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Social factors and worry associated with COVID-19: Evidence from a large survey in China.

Authors:
Min Zhou Wei Guo

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 14;277:113934. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Social Work and Social Policy, School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Nanjing University, Jiangsu Province, 210023, P. R. China; The Centre for Asia-Pacific Development Studies, Nanjing University, Jiangsu Province, 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: Worry about COVID-19 is an important cognitive component and manifestation of COVID-19-related anxiety. It has a social dimension and is shaped by various social factors.

Data: We employ original data from a large survey (N = 20,632) conducted in China from April 21 to 23, 2020, which provide us with a rare opportunity to investigate COVID-19-induced worry among ordinary Chinese citizens. Read More

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Cognition in context: Validating group-based executive function assessments in young children.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Apr 17;208:105131. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

The current article describes and validates a set of group-based executive function (EF) assessments for use with young children. These situational tasks involve instructing groups of young students to march to music while completing tasks that place demands on their EF abilities. These efforts were motivated by providing researchers with a set of measures that assess EF subcomponents while also accounting for the dynamic social processes present in group settings. Read More

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Young Infants Process Prediction Errors at the Theta Rhythm.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 17:118074. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstrasse 1A, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; University of Vienna, Faculty of Psychology, Liebiggasse 5, 1010 Vienna, Austria.

Examining how young infants respond to unexpected events is key to our understanding of their emerging concepts about the world around them. From a predictive processing perspective, it is intriguing to investigate how the infant brain responds to unexpected events (i.e. Read More

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Advances in research on echinococcoses epidemiology in China.

Acta Trop 2021 Apr 17:105921. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China; Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research, Shanghai, China; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Echinococcoses are serious zoonotic diseases in China's vast, western and north-western pastoral areas that has one of the highest prevalence in the world. The two most common forms, cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), are co-epidemic in some areas causing a grave threat to people's health and economic development. Echinococcus spp. Read More

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Community knowledge, attitude and practices to SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19): A cross-sectional study in Woldia town, Northeast Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250465. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Natural and Computational Sciences Faculty, Department of Biology, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia.

SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) is pandemic and currently becomes a serious cause of death worldwide. It is caused by a SARS-CoV-2 belonging to a family known as corona virus. The aim of this study is to assess the community knowledge, attitude and practice strategy implementation on SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). Read More

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Characterization and Comparison of Public, Medical Professionals and Technical Communities Utilization of Facebook Groups to Facilitate Idea Sharing and Crowdsourcing During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, US.

Background: Strict social distancing measures resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic have led people to rely more heavily on social media, such as Facebook Groups, as a means of communication and information sharing. Multiple Facebook Groups have been developed by medical professionals, lay people, and engineering or technical groups to discuss current issues and possible solutions to the medical crisis.

Objective: To characterize Facebook groups created by laypersons, medical professionals, and technical professionals, with specific focus on information dissemination and requests for crowdsourcing. Read More

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Physician's perspective regarding asthma guided self-management: directives or guidance?

J Asthma 2021 Apr 20:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Clinical Research and Knowledge Transfer Unit on Childhood Asthma, Research Centre, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Introduction: Asthma guided self-management enhances patients' control of their condition under the guidance of the treating physician. The aim of the present study was to understand how physicians perceive, endorse, uptake, and support asthma guided self-management.

Methods: We conducted a secondary supplementary analysis of data originally collected as part of a multicenter collective case study in which physicians treating patients with asthma were interviewed. Read More

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Home and Neighborhood Context of Falls Among Black and White Older Americans.

J Aging Health 2021 Apr 20:8982643211009436. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

To examine social and physical environmental fall-risk factors in a nationally representative sample of community-living older adults overall and by racial group. We used data from the 2015 and 2016 rounds of the National Health and Aging Trends Study ( = 5581) linked to census tract measures from the American Community Survey. Recurrent falls are defined as 2+ self-reported falls over 12 months. Read More

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Internet-Related Behaviors and Psychological Distress Among Schoolchildren During the COVID-19 School Hiatus.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

This study assessed the mediating roles of problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic smartphone use in the associations between psychological distress and screen time use among primary school children during the school hiatus due to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Students ( = 2,026; mean [standard deviation] age = 10.71 years [1. Read More

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Effect of an education and mindfulness-based physical activity intervention for the promotion of positive body image in Lithuanian female students.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Physical and Social Education, Lithuanian Sports University, Sporto 6, 44221, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an 8-week classroom education and mindfulness-based physical activity intervention for the promotion of positive body image in female students.

Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out with 110 Lithuanian female students (mean age 21.5 ± 3. Read More

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Geographic Disparities in Access to Specialty Care Programs for Early Psychosis in Washington State.

Adm Policy Ment Health 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, Washington State University, 412 E. Spokane Falls Blvd, Spokane, WA, 99202, USA.

Supported by the 10% set-aside funds in the Community Mental Health Block grant, distributed at the state level, coordinated specialty care (CSC) have been widely disseminated throughout the U.S. This study explores variations in the geographical accessibility of CSC programs by neighborhood level characteristics in Washington State. Read More

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Factors associated with death in children with COVID-19 in Mexico.

Gac Med Mex 2020 ;156(6):516-522

Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez", Secretaría de Salud, Mexico City. Mexico.

Introduction: Most children affected by SARS-CoV-2 are reported to be asymptomatic, and COVID-19-related mortality in them is low; in Mexico, there is a lack of information on the subject in this population group.

Objective: To assess the risk factors associated with mortality in Mexican children with COVID-19.

Method: Secondary analysis of the General Directorate of Epidemiology database. Read More

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January 2020

Development of the Niggle App for Supporting Young People on Their Dynamic Journey to Well-being: Co-design and Qualitative Research Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Apr 20;9(4):e21085. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Adolescence is a life stage characterized by intense development and increased vulnerability. Yet, young people rarely seek help for mental health, often due to stigma and embarrassment. Alarmingly, even those who do seek help may not be able to receive it. Read More

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Leaderboard Design Principles to Enhance Learning and Motivation in a Gamified Educational Environment: Development Study.

JMIR Serious Games 2021 Apr 20;9(2):e14746. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Industrial Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Gamification in education enhances learners' motivation, problem-solving abilities, decision-making abilities, and social skills such as communication. Numerous ongoing studies are examining the application of gamification design methodology and game mechanics to a learning environment. Leaderboards are a type of game mechanic that assist learners in goal setting and unleash the motivation for learning. Read More

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The political economy of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation: an analysis from seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

Glob Health Action 2021 Jan;14(1):1909267

SAMRC/Centre for Health Economics and Decision Science - Priority Cost Effective Lessons for Systems Strengthening (PRICELESS SA), Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

: Non-communicable diseases are on the rise across sub-Saharan Africa. The region has become a targeted growth market for sugar-sweetened beverages, which are associated with weight gain, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.: To identify politico-economic factors relevant to nutrition-related fiscal policies, and to draw lessons regarding strategies to strengthen sugar-sweetened beverages taxation in the region and globally. Read More

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January 2021

Faculty perceptions of engaging older adults in higher education: The need for intergenerational pedagogy.

Gerontol Geriatr Educ 2021 Apr 20:1-22. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Social Work, State University of New York at Brockport, Brockport, NY, USA.

Institutions of higher education need to become more age friendly. Creating an on-campus lifelong learning program can offer older adults opportunities to audit classes and engage in multigenerational classrooms, but can also promote intergenerational learning when instructors consciously use pedagogy that fosters engagement between learners from various generations. Promoting intergenerational learning to facilitate reciprocal sharing of expertise between generations is also the fourth principle of the Age Friendly University framework. Read More

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A Pilot Study of Sexual and Gender Minority Student Experiences in Application to U.S. Medical Schools.

Authors:
Tyler J Lockman

J Homosex 2021 Apr 20:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

Sexual and gender minority (SGM) students in the United States experience adverse dynamics as undergraduates and as medical students, including discrimination or fear of it, heightened stress, and lower social support. Yet little is known about the experiences of SGM medical school applicants. An original survey distributed via SGM student groups at 10 allopathic medical schools in the Midwest yielded quantitative and qualitative data about disclosure of SGM identities during application, experiences of support and discrimination, and resources used. Read More

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Vocal performance reflects individual quality in male Himalayan leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros armiger).

Integr Zool 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resource Conservation and Utilization, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

Signals containing parameter trade-offs are likely to be honest indicators of signaler quality, because they are difficult to produce. Signals with a trill-rate/bandwidth trade-off have been described for many songbird species, one mouse and one non-human primate species. However, there were no reports about whether there is a vocal performance trade-off in social calls of bats. Read More

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Social policy as an integral component of pandemic response: Learning from COVID-19 in Brazil, Germany, India and the United States.

Glob Public Health 2021 Apr 20:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

It is easy but mistaken to think that public health emergency measures and social policy can be separated. This paper compares the experiences of Brazil, Germany, India and the United States during their 2020 responses to the COVID-19 pandemic to show that social policies such as unemployment insurance, flat payments and short-time work are crucial to the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions as well as to their political sustainability. Broadly, public health measures that constrain economic activity will only be effective and sustainable if paired with social policy measures that enable people to comply without sacrificing their livelihoods and economic wellbeing. Read More

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The data availability landscape in seven sub-Saharan African countries and its role in strengthening sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.

Glob Health Action 2021 Jan;14(1):1871189

Faculty of Health Sciences, SAMRC/Centre for Health Economics and Decision Science, PRICELESS, University of Witwatersrand School of Public Health, Johannesburg, South Africa.

: Credible data and indicators are necessary for country-specific evidence to support the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation.: A cross-country analysis was undertaken in seven Sub-Saharan African countries to describe the potential role of available data in strengthening SSB taxation. The objectives were to: document currently available data sources; report on public access; discuss strengths and limitations for use in monitoring SSB taxation; describe policy maker's data needs, and propose improvements in data collection. Read More

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January 2021

Eliminating the gap between the use of assistive technologies and the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in leisure activities.

Health Informatics J 2021 Apr-Jun;27(2):14604582211005004

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools and Assistive Technologies (AT) can support people with Down Syndrome (PDS) and Intellectual Disabilities (PID) in increasing their self-confidence and independence, enhancing skills, and competences, participating in leisure activities. For families of PDS/PID, professionals, non-formal caregivers and volunteers, the challenge is to appreciate the benefits of ICT Tools in promoting inclusion. The aim of this study is to present the interdisciplinary and multidimensional scope of the DS Leisure project aiming at promoting the inclusion of PDS/PID through innovative ICT tools and their participation in inclusive leisure activities. Read More

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Needs assessment in unmet healthcare and family support services: A survey of caregivers of children and youth with autism spectrum disorder in Delaware.

Autism Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

The study aimed to collect data from families of children and youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the state of Delaware, USA to understand their ongoing needs and challenges in accessing child healthcare and family support services. We analyzed responses from 263 caregivers of children and youth with ASD from 3 to 24 years using a statewide needs assessment survey. Over 50% caregivers indicated having unmet needs relative to both child/youth healthcare services and family support services. Read More

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Effectiveness of disaster preparedness education in helping older people prevent isolation.

Public Health Nurs 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan.

Objective: This study intends to clarify the effect of regional disaster preparedness education on efforts to prevent the isolation of older people in the event of a disaster.

Design And Sample: This quasi-experimental study involved participants aged 65 and above. The intervention group (n = 35) and the comparison group (n = 61) were compared in the first survey and another one month later. Read More

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Who Is Not Linking to HIV Care in Tennessee - the Benefits of an Intersectional Approach.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2525 West End Ave, Suite 750, Nashville, TN, 37203, USA.

Introduction: Guided by an intersectional approach, we assessed the association between social categories (individual and combined) on time to linkage to HIV care in Tennessee.

Methods: Tennessee residents diagnosed with HIV from 2012-2016 were included in the analysis (n=3750). Linkage was defined by the first CD4 or HIV RNA test date after HIV diagnosis. Read More

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The Effect of Peer Support with Telecommunication on Subjective Well-being in Colorectal Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2021 Apr;9(2):127-138

Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Colorectal cancer has a widespread impact on the psychological and physical dimensions of patients and threatens their subjective well-being. Peer support is an effective strategy to increase subjective well-being in cancer patients. This study aims to evaluate the impact of peer support through telecommunications on the subjective well-being of colorectal cancer patients. Read More

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Perceived Supportive Paradox After Diagnosing Human Papillomavirus: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2021 Apr;9(2):92-105

Molecular Dermatology Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most globally-prevalent sexually-transmitted disease. Many stresses experienced by the patients after their disease is diagnosed affect the disease progression, and these problems and consequences demonstrate the importance of the support for the patients. The present research was conducted to explore the perception and experience of support in patients diagnosed with HPV. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological interventions to improve mental wellbeing.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Wellbeing and Resilience Centre, Lifelong Health Theme, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Our current understanding of the efficacy of psychological interventions in improving mental states of wellbeing is incomplete. This study aimed to overcome limitations of previous reviews by examining the efficacy of distinct types of psychological interventions, irrespective of their theoretical underpinning, and the impact of various moderators, in a unified systematic review and meta-analysis. Four-hundred-and-nineteen randomized controlled trials from clinical and non-clinical populations (n = 53,288) were identified for inclusion. Read More

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Omega-3 supplementation and stress reactivity of cellular aging biomarkers: an ancillary substudy of a randomized, controlled trial in midlife adults.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.

Higher levels of omega-3 track with longer telomeres, lower inflammation, and blunted sympathetic and cardiovascular stress reactivity. Whether omega-3 supplementation alters the stress responsivity of telomerase, cortisol, and inflammation is unknown. This randomized, controlled trial examined the impact of omega-3 supplementation on cellular aging-related biomarkers following a laboratory speech stressor. Read More

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Life-course trajectories of body mass index from adolescence to old age: Racial and educational disparities.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599;

No research exists on how body mass index (BMI) changes with age over the full life span and social disparities therein. This study aims to fill the gap using an innovative life-course research design and analytic methods to model BMI trajectories from early adolescence to old age across 20th-century birth cohorts and test sociodemographic variation in such trajectories. We conducted the pooled integrative data analysis (IDA) to combine data from four national population-based NIH longitudinal cohort studies that collectively cover multiple stages of the life course (Add Health, MIDUS, ACL, and HRS) and estimate mixed-effects models of age trajectories of BMI for men and women. Read More

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