13,394 results match your criteria transgenic rats

Modulation of Huntington's disease in Drosophila.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Drosophila Transgenic Laboratory, Section of Genetics, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, Uttar Pradesh. India.

Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which deteriorates the physical and mental abilities of the patients. It is an autosomal dominant disorder and is mainly caused by the expansion of a repeating CAG triplet. A number of animal models ranging from worms, fruit flies, mice and rats to pigs, sheep and monkeys are available which have been helpful in understanding various pathways involved during the progression of the disease. Read More

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Ventral Pallidum GABA Neurons Mediate Motivation Underlying Risky Choice.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Neurobiology & Behavior, University of California, Irvine, 1203 McGaugh Hall, Irvine, CA 92697.

Pursuing rewards while avoiding danger is an essential function of any nervous system. Here, we examine a new mechanism helping rats negotiate the balance between risk and reward when making high-stakes decisions. Specifically, we focus on GABA neurons within an emerging mesolimbic circuit nexus-the ventral pallidum (VP). Read More

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Age-related changes in NG2-expressing telocytes of rat stomach.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(4):e0249729. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory for Cellular Function Imaging, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Japan.

NG2 immunoreactive cells (NG2 cells) are found in the brain and peripheral tissues including the skin, intestinal tracts, and bladder. In a previous study, we observed the presence of NG2 cells in the stomach using bioluminescence imaging techniques in NG2-firefly luciferase (fLuc) transgenic (Tg) rats. Here, we aimed to identify and characterize NG2 cells in the adult rat stomach. Read More

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Hypertension due to loss of water.

Armin Just

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 Apr 5:e13658. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Physiologisches Institut Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany.

In the current issue of Acta Physiologica, two papers are published investigating the development of arterial hypertension under conditions of pathological loss of free water in two disease models. Kovaric et al studied rats with chronic renal failure, shedding excessive free water via their remnant kidney due to a hypostenuric concentrating defect. Wild et al. Read More

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Endothelin B receptors impair baroreflex function and increase blood pressure variability during high salt diet.

Auton Neurosci 2021 May 11;232:102796. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Cardio-Renal Physiology and Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, United States of America.

Baroreflex function is an integral component maintaining consistent blood pressure. Hypertension is often associated with baroreflex dysfunction, and environmental risk factors such as high salt diet exacerbate hypertension in subjects with baroreflex dysfunction. However, the interactions between high salt diet, baroreflex dysfunction, and hypertension are incompletely understood. Read More

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The evolution of dystonia-like movements in TOR1A rats after transient nerve injury is accompanied by dopaminergic dysregulation and abnormal oscillatory activity of a central motor network.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Mar 19;154:105337. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Würzburg, 97080, Germany. Electronic address:

TOR1A is the most common inherited form of dystonia with still unclear pathophysiology and reduced penetrance of 30-40%. ∆ETorA rats mimic the TOR1A disease by expression of the human TOR1A mutation without presenting a dystonic phenotype. We aimed to induce dystonia-like symptoms in male ∆ETorA rats by peripheral nerve injury and to identify central mechanism of dystonia development. Read More

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Isolation of Murine Primary Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells.

Bio Protoc 2021 Feb 5;11(3):e3907. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Division of Vascular Signaling and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have been cultured for decades to study the role of these cells in cardiovascular disorders. The most common source of VSMCs is the rat aorta. Here we show the adaptation of this method to isolate and culture mouse aortic VSMCs. Read More

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February 2021

Vasopressin Neurons Respond to Hyperosmotic Stimulation with Regulatory Volume Increase and Secretory Volume Decrease by Activating Ion Transporters and Ca Channels.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 Mar;55(S1):119-134

National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan,

Background/aims: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons play an important role for sensing a change in the plasma osmolarity and thereby responding with regulated AVP secretion in order to maintain the body fluid homeostasis. The osmo-sensing processes in magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) including AVP and oxytocin (OXT) neurons of the hypothalamus were reported to be coupled to sustained osmotic shrinkage or swelling without exhibiting discernible cell volume regulation. Since increasing evidence has shown some important differences in properties between AVP and OXT neurons, osmotic volume responses are to be reexamined with distinguishing these cell types from each other. Read More

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Striatal ΔFosB gene suppression inhibits the development of abnormal involuntary movements induced by L-Dopa in rats.

Gene Ther 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is associated with the upregulation of striatal ∆FosB in animal models and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A mechanistic role of ∆FosB is suspected because its transgenic overexpression leads to the early appearance of LID in rodents and primates. This study in rodents is aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of striatal ∆FosB gene suppression to control LID in patients with PD. Read More

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Extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibition prevents venous adaptive remodeling via regulation of Eph-B4.

Vascular 2021 Mar 11:1708538121999854. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Fuwai Yunnan Cardiovascular Hospital, Kunming, China.

Objectives: Vein graft adaptation (VGA) is a process that vein as a vascular graft conduits in arterial reconstructive surgery; VGA can lead to postoperative vein graft stenosis (VGS) and complications after coronary artery bypass graft and other peripheral artery bypass surgeries. VGA is characterized by vein graft loss the venous features without exhibiting arterial features; furthermore, the activation of ERK inhibited the maintenance of venous properties of the vein graft. We hypothesized that ERK inhibition can affect vein VGS through regulating the expression of EphB4. Read More

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A safe and highly efficacious measles virus-based vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 stabilized prefusion spike.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 03;118(12)

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210;

The current pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights an urgent need to develop a safe, efficacious, and durable vaccine. Using a measles virus (rMeV) vaccine strain as the backbone, we developed a series of recombinant attenuated vaccine candidates expressing various forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and its receptor binding domain (RBD) and evaluated their efficacy in cotton rat, IFNARmice, IFNAR-hCD46 mice, and golden Syrian hamsters. We found that rMeV expressing stabilized prefusion S protein (rMeV-preS) was more potent in inducing SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies than rMeV expressing full-length S protein (rMeV-S), while the rMeVs expressing different lengths of RBD (rMeV-RBD) were the least potent. Read More

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Acrolein-conjugated proteomics in brains of adult C57BL/6 mice chronically exposed to acrolein and aged APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jun 3;344:11-17. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 518000, China; National and Local United Engineering Lab of Druggability and New Drugs Evaluation, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China; International Joint Laboratoryof Novel Anti-Dementia Drugs of Guangzhou, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Acrolein is a universal contaminant with high nucleophilicity in environment and also an endogenous product from lipid peroxidation or polyamine metabolism. Acrolein can react with nucleophilic amino acids, such as cysteines, lysines and histidines via Michael addition. Also, Schiff base products can be formed between acrolein and free amine of lysines. Read More

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HGF and TSG-6 Released by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Colon Radiation-Induced Fibrosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 11;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Service de Recherche en Radiobiologie et en Médecine Régénérative (SERAMED), Laboratoire de Radiobiologie des Expositions Médicales (LRMED), Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses, F-92260 Paris, France.

Fibrosis is a leading cause of death in occidental states. The increasing number of patients with fibrosis requires innovative approaches. Despite the proven beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosis, there is little evidence of their anti-fibrotic effects in colorectal fibrosis. Read More

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February 2021

Homozygosity of BACHD rats not only causes strong behavioral deficits in young female rats but also a reduced breeding success.

Brain Res 2021 Mar 2;1761:147396. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

QPS Austria GmbH, Neuropharmacology, Parkring 12, 8074 Grambach, Austria. Electronic address:

Huntington's disease is known to be a purely genetic disease based on an expansion of a CAG base triplet repeat in the coding region of the Huntingtin gene. Some years ago, researchers were able to introduce the extensive full-length gene sequence of the mutant huntingtin gene into a rodent model. The resulting BACHD rat is already well characterized for behavioral deficits. Read More

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Dietary Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate Counteracts the Benefits of Statin Therapy in Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension.

Circulation 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine; Key Laboratory of Pulmonary Diseases of Ministry of Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The mevalonate pathway generates endogenous cholesterol and intermediates including geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). By reducing GGPP production, statins exert pleiotropic or cholesterol-independent effects. The potential regulation of GGPP homeostasis through dietary intake and the interaction with concomitant statin therapy is unknown. Read More

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Preclinical validation of a potent γ-secretase modulator for Alzheimer's disease prevention.

J Exp Med 2021 Apr;218(4)

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

A potent γ-secretase modulator (GSM) has been developed to circumvent problems associated with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and to potentially enable use in primary prevention of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD). Unlike GSIs, GSMs do not inhibit γ-secretase activity but rather allosterically modulate γ-secretase, reducing the net production of Aβ42 and to a lesser extent Aβ40, while concomitantly augmenting production of Aβ38 and Aβ37. This GSM demonstrated robust time- and dose-dependent efficacy in acute, subchronic, and chronic studies across multiple species, including primary and secondary prevention studies in a transgenic mouse model. Read More

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[Imaging and Manipulation of Stem and Progenitor Cells for Revealing the Novel Mechanism of Local Tissue Maintenance in the Brain].

Yosky Kataoka

Yakugaku Zasshi 2021 ;141(3):343-348

Laboratory for Cellular Function Imaging, RIKEN Biosystems Dynamics Research.

We have been investigating the physiological and pathological roles of stem cells and progenitor cells in the central nervous system using multimodal imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), in vivo optical imaging, and light as well as electron microscopy. Furthermore, we generated transgenic rats for selective ablation of these cells. Imaging studies have demonstrated the proliferation and dynamics of neural stem cells in neurogenic regions and glial progenitor cells expressing a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (neuron-glial antigen 2; NG2) in the brain of adult rodents. Read More

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January 2021

Background data of 2-year-old male and female F344 delta rats.

J Toxicol Pathol 2021 Jan 3;34(1):23-31. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-9501, Japan.

Although delta rats, as reporter gene-transgenic rats, were originally developed for mutation assays, they have also been used to evaluate chemical carcinogenesis and comprehensive toxicity. Therefore, it is necessary to accumulate background data on carcinogenicity and general toxicity in delta rats. Here, we investigated the background data of 110-week-old male and female F344 delta rats and wild-type rats. Read More

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January 2021

Generation of reconstituted hemato-lymphoid murine embryos by placental transplantation into embryos lacking HSCs.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 23;11(1):4374. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8575, Japan.

In order to increase the contribution of donor HSC cells, irradiation and DNA alkylating agents have been commonly used as experimental methods to eliminate HSCs for adult mice. But a technique of HSC deletion for mouse embryo for increase contribution of donor cells has not been published. Here, we established for the first time a procedure for placental HSC transplantation into E11. Read More

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February 2021

Sleep down state-active ID2/Nkx2.1 interneurons in the neocortex.

Nat Neurosci 2021 03 22;24(3):401-411. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Neuroscience Institute and Department of Neurology, Langone Medical Center, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons fire together in balanced cortical networks. In contrast to this general rule, we describe a distinct neuron type in mice and rats whose spiking activity is anti-correlated with all principal cells and interneurons in all brain states but, most prevalently, during the down state of non-REM (NREM) sleep. We identify these down state-active (DSA) neurons as deep-layer neocortical neurogliaform cells that express ID2 and Nkx2. Read More

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Crocin Treatment after Maternal Hypoxia Attenuates Spatial Memory Impairment and Expression of BACE1 and HIF-1α in Rat Offspring Brain.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2020 Jul-Aug;11(4):499-506. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

Introduction: Hypoxia via expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is an important and effective factor in the onset and progression of memory disorders, such as Alzheimer Disease (AD). The activity of β-secretase (BACE1) is increased in hypoxia conditions. BACE1 triggers a cascade of pathological events resulting in AD. Read More

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Cell tracking suggests pathophysiological and therapeutic role of bone marrow cells in Sugen5416/hypoxia rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Respirology (B2).

Background: The mechanism of vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unclear. Hence, defining the origin of cells constituting intractable vascular lesions in PAH is expected to facilitate therapeutic progress. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the origin of intractable vascular lesions in PAH rodent models via bone marrow (BM) and orthotopic lung transplantation (LT). Read More

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February 2021

AT receptor blocker, but not an ACE inhibitor, prevents kidneys from hypoperfusion during congestive heart failure in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 19;11(1):4271. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Center for Experimental Medicine, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 1958/9 Videnska, 14000, Prague 4, Czech Republic.

To provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of heart failure-induced renal dysfunction, we compared the effects of ACE inhibitor (ACEi) and AT receptor blocker (ARB) on systemic and kidney hemodynamics during heart failure in normotensive HanSD and hypertensive transgenic (TGR) rats. High-output heart failure was induced by creating an aorto-caval fistula (ACF). After five weeks, rats were either left untreated or treatment with ACEi or ARB was started for 15 weeks. Read More

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February 2021

A simple adeno-associated virus-based approach for the generation of cardiac genetic models in rats.

F1000Res 2020 10;9. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1 Efron Street, P.O. Box 9697, Haifa, 3109601, Israel.

Heart failure is a major health problem and progress in this field relies on better understanding of the mechanisms and development of novel therapeutics using animal models. The rat may be preferable to the mouse as a cardiovascular disease model due to its closer physiology to humans and due to its large size that facilitates surgical and monitoring procedures. However, unlike the mouse, genetic manipulation of the rat genome is challenging. Read More

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Genetically Modified Rabbits for Cardiovascular Research.

Front Genet 2021 2;12:614379. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Center for Advanced Models for Translational Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Rabbits are one of the most used experimental animals for investigating the mechanisms of human cardiovascular disease and lipid metabolism because they are phylogenetically closer to human than rodents (mice and rats). Cholesterol-fed wild-type rabbits were first used to study human atherosclerosis more than 100 years ago and are still playing an important role in cardiovascular research. Furthermore, transgenic rabbits generated by pronuclear microinjection provided another means to investigate many gene functions associated with human disease. Read More

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February 2021

SARS-CoV-2 M inhibitors with antiviral activity in a transgenic mouse model.

Science 2021 03 18;371(6536):1374-1378. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continually poses serious threats to global public health. The main protease (M) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a central role in viral replication. We designed and synthesized 32 new bicycloproline-containing M inhibitors derived from either boceprevir or telaprevir, both of which are approved antivirals. Read More

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Genetic background influences LRRK2-mediated Rab phosphorylation in the rat brain.

Brain Res 2021 May 15;1759:147372. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Duke Center for Neurodegeneration Research, Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Pathogenic missense mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene, encoding LRRK2, results in the upregulation of Rab10 and Rab12 phosphorylation in different cells and tissues. Here, we evaluate levels of the LRRK2 kinase substrates pT73-Rab10 and pS106-Rab12 proteins in rat brain tissues from different genetic backgrounds. Whereas lines of Sprague Dawley rats have equivalent levels of pT73-Rab10 and pS106-Rab12 similar to Lrrk2 knockout rats, Long-Evans rats have levels of pT73-Rab10 and pS106-Rab12 comparable to G2019S-LRRK2 BAC transgenic rats. Read More

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Effect of oral administration of Magnesium N-Acetyltaurinate on synaptic plasticity in rodents.

Magnes Res 2020 Nov;33(4):106-113

Department of Neuroscience, Research Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, University of Mons, Belgium.

While magnesium deficiency is common and its effects well known on the nervous system, very few studies has been dedicated to the efficiency of magnesium replacement treatments on the central nervous system. In this study, the effects of oral administration of magnesium salts of acetyl-taurinate on the central manifestations of magnesium deficiency is described in rats submitted to low-magnesium diet and in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the effect of ATA Mg, a salt combining magnesium and taurine, on the hippocampus, a critical component of cognition. Read More

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November 2020

Past experience shapes the neural circuits recruited for future learning.

Nat Neurosci 2021 03 15;24(3):391-400. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Program, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Experimental research controls for past experience, yet prior experience influences how we learn. Here, we tested whether we could recruit a neural population that usually encodes rewards to encode aversive events. Specifically, we found that GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) were not involved in learning about fear in naïve rats. Read More

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Crocin mitigated cognitive impairment and brain molecular alterations induced by different intensities of prenatal hypoxia in neonatal rats.

Brain Behav 2021 Apr 15;11(4):e02078. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Division of Physiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

Introduction: Brain hypoxia has important role to the onset and progression of sporadic form of Alzheimer disease via expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Crocin by anti-amyloidogenic property inhibits β-amyloid formation. However, the molecular mechanism associated with anti-amyloidogenic activity of crocin is unknown. Read More

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