DPh), that integrates high charge transporting [1]benzothieno[3,2-][1]benzothiophene with a strongly emissive furan group, is synthesized and applied in three types of optoelectronic devices, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and organic phototransistors (OPTs). OLEDs based on BTBF-DPh as the emissive layer showed a blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0. Read More

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Cyano-Functionalized Quinoxaline-Based Polymer Acceptors for All-Polymer Solar Cells and Organic Transistors.

ChemSusChem 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

Quinoxaline (Qx) derivatives are promising building units for efficient photovoltaic polymers owing to their strong light absorption and high charge-transport abilities, but they have been used exclusively in the construction of polymer donors. Herein, for the first time, Qx-based polymer acceptors (P s) were developed by introducing electron-withdrawing cyano (CN) groups into the Qx moiety (QxCN). A series of QxCN-based P s, P(QxCN-T2), P(QxCN-TVT), and P(QxCN-T3), were synthesized by copolymerizing the QxCN unit with bithiophene, (E)-1,2-di(thiophene-2-yl)ethene, and terthiophene, respectively. Read More

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Direct imaging of electric field behavior in 2,7-diphenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-][1]benzothiophene organic field-effect transistors by sum-frequency generation imaging microscopy.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar;23(8):4944-4950

Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-5003, USA.

Sum-frequency generation imaging microscopy combined with compressive-sensing (CS-SFG) is a powerful micro-spectroscopic technique for probing interfaces and surfaces with a spatial resolution where contrast is based on the chemical functional groups. We reported the use of the CS-SFG technique to probe the electric field due to charge accumulation and the internal electric field in operating organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with the aluminum oxide and octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) self-assembled monolayer as the gate dielectric layer and 2,7-diphenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (DPh-BTBT) as the semiconductor layer. In addition, the electric field behavior was discussed by a difference in the electric field induced SFG intensity between the open-circuit and the voltage application conditions. Read More

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Modulation Doping for Threshold Voltage Control in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 11;13(7):8664-8671. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials, Technische Universität Dresden, Nöthnitzer Strasse 61, Dresden 01187, Germany.

Organic electronics is the technology enabling truly flexible electronic devices. However, despite continuous improvements in the charge-carrier mobility, devices used for digital circuits based on organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have still not achieved a commercial breakthrough. A substantial hurdle to the realization of effective digital circuitry is the proper control of the threshold voltage . Read More

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February 2021

Utilizing the Diffusion of Fluorinated Polymers to Modify the Semiconductor/Dielectric Interface in Solution-Processed Conjugated Polymer Field-Effect Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 10;13(7):8682-8691. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

It has been demonstrated that tailoring the properties of semiconductor/dielectric interfaces with fluorinated polymers yields better performance for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). However, it remains a challenge to fabricate bottom-gate OFET devices on fluorinated dielectrics using solution-processed methods due to the poor wettability of fluorinated dielectrics. Here, we utilized the diffusion of fluorinated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to construct the fluorine-rich semiconductor/dielectric interface to achieve the fabrication of bottom-gate OFETs with a solution-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) semiconductor layer. Read More

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February 2021

Charge Trapping in a Low-Crystalline High-Mobility Conjugated Polymer and Its Effects on the Operational Stability of Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea.

The effects of the microstructure of conjugated polymer thin films on charge trapping and operational stability of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are investigated. Device characteristics of OFETs based on two model conjugated polymers, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a random 3-hexylthiophene-thiophene copolymer (RP33), are compared. P3HT films have high crystallinity and long-range molecular order, whereas RP33 films have low crystallinity and short-range molecular order as well as enhanced polymer backbone planarity. Read More

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February 2021

Dual-functional optoelectronic memories based on ternary hybrid floating gate layers.

Nanoscale 2021 Feb;13(5):3295-3303

Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronics Information Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Optoelectronic memories based on organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have been extensively investigated, and great progress has been made in improving memory performance and reducing operating power consumption. Despite these achievements, optoelectronic memories reported so far have only a single storage function, such as light-assisted memory, light writing memory, or light-erasing memory, which may not meet the requirements of multi-functional storage in the future. Here, the dual-functional optoelectronic memories are demonstrated by employing ternary hybrid films as floating gate layers. Read More

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February 2021

The effects of cesium lead bromide quantum dots on the performance of copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors.

Nanotechnology 2021 May;32(19):195208

Molecular Electronics Research Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Allahabad, Prayagraj-211 002, India.

Highly luminescent all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr) perovskite quantum dots (QDs) have been extensively used as a photosensitizer in optoelectronic devices, while p-type small-organic-molecule copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is also widely used as a photoactive material in solar cells, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), etc. In this paper, we report the preparation of a CsPbBr-QDs/CuPc heterostructure to study the effect of CsPbBr-QDs on CuPc. The optical properties of both CuPc and the QDs/CuPc heterostructure were compared and contrasted using UV-vis absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Read More

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Thiophene-based twisted bistricyclic aromatic ene with tricoordinate boron: a new n-type semiconductor.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Feb 20;57(11):1316-1319. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Applied Chemistry Program, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527, Japan.

The incorporation of tricoordinate boron into conjugated systems is of current interest in the field of organic electronics. In this study, a tricoordinate boron-embedded thiophene-based bistricyclic aromatic ene (BAE) was synthesized as a new boron-containing conjugated system. The combination of tricoordinate boron and fused thiophene rings imposed the twisted conformation in the BAE structure, resulting in the narrow energy absorption with the low-lying LUMO. Read More

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February 2021

Thienoisoindigo (TII)-Based Quinoidal Small Molecules for High-Performance n-Type Organic Field Effect Transistors.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Jan 20;8(1):2002930. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Chemistry and the Materials Research Center Northwestern University Evanston IL 60208 USA.

A novel quinoidal thienoisoindigo (TII)-containing small molecule family with dicyanomethylene end-capping units and various alkyl chains is synthesized as n-type organic small molecules for solution-processable organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The molecular structure of the 2-hexyldecyl substituted derivative, , is determined via single-crystal X-ray diffraction and shows that the core is planar and exhibits molecular layers stacked in a "face-to-face" arrangement with short core intermolecular distances of 3.28 Å. Read More

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January 2020

On the Optical Activity of Poly(L-Lactic Acid) (PLLA) Oligomers and Polymer: Detection of Multiple Cotton Effect on Thin PLLA Solid Film Loaded with Two Dyes.

Authors:
Franco Cataldo

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 22;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Actinium Chemical Research Institute, Via Casilina 1626a, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) is a beautiful analytical technique for the study of chiral molecules and polymers. In this study, ORD was applied successfully to follow the degree of polycondensation of -(+)-lactic acid toward the formation of poly(lactic acid) oligomers (PLAO) and high molecular weight poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in a simple esterification reaction equipment. PLLA is a biodegradable polymer obtainable from renewable raw materials. Read More

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December 2020

Strategy for Selective Printing of Gate Insulators Customized for Practical Application in Organic Integrated Devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 28;13(1):1043-1056. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Advanced Organic Materials Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea.

Direct drawing techniques have contributed to the ease of patterning soft electronic materials, which are the building blocks of analog and digital integrated circuits. In parallel with the printing of semiconductors and electrodes, selective deposition of gate insulators (GI) is an equally important factor in simplifying the fabrication of integrated devices, such as NAND and NOR gates, and memory devices. This study demonstrates the fabrication of six types of printed GI layers (high/low- polymer and organic-inorganic hybrid material), which are utilized as GIs in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), using the electrostatic-force-assisted dispensing printing technique. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Charge Transport Property of Anthracene-Based Organic Semiconductors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 17;13(1):989-998. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581, Japan.

Anthracene, a simple planar building block for organic semiconductors, shows strong intermolecular interactions and exhibits strong blue fluorescence. Thus, its derivatives have a great potential to integrate considerable charge carrier mobility and strong emission within a molecule. Here, we systematically studied the influence of alkyl chain length on the crystal structures, thermal properties, photophysical characteristics, electrochemical behaviors, and mobilities for a series of 2,6-di(4-alkyl-phenyl)anthracenes (C-Ph-Ants, where represents the alkyl chain length). Read More

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January 2021

One-Step Sixfold Cyanation of Benzothiadiazole Acceptor Units for Air-Stable High-Performance n-Type Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 28;60(11):5970-5977. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Processable Electronics, Imperial College London, London, W12 0BZ, UK.

Reported here is a new high electron affinity acceptor end group for organic semiconductors, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,5,6-tricarbonitrile (TCNBT). An n-type organic semiconductor with an indacenodithiophene (IDT) core and TCNBT end groups was synthesized by a sixfold nucleophilic substitution with cyanide on a fluorinated precursor, itself prepared by a direct arylation approach. This one-step chemical modification significantly impacted the molecular properties: the fluorinated precursor, TFBT IDT, a poor ambipolar semiconductor, was converted into TCNBT IDT, a good n-type semiconductor. Read More

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Ultrasoft and High-Mobility Block Copolymers for Skin-Compatible Electronics.

Adv Mater 2021 Jan 14;33(4):e2005416. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Straße 6, Dresden, 01069, Germany.

Polymer semiconductors (PSCs) are an essential component of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), but their potential for stretchable electronics is limited by their brittleness and failure susceptibility upon strain. Herein, a covalent connection of two state-of-the-art polymers-semiconducting poly-diketo-pyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene (PDPP-TT) and elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-in a single triblock copolymer (TBC) chain is reported, which enables high charge carrier mobility and low modulus in one system. Three TBCs containing up to 65 wt% PDMS were obtained, and the TBC with 65 wt% PDMS content exhibits mobilities up to 0. Read More

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January 2021

Impact of Chlorination Patterns of Naphthalenediimide-Based Polymers on Aggregated Structure, Crystallinity, and Device Performance of All-Polymer Solar Cells and Organic Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 7;12(50):56240-56250. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

The aggregation properties of conjugated polymers can play a crucial role in their thin film structures and performance of electronic devices. Control of these aggregated structures is particularly important in producing efficient all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs), considering that strong demixing of the polymer donor and polymer acceptor typically occurs during film formation because of the low entropic contribution to the thermodynamics of the system. Here, three naphthalenediimide (NDI)-based polymer acceptors with different backbone chlorination patterns are developed to investigate the effect of the chlorination patterns on the aggregation tendencies of the polymer acceptors, which greatly influence their crystalline structures, electrical properties, and device performances of the resultant all-PSCs and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Read More

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December 2020

Isomers of B←N-Fused Dibenzo-azaacenes: How B←N Affects Opto-electronic Properties and Device Behaviors?

Chemistry 2021 Mar 3;27(13):4364-4372. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, 5625 Renmin Rd., Changchun, 130022, China.

The B←N unit has a large dipole and it is isoelectronic to C-C moiety with no dipole. Incorporating B←N units into π-conjugated system is a powerful strategy to design organic small molecules and polymers with intriguing opto-electronic properties and excellent opto-electronic device performance. However, it is unclear how the B←N unit affects electronic structures and opto-electronic properties of large π-conjugated molecules. Read More

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Electrode and dielectric layer interface device engineering study using furan flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole-dithienothiophene polymer based organic transistors.

Sci Rep 2020 Nov 17;10(1):19989. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD, 4000, Australia.

We successfully demonstrated a detailed and systematic enhancement of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) performance using dithienothiophene (DTT) and furan-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole based donor-acceptor conjugated polymer semiconductor namely PDPPF-DTT as an active semiconductor. The self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) treatments at interface junctions of the semiconductor-dielectric and at the semiconductor-metal electrodes has been implemented using bottom gate bottom contact device geometry. Due to SAM treatment at the interface using tailored approach, the significant reduction of threshold voltage (V) from - 15. Read More

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November 2020

Conducting Polymers for Optoelectronic Devices and Organic Solar Cells: A Review.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 9;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Gombak 53100, Malaysia.

In this review paper, we present a comprehensive summary of the different organic solar cell (OSC) families. Pure and doped conjugated polymers are described. The band structure, electronic properties, and charge separation process in conjugated polymers are briefly described. Read More

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November 2020

Immobilizing a π-Conjugated Catecholato Framework on Surfaces of SiO Insulator Films via a One-Atom Anchor of a Platinum Metal Center to Modulate Organic Transistor Performance.

Inorg Chem 2020 Dec 10;59(24):17945-17957. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1, Kouto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 6781297, Japan.

Chemical modification of insulating material surfaces is an important methodology to improve the performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). However, few redox-active self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been constructed on gate insulator film surfaces, in contrast to the numerous SAMs formed on many types of conducting electrodes. In this study, we report a new approach to introduce a π-conjugated organic fragment in close proximity to an insulating material surface via a transition metal center acting as a one-atom anchor. Read More

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December 2020

Geometry Control of Source/Drain Electrodes in Organic Field-Effect Transistors by Electrohydrodynamic Inkjet Printing.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 5;13(21). Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Molecular Physics, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland.

In this work we study the influence of dielectric surface and process parameters on the geometry and electrical properties of silver electrodes obtained by electrohydrodynamic inkjet printing. The cross-section and thickness of printed silver tracks are optimized to achieve a high conductivity. Silver overprints with cross-section larger than 4 μm and thickness larger than 90 nm exhibit the lowest resistivity. Read More

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November 2020

Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-Based Materials and Its Applications: A Review.

Front Chem 2020 10;8:679. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastic of Ministry of Education (QUST), School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, China.

Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) and its derivatives have been widely studied in the past few years due to its intrinsic physical and chemical properties, such as strong electron-withdrawing, deep color, high charge carrier mobility, strong aggregation, good thermal-/photo-stability. In the 1970s, DPP was developed and used only in inks, paints, and plastics. Later, DPP containing materials were found to have potential other applications, typically in electronic devices, which attracted the attention of scientists. Read More

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September 2020

Analytic Device Model of Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Doped Channels.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 26;12(44):49857-49865. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44240, United States.

Doping has been shown to not only provide additional degrees of freedom in the design of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) but to increase their performance and stability as well. An analytical model based on the assumption of a square doping profile inside the channel is presented here that describes the effect of doping on the transfer characteristic of OFETs. The model is validated experimentally by a series of OFETs with varying doping conditions. Read More

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November 2020

Hysteresis-Free, High-Performance Polymer-Dielectric Organic Field-Effect Transistors Enabled by Supercritical Fluid.

Research (Wash D C) 2020 30;2020:6587102. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

School of Advanced Materials, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are of the core units in organic electronic circuits, and the performance of OFETs replies critically on the properties of their dielectric layers. Owing to the intrinsic flexibility and natural compatibility with other organic components, organic polymers, such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), have emerged as highly interesting dielectric materials for OFETs. However, unsatisfactory issues, such as hysteresis, high subthreshold swing, and low effective carrier mobility, still considerably limit the practical applications of the polymer-dielectric OFETs for high-speed, low-voltage flexible organic circuits. Read More

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