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A Robust Prognostic Signature of Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, P.R. China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been a major public health problem. Tumor microenvironment (TME) greatly contributes to the heterogeneity of CRC and is crucial for the regulation of CRC progression. The authors' study wanted to develop a robust prognostic signature for CRC patients based on TME-related genes. Read More

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September 2021

Development and Benchmarking of Open Force Field v1.0.0-the Parsley Small-Molecule Force Field.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Chemistry Department, The University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, United States.

We present a methodology for defining and optimizing a general force field for classical molecular simulations, and we describe its use to derive the Open Force Field 1.0.0 small-molecule force field, codenamed Parsley. Read More

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September 2021

What's the relative humidity in tropical caves?

PLoS One 2021 22;16(9):e0250396. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Environmental Science, American University, Washington, DC, United States of America.

Relative humidity (RH) was measured at hourly intervals for approximately one year in two caves at seven stations near Playa del Carmen in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Sistema Muévelo Rico is a 1.1 km long cave with 12 entrances and almost no dark zone. Read More

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September 2021

A natural history museum visitor survey of perception, attitude and knowledge (PAK) of microbes and antibiotics.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(9):e0257085. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

American Museum of Natural History, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, New York, NY, United States of America.

A kiosk-based survey at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in 2016-2018 allowed us to assess public knowledge of antibiotics and public attitudes toward microbes in museum goers. Over 22,000 visitors from 172 countries and territories answered several carefully designed questions about microbes and antibiotics. These visitors also entered age, gender, and country demographic data that allowed for stratification along these demographic and geographic divisions. Read More

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September 2021

Elastic Knowledge Distillation by Learning From Recollection.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Sep 22;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Model performance can be further improved with the extra guidance apart from the one-hot ground truth. To achieve it, recently proposed recollection-based methods utilize the valuable information contained in the past training history and derive a ``recollection'' from it to provide data-driven prior to guide the training. In this article, we focus on two fundamental aspects of this method, i. Read More

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September 2021

Lack of Transparency and Potential Bias in Artificial Intelligence Data Sets and Algorithms: A Scoping Review.

JAMA Dermatol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Importance: Clinical artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms have the potential to improve clinical care, but fair, generalizable algorithms depend on the clinical data on which they are trained and tested.

Objective: To assess whether data sets used for training diagnostic AI algorithms addressing skin disease are adequately described and to identify potential sources of bias in these data sets.

Data Sources: In this scoping review, PubMed was used to search for peer-reviewed research articles published between January 1, 2015, and November 1, 2020, with the following paired search terms: deep learning and dermatology, artificial intelligence and dermatology, deep learning and dermatologist, and artificial intelligence and dermatologist. Read More

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September 2021

8q21.11 microdeletion syndrome: Delineation of HEY1 as a candidate gene in neurodevelopmental and cardiac defects.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Sep 22:e1811. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Screening Processes (LPCMC), Center of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia.

Background: 8q21.11 microdeletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by recurrent dysmorphic features, a variable degree of intellectual disability and ocular, cardiac and hand/feet abnormalities. To date, ZFHX4 is the only candidate gene implicated in the ocular findings. Read More

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September 2021

The predictors for altered central pain modulation in individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain: A systematic review.

Pain Pract 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Physiotherapy, Manipal College of Health Professions, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Background: Research suggests that the prognosis of chronic non-specific low back pain is poor when there is an alteration in the central pain processing pathway. This alteration creates a cascade of events leading to poor outcomes. An overview of the predictors which increase this heightened pain perception is needed. Read More

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September 2021

An empirical test of prototype and revisionist models of attachment stability and change from middle childhood to adolescence: A 6-year longitudinal study.

Child Dev 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Clinical Psychology Unit, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

We examined the prototype v. revisionist models of attachment stability with a five-wave, 6-year, longitudinal study of attachment security from middle childhood to adolescence in a White Western European sample (N = 157; Wave 1 M  = 10.91, SD = 0. Read More

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September 2021

A pose-independent method for accurate and precise body composition from 3D optical scans.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Graduate Program in Human Nutrition, University of Hawai'i Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether digitally re-posing three-dimensional optical (3DO) whole-body scans to a standardized pose would improve body composition accuracy and precision regardless of the initial pose.

Methods: Healthy adults (n = 540), stratified by sex, BMI, and age, completed whole-body 3DO and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in the Shape Up! Adults study. The 3DO mesh vertices were represented with standardized templates and a low-dimensional space by principal component analysis (stratified by sex). Read More

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September 2021

A randomised controlled trial of succinylated gelatin (4%) fluid on urinary acute kidney injury biomarkers in cardiac surgical patients.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2021 Sep 22;9(1):48. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, South St, Murdoch, WA, 6150, Australia.

Background: Fluid resuscitation is frequently required for cardiac surgical patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The ideal fluid of choice in regard to efficacy and safety remains uncertain. Compared with crystalloid fluid, colloid fluid may result in less positive fluid balance. Read More

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September 2021

Testing a Quaternion Conversion Method to Determine Human 3D Tibiofemoral Angles During an in Vitro Simulated Jump Landing.

J Biomech Eng 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

University of Michigan-Dearborn, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128.

Lower limb joint kinematics have been measured in laboratory settings using fixed camera-based motion capture systems; however, recently inertial measurement units (IMUs) have been developed as an alternative. The purpose of this study was to test a quaternion conversion (QC) method for calculating the three orthogonal knee angles during the high velocities associated with a jump landing using commercially available IMUs. Nine cadaveric knee specimens were instrumented with APDM Opal IMUs to measure knee kinematics in one-legged 3-4x bodyweight simulated jump landings, four of which were used in establishing the parameters (training) for the new method and five for validation (testing). Read More

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September 2021

Diagnostic Pitfalls of Digital Microscopy Versus Light Microscopy in Gastrointestinal Pathology: A Systematic Review.

Cureus 2021 Aug 12;13(8):e17116. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Internal Medicine, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences & Psychology, Fairfield, USA.

Digital microscopy (DM) is one of the cutting-edge advances in pathology, which entails improved efficiency, diagnostic advantages, and potential application in virtual diagnosis, particularly in the current era of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the diagnostic challenges are the remaining concerns for its wider adoption by pathologists, and these concerns should be addressed in a specific subspecialty. We aim to identify the common diagnostic pitfalls of whole slide imaging (WSI), one modality of DM, in gastrointestinal (GI) pathology. Read More

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Development and Validation of Prognostic Nomograms for Elderly Patients with Osteosarcoma.

Int J Gen Med 2021 14;14:5581-5591. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Background: The aim of the current study was to construct prognostic nomograms for individual risk prediction in elderly patients with osteosarcoma.

Methods: Data for 816 elderly patients (≥40 years old) with osteosarcoma between 2004 and 2016 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were randomly assigned to training (N=573) and internal validation (N=243) sets. The essential clinical predictors were identified based on least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) Cox regression. Read More

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September 2021

Remote Working during the Pandemic: A Second Q&A with Gillian Isaacs Russell.

Br J Psychother 2021 Aug 5;37(3):362-379. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

On the first anniversary of the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown, Gillian Isaacs Russell, author of the influential returns to respond to a second set of questions from the . In this interview by email, she considers the challenges and issues that came up for clinicians and patients during the last year of working remotely. Looking back at the year as a whole, she explores the impact of ongoing trauma on the therapeutic couple. Read More

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Anomalous dielectric behaviors of electrolyte solutions confined in graphene oxide nanochannels.

Authors:
Bo Hu Haochen Zhu

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 21;11(1):18689. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Rd., Shanghai, 200092, People's Republic of China.

Dielectric behavior of salt aqueous solutions with various concentration in pristine and oxide graphene nanochannels has been investigated by means of molecular dynamic simulations. The motivation in performing this integrated set of simulations was to provide deep insight into the interaction between the size of the enclosure and the oxidation degree of the membrane sheets on the dielectric properties. It was shown that the dielectric permittivity of both aqueous and NaCl solution in confined phase exhibits an anisotropic behavior. Read More

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September 2021

Prediction of coating thickness for polyelectrolyte multilayers via machine learning.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 21;11(1):18702. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

SPARTHA Medical, 67100, Strasbourg, France.

Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method of polyelectrolytes is a versatile way of developing functional nanoscale coatings. Even though the mechanisms of LbL film development are well-established, currently there are no predictive models that can link film components with their final properties. The current health crisis has shown the importance of accelerated development of biomedical solutions such as antiviral coatings, and the implementation of machine learning methodologies for coating development can enable achieving this. Read More

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September 2021

ASHA Kirana: when digital technology empowered front-line health workers.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Sep;6(Suppl 5)

Ramalingaswami Centre on Equity and Social Determinants of Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

This practice paper describes our experience of implementing accredited social health activists (ASHA) Kirana, a digital technology-enabled Maternal Clinical Assessment Tool (M-CAT) and how the ASHAs felt empowered in the process. M-CAT aimed to train ASHAs to collect data that assists doctors in identifying maternal risks, in Karnataka, India. Systematic clinical assessment is not common in rural public health institutions. Read More

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September 2021

Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection prediction model for hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia children.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: We sought to develop a nomogram to predict Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infection among hospitalized children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and compare it with another model developed from age and duration of fever.

Methods: Data on 5904 CAP children who were enrolled at Shanghai Children's Medical Center were retrospectively collected and divided into a training set (n = 4133) and a validation set (n = 1771). The model's performance was determined by concordance index (C-index), calibration curves, Brier scores, and decision curve analyses (DCAs). Read More

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September 2021

Hepatitis B vaccination status and associated factors among students of medicine and health sciences in Wolkite University, Southwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(9):e0257621. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant global public health problem. Health care providers and medical students in developing countries including Ethiopia are at an increased risk of contracting HBV due to the high burden of this infection. The most effective way of prevention against HBV infection is vaccination of health care providers. Read More

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September 2021

A systematic review of geographic indices of disadvantage with implications for older adults.

JCI Insight 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, United States of America.

Background: Neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage has wide-ranging impacts on health outcomes, particularly in older adults. Although indices of disadvantage are a widely used tool, research conducted to date has not codified a set of standard variables that should be included in these indices for the US. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of literature describing the construction of geographic indices of neighborhood-level disadvantage and to summarize and distill the key variables included in these indices. Read More

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September 2021

Self-Supervised Graph Learning With Hyperbolic Embedding for Temporal Health Event Prediction.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Sep 21;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Electronic health records (EHRs) have been heavily used in modern healthcare systems for recording patients' admission information to health facilities. Many data-driven approaches employ temporal features in EHR for predicting specific diseases, readmission times, and diagnoses of patients. However, most existing predictive models cannot fully utilize EHR data, due to an inherent lack of labels in supervised training for some temporal events. Read More

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September 2021

The "Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol" (ORBITAL) Core Outcome Set: International Consensus on Outcomes to Measure in Efficacy and Effectiveness Trials of Alcohol Brief Interventions.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2021 Sep;82(5):638-646

School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Law, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to report the "Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol" (ORBITAL) recommended core outcome set (COS) to improve efficacy and effectiveness trials/evaluations for alcohol brief interventions (ABIs).

Method: A systematic review identified 2,641 outcomes in 401 ABI articles measured by 1,560 different approaches. These outcomes were classified into outcome categories, and 150 participants from 19 countries participated in a two-round e-Delphi outcome prioritization exercise. Read More

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September 2021

[COVID-19 pandemic: preferences and barriers for dissemination of evidence syntheses : Survey of intensive care personnel in Germany].

Anaesthesist 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin und Schmerztherapie, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, Würzburg, Deutschland.

Background: In the context of COVID-19, the German CEOsys project (COVID-19 Evidenz Ökosystem, www.covid-evidenz.de ) identifies, evaluates and summarizes the results of scientific studies to obtain evidence on this disease. Read More

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September 2021

Intelligent analysis of maleic hydrazide using a simple electrochemical sensor coupled with machine learning.

Anal Methods 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

College of Software, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, People's Republic of China.

A simple electrochemical sensing platform based on a low-cost disposable laser-induced porous graphene (LIPG) flexible electrode for the intelligent analysis of maleic hydrazide (MH) in potatoes and peanuts coupled with machine learning (ML) was successfully designed. The LIPG electrode was patterned by a simple one-step laser-induced procedure on commercial polyimide film using a computer-controlled direct laser writing micromachining system and displayed excellent flexibility, 3D porous structure, large specific surface area, and preferable conductivity. A data partitioning technique was proposed for the optimal MH concentration ranges by selecting the size of datasets, including the size of the training set and the size of the test set combined with the performance metrics of ML models. Read More

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September 2021

Deep Learning for Adjacent Segment Disease at Preoperative MRI for Cervical Radiculopathy.

Radiology 2021 Sep 21:204731. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

From the Computational Neuroscience Outcomes Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 60 Fenwood Rd, Boston, MA 02115 (C.M.W.G., A.M.L., A.H.D., A.W.S., O.A., M.W.G., T.R.S., H.A.Z., A.R., A.B.); and Spine Research Department, Department of Neurosurgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands (C.M.W.G., C.L.A.V.L.).

Background Patients who undergo surgery for cervical radiculopathy are at risk for developing adjacent segment disease (ASD). Identifying patients who will develop ASD remains challenging for clinicians. Purpose To develop and validate a deep learning algorithm capable of predicting ASD by using only preoperative cervical MRI in patients undergoing single-level anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Read More

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September 2021

Successful Problem Solving in Genetics Varies Based on Question Content.

CBE Life Sci Educ 2021 Dec;20(4):ar51

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology.

Problem solving is a critical skill in many disciplines but is often a challenge for students to learn. To examine the processes both students and experts undertake to solve constructed-response problems in genetics, we collected the written step-by-step procedures individuals used to solve problems in four different content areas. We developed a set of codes to describe each cognitive and metacognitive process and then used these codes to describe more than 1800 student and 149 expert answers. Read More

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December 2021

Training data distribution significantly impacts the estimation of tissue microstructure with machine learning.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, UK.

Purpose: Supervised machine learning (ML) provides a compelling alternative to traditional model fitting for parameter mapping in quantitative MRI. The aim of this work is to demonstrate and quantify the effect of different training data distributions on the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates when supervised ML is used for fitting.

Methods: We fit a two- and three-compartment biophysical model to diffusion measurements from in-vivo human brain, as well as simulated diffusion data, using both traditional model fitting and supervised ML. Read More

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September 2021

Critically ill cancer patient's resuscitation: a Belgian/French societies' consensus conference.

Intensive Care Med 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Intensive care, Universitaire Ziekenhuis Gent, Gent, Belgium.

To respond to the legitimate questions raised by the application of invasive methods of monitoring and life-support techniques in cancer patients admitted in the ICU, the European Lung Cancer Working Party and the Groupe de Recherche Respiratoire en Réanimation Onco-Hématologique, set up a consensus conference. The methodology involved a systematic literature review, experts' opinion and a final consensus conference about nine predefined questions1. Which triage criteria, in terms of complications and considering the underlying neoplastic disease and possible therapeutic limitations, should be used to guide admission of cancer patient to intensive care units?2. Read More

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September 2021

Immune and cellular damage biomarkers to predict COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients.

Curr Res Immunol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Thoracic Disease Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA.

Early prediction of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality relies usually on patients' preexisting comorbidities and is rarely reproducible in independent cohorts. We wanted to compare the role of routinely measured biomarkers of immunity, inflammation, and cellular damage with preexisting comorbidities in eight different machine-learning models to predict mortality, and evaluate their performance in an independent population. We recruited and followed-up consecutive adult patients with SARS-Cov-2 infection in two different Italian hospitals. Read More

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September 2021