118,467 results match your criteria transient effects

Multiple in vivo Effects of Cadmium on Photosynthetic Electron Transport in Pea Plants.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

The inhibitory effects of cadmium (CdSO ) on the primary photosynthetic processes were studied in vivo in Pisum sativum by using Multi-function Plant Efficiency Analyser (M-PEA-2). Photosynthetic parameters related to photosystem (PS) II, PS I and intersystem electron carriers were calculated from the light-induced kinetics of prompt chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP transient), delayed chlorophyll a fluorescence (DF), and 820 nm modulated reflection (MR). Low-dose exposure to cadmium (20 μM CdSO for 48 h) reduced probability of electron transfer from plastoquinones to the terminal electron acceptors of PSI (δ ) accompanied by a decrease in the rate of P and PC reduction (V ) and the magnitude of the I step on the DF kinetics. Read More

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Quercetin improves oxidative stress-induced pancreatic beta cell alterations via mTOR-signaling.

R Dhanya C C Kartha

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Society for Continuing Medical Education & Research, KIMS Health, P.B.No.1, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, 695029, Kerala, India.

Citrus flavonoids particularly quercetin which is abundant in grapefruit, onion, green tea, berries etc. are known to have a protective effect on oxidative stress. Pancreatic β cells which synthesize and secrete insulin are prone to oxidative stress induced damage because of low cellular antioxidant enzymes. Read More

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Acute Treatments for Episodic Migraine in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA 2021 Jun;325(23):2357-2369

Mayo Clinic Evidence-based Practice Center, Rochester, Minnesota.

Importance: Migraine is common and can be associated with significant morbidity, and several treatment options exist for acute therapy.

Objective: To evaluate the benefits and harms associated with acute treatments for episodic migraine in adults.

Data Sources: Multiple databases from database inception to February 24, 2021. Read More

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Deacylated tRNA Accumulation Is a Trigger for Bacterial Antibiotic Persistence Independent of the Stringent Response.

mBio 2021 Jun 15:e0113221. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Bacterial antibiotic persistence occurs when bacteria are treated with an antibiotic and the majority of the population rapidly dies off, but a small subpopulation enters into a dormant, persistent state and evades death. Diverse pathways leading to nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) depletion and restricted translation have been implicated in persistence, suggesting alternative redundant routes may exist to initiate persister formation. To investigate the molecular mechanism of one such pathway, functional variants of an essential component of translation (phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase [PheRS]) were used to study the effects of quality control on antibiotic persistence. Read More

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Nanoparticle Delivery of CD147 Antagonistic Peptide-9 Protects against Acute Ischemic Brain Injury and tPA-Induced Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2020 Apr 3;3(4):1976-1985. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Pennsylvania State, University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, United States.

CD147 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in many human diseases. We have demonstrated that inhibition of CD147 using its function-blocking antibody ameliorates acute ischemic brain injury and promotes long-term functional recovery in mice. Recently, peptide-nanoparticle conjugates have emerged as powerful tools for biomedical applications. Read More

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Effects of ring-strain on the ultrafast photochemistry of cyclic ketones.

Chem Sci 2020 Jan 13;11(7):1991-2000. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close Bristol BS8 1TS UK

Ring-strain in cyclic organic molecules is well-known to influence their chemical reactivity. Here, we examine the consequence of ring-strain for competing photochemical pathways that occur on picosecond timescales. The significance of Norrish Type-I photochemistry is explored for three cyclic ketones in cyclohexane solutions at ultraviolet (UV) excitation wavelengths from 255-312 nm, corresponding to an π* ← excitation to the lowest excited singlet state (S). Read More

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January 2020

Manipulating nonadiabatic conical intersection dynamics by optical cavities.

Chem Sci 2019 Dec 12;11(5):1290-1298. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine CA 92697 USA

Optical cavities hold great promise to manipulate and control the photochemistry of molecules. We demonstrate how molecular photochemical processes can be manipulated by strong light-matter coupling. For a molecule with an inherent conical intersection, optical cavities can induce significant changes in the nonadiabatic dynamics by either splitting the pristine conical intersections into two novel polaritonic conical intersections or by creating light-induced avoided crossings in the polaritonic surfaces. Read More

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December 2019

Novel Model for Rate Transient Analysis in Stress-Sensitive Shale Gas Reservoirs.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 27;6(22):14015-14029. Epub 2021 May 27.

SINOPEC Key Laboratory of Shale Oil/Gas Exploration & Production, Beijing 100083, China.

Technical advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enable shale to be commercially exploited. Due to the technical and economic limitations of well testing in shale gas plays, rate transient analysis has become a more attractive option. After hydraulic fracturing, flow mechanisms in multiple scaled pores of shale become extraordinarily complicated: adsorption in nanopores, diffusion in micropores, and non-Darcy flow in macropores. Read More

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Effect of Dapagliflozin on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Single-Center Survey.

Cureus 2021 May 11;13(5):e14974. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatobiliary Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneshwar, IND.

Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, with a global prevalence of 20%-40%. Approximately 40%-60% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) experience NAFLD; out of which 20%-40% cases may have higher severity. Due to the scarcity of available reports from the eastern part of India, we aimed to evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor used in these types of cases. Read More

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Immediate and Delayed Response of Simulated Human Atrial Myocytes to Clinically-Relevant Hypokalemia.

Front Physiol 2021 26;12:651162. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Although plasma electrolyte levels are quickly and precisely regulated in the mammalian cardiovascular system, even small transient changes in K, Na, Ca, and/or Mg can significantly alter physiological responses in the heart, blood vessels, and intrinsic (intracardiac) autonomic nervous system. We have used mathematical models of the human atrial action potential (AP) to explore the electrophysiological mechanisms that underlie changes in resting potential (V) and the AP following decreases in plasma K, [K], that were selected to mimic clinical hypokalemia. Such changes may be associated with arrhythmias and are commonly encountered in patients (i) in therapy for hypertension and heart failure; (ii) undergoing renal dialysis; (iii) with any disease with acid-base imbalance; or (iv) post-operatively. Read More

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Notch inhibitors induce diarrhea, hypercrinia and secretory cell metaplasia in the human colon.

EXCLI J 2021 26;20:819-827. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Gastroenterology, Kremlin Bicêtre Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.

In humans, inhibition of Notch oncogenic signaling leads to tumor regression. Preclinical studies indicate that Notch signaling contributes to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Here, we sought to describe the intestinal effects of a first-in-human Notch inhibitor in an indication of refractory cancer. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics of daridorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, are not affected by renal impairment.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics (PKs), safety, and tolerability of daridorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist intended for the treatment of insomnia. A single-center, open-label study evaluated the PKs of daridorexant in patients with severe renal function impairment (SRFI; determined by creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft-Gault equation; N = 8) not on dialysis, and in matched control subjects (based on sex, age, and body weight; N = 7). A single oral dose of daridorexant 25 mg was orally administered in the morning. Read More

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Molecular dynamics simulations of the effects of lipid oxidation on the permeability of cell membranes.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Jun 4;141:107869. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LPCT, F-54000 Nancy, France. Electronic address:

The formation of transient pores in their membranes is a well-known mechanism of permeabilization of cells exposed to high-intensity electric pulses. However, the formation of such pores is not able to explain all aspects of the so-called electroporation phenomenon. In particular, the reasons for sustained permeability of cell membranes, persisting long after the pulses' application, remain elusive. Read More

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Ferulic acid, a phytochemical with transient anorexigenic effects in birds.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Jun 10;259:111015. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA; School of Neuroscience, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic acid found within the plant cell wall that has physiological benefits as an antioxidant. Although metabolic benefits of FA supplementation are described, lacking are reports of effects on appetite regulation. Thus, our objective was to determine if FA affects food or water intake, using chicks as a model. Read More

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Preceding direct oral anticoagulant administration reduces the severity of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation - K-PLUS registry.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul 6;89:106-112. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan; Department of Amyloidosis, Nagasaki International University, Sasebo, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Stroke severity can be mitigated by preceding anticoagulant administration in acute ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated if such mitigative effects are different between warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs).

Material And Methods: We collected data from a regional multicenter stroke registry. Read More

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Long-term effect of apomorphine infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease: a real-life study.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2021 Jun 11;7(1):50. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Neurology Department, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Long-term effects of continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and predictors of CSAI discontinuation are poorly known. Data from consecutive advanced Parkinson's disease patients treated in routine care were retrospectively collected over 24 months after CSAI initiation, with a focus on the 39-item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39). We determined predictors of CSAI discontinuation and HRQoL improvement using multiple regression analysis. Read More

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Reappearance of Neurological Deficits in Pathologic Brain: Are Sedatives and Opioids Culprits? A Systematic Review.

J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON Section Intervention Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Department of Pathology, Institute of Cardiovascular Physiopathology, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Following a brain insult, focal neurological deficits may develop. Despite resolution of these deficits with time, the subsequent administration of sedative medications and opioids may lead to recrudescence of previous neurological deficits. Therefore, the present systematic review aims to explore the role of different sedatives and opioid analgesics at reproducing focal neurological deficits in patients with previous brain insults undergoing surgery. Read More

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Fluid-structure interaction modeling of lactating breast: Newtonian vs. non-Newtonian milk.

J Biomech 2021 May 13;124:110500. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, USA. Electronic address:

Breastfeeding is a highly dynamic and complex mechanism. The suckling process by the infant involves compression and intra-oral vacuum pressure, leading to milk expression from breast. The accumulated milk from the nipple varies depending on the milk properties and transient flow rate during the suckling cycle. Read More

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Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos in the bottled tea beverages and the effects of EGCG.

J Food Prot 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Anhui Agricultural University No.130 Changjiang West Road CHINA Hefei 230036.

Bottled tea beverages (BTB) are popular for the benefits to human health and convenience. Because Chlorpyrifos (CP) is commonly used as a biomarker for exposure as well as a pesticide in the field, it is important to determine the dynamics of CP dissipation in BTB in order to better perform risk assessments. This study focused on the dynamic behavior of CP for 22 days by fortifying bottled green tea (GT), dark tea (DT), and Oolong tea (OT) beverages with the parent chemical and analyzing the degradation products. Read More

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Prophylactic dialysis improves short-term clinical outcome in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease undergoing cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Nephrology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P.R.China.

Background: Several studies have reported that prophylactic dialysis can reduce the mortality of non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients after cardiac surgery. However, the results of complications in these randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were not consistent. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the effect of prophylactic dialysis in these non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients. Read More

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Effects of Estradiol on Immunoglobulin G Glycosylation: Mapping of the Downstream Signaling Mechanism.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:680227. Epub 2021 May 25.

Genos Glycoscience Research Laboratory, Zagreb, Croatia.

Glycans attached to immunoglobulin G (IgG) directly affect this antibody effector functions and regulate inflammation at several levels. The composition of IgG glycome changes significantly with age. In women, the most notable change coincides with the perimenopausal period. Read More

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Improving NKCC1 Function Increases the Excitability of DRG Neurons Exacerbating Pain Induced After TRPV1 Activation of Primary Sensory Neurons.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 25;15:665596. Epub 2021 May 25.

The Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Department of Physiology, Shihezi University Medical College, Shihezi, China.

Our aim was to investigate the effects of the protein expression and the function of sodium, potassium, and chloride co-transporter (NKCC1) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) in capsaicin-induced acute inflammatory pain and the possible mechanism of action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, capsaicin, and inhibitor groups. The expression and distribution of TRPV1 and NKCC1 in rat DRG were observed by immunofluorescence. Read More

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PFKFB3-dependent glucose metabolism regulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte development.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21728

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes, and other cell types, is accompanied by an increase in glucose uptake. Previous work showed that a pulse of high glucose was required during the first 3 days of differentiation in vitro, but was not required after that. The specific glucose metabolism pathways required for adipocyte differentiation are unknown. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of esaxerenone (CS-3150) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and macroalbuminuria: a multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase III study.

Clin Exp Nephrol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Clinical Development Department, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Esaxerenone has potential renoprotective effects and reduces the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in patients with diabetic kidney disease and overt nephropathy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of esaxerenone in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and macroalbuminuria (UACR ≥ 300 mg/g creatinine).

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase III study in 56 patients with T2D and UACR ≥ 300 mg/g creatinine with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 30 mL/min/1. Read More

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Expression liabilities in a four-chain bispecific molecule.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California, USA.

Multispecific antibodies, often composed of three to five polypeptide chains, have become increasingly relevant in the development of biotherapeutics. These molecules have mechanisms of action that include redirecting T cells to tumors and blocking multiple pathogenic mediators simultaneously. One of the major challenges for asymmetric multispecific antibodies is generating a high proportion of the correctly paired antibody during production. Read More

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The Relevance of Diet, Physical Activity, Exercise, and Persuasive Technology in the Prevention and Treatment of Sarcopenic Obesity in Older Adults.

Front Nutr 2021 24;8:661449. Epub 2021 May 24.

Faculty of Sports and Nutrition, Centre of Expertise Urban Vitality, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The aging population faces two conditions that threaten healthy aging: high fat mass (obesity) and low muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). The combination of both-referred to as sarcopenic obesity-synergistically increases the risk of adverse health outcomes. The two conditions often co-occur because they reinforce each other and share common etiologies, including poor nutrition and inactivity. Read More

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Role of TRPM2 in brain tumours and potential as a drug target.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Surgery, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Ion channels are ubiquitously expressed in almost all living cells, and are the third-largest category of drug targets, following enzymes and receptors. The transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) subfamily of ion channels are important to cell function and survival. Studies have shown upregulation of the TRPM family of ion channels in various brain tumours. Read More

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Zika Virus Induces an Atypical Tripartite Unfolded Protein Response with Sustained Sensor and Transient Effector Activation and a Blunted BiP Response.

mSphere 2021 Jun 9:e0036121. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

To study how the Zika virus (ZIKV) interacts with the host unfolded protein response (UPR), we undertook a kinetics study. We show that ZIKV infection triggers an atypical tripartite UPR in A549 cells involving transient activation of the effectors X-box-binding protein 1, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein, and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 during early infection and sustained activation of all three UPR sensors: RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum-resident kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring kinase-1α (IRE1α), and ATF6. Sustained phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and rRNA degradation coincide with host translational shutoff, cell lysis, and virus release during late infection. Read More

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Dynamic plant-soil microbe interactions: the neglected effect of soil conditioning time.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Plant-soil feedback (PSF) may change in strength over the life of plant individuals as plants continue to modify the soil microbial community. However, the temporal variation in PSF is rarely quantified and its impacts on plant communities remain unknown. Using a chronosequence reconstructed from annual aerial photographs of a coastal dune ecosystem, we characterized > 20-yr changes in soil microbial communities associated with individuals of the four dominant perennial species, one legume and three nonlegume. Read More

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Use of Plerixafor for Stem Cell Mobilization in the Setting of Autologous and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantations: An Update.

Yavuz M Bilgin

J Blood Med 2021 2;12:403-412. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Internal Medicine/Hematology, Admiraal de Ruijter Hospital, Goes, the Netherlands.

Mobilization failure is an important issue in stem cell transplantations. Stem cells are yielded from the peripheral blood via apheresis. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the most commonly used mobilization agent among patients and donors. Read More

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