1,570 results match your criteria training naturalistic

The effects of teacher-delivered behavior skills training on paraeducators' use of a communication intervention for a student with autism who uses AAC.

Augment Altern Commun 2021 Apr 10:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Special and Early Education, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USA.

Special education teachers are often responsible for training their staff how to support children with autism spectrum disorder in their classrooms. In addition to academic and behavioral interventions, paraeducators also need to be prepared to support students with complex communication needs. This study was designed to investigate the effects of a paraeducator-implemented communication intervention in a public school. Read More

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Training-Free Deep Generative Networks for Compressed Sensing of Neural Action Potentials.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 8;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Energy consumption is an important issue for resource-constrained wireless neural recording applications with limited data bandwidth. Compressed sensing (CS) is a promising framework for addressing this challenge because it can compress data in an energy-efficient way. Recent work has shown that deep neural networks (DNNs) can serve as valuable models for CS of neural action potentials (APs). Read More

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Naturalistic teaching approach to develop spontaneous vocalizations and augmented communication in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Augment Altern Commun 2021 Apr 7:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Special Education, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions (NDBI) have been shown to facilitate the development of spontaneous language in individuals with speech and language impairment. Several meta-analyses have reported a small number of studies that utilized naturalistic teaching approaches combined with augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions to develop requesting skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine whether a natural language paradigm (NLP) and time delay is effective in expanding vocal and augmented requesting skills in three children with ASD between the ages of 4 and 6 years. Read More

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Characterising binge eating over the course of a feasibility trial among individuals with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa.

Appetite 2021 Apr 2:105248. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology.

Binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa are eating disorders that are characterized by recurrent binge eating episodes. The highly contextualized nature of binge eating makes naturalistic research a particularly suitable means of understanding the context within which binge eating occurs. The present study aimed to characterise binge eating days with regards to the frequency and probability of negative affect, food craving, meal skipping, and dietary restriction. Read More

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Quantifying the Child-Therapist Interaction in ASD Intervention: An Observational Coding System.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Laboratory of Observation, Diagnosis and Education (ODFLab), Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science, University of Trento, 38122 Trento, TN, Italy.

Background: Observational research plays an important part in developmental research due to its noninvasiveness. However, it has been hardly applied to investigate efficacy of the child-therapist interaction in the context of naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions (NDBI). In particular, the characteristics of child-therapist interplay are thought to have a significant impact in NDBIs in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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Effect of Training-Detraining Phases of Multicomponent Exercises and BCAA Supplementation on Inflammatory Markers and Albumin Levels in Frail Older Persons.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 28;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education-(FCDEF-UC), 3040-248 Coimbra, Portugal.

Nowadays, it is accepted that the regular practice of exercise and branched-chain amino acids supplementation (BCAAs) can benefit the immune responses in older persons, prevent the occurrence of physical frailty (PF), cognitive decline, and aging-related comorbidities. However, the impact of their combination (as non-pharmacological interventions) in albumin and the inflammatory markers is not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a 40-week multifactorial intervention [MIP, multicomponent exercise (ME) associated or not with BCAAs] on plasma levels of inflammatory markers and albumin in frail older persons (≥75 years old) living at residential care homes (RCH). Read More

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Using Stakeholder Involvement, Expert Knowledge and Naturalistic Implementation to Co-Design a Complex Intervention to Support Children's Inclusion and Participation in Schools: The CIRCLE Framework.

Children (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

School of Health Sciences, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh EH21 6UU, UK.

Whist inclusion is recommended for most children most of the time it remains difficult to implement. In this paper, we present the process undertaken to review and redesign a pre-existing complex intervention (The CIRCLE Framework) which was designed to enhance teachers confidence and competence in provision of universal first level supports for 5-12 year old children with additional support needs. The approach presented draws on the Medical Research Council guidance for the development of complex interventions. Read More

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Dissociating Behavior and Spatial Working Memory Demands Using an H Maze.

Bio Protoc 2021 Mar 5;11(5):e3947. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

The development of mazes for animal experiments has allowed for the investigation of cognitive maps and place cells, spatial working memory, naturalistic navigation, perseverance, exploration, and choice and motivated behavior. However, many mazes, such as the T maze, currently developed to test learning and memory, do not distinguish temporally and spatially between the encoding and recall periods, which makes it difficult to study these stages separately when analyzing animal behavior and electrophysiology. Other mazes, such as the radial maze, rely on single visits to portions of the maze, making maze coverage sparse for place cell and electrophysiology experiments. Read More

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Multimodal neurocognitive markers of frontal lobe epilepsy: Insights from ecological text processing.

Neuroimage 2021 Mar 28;235:117998. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Global Brain Health Institute, UCSF, California, US, & Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; University of San Andres, Buenos Aires, Argentina; National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Faculty of Education, National University of Cuyo (UNCuyo), Mendoza, Argentina; Departamento de Lingüística y Literatura, Facultad de Humanidades, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

The pressing call to detect sensitive cognitive markers of frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) remains poorly addressed. Standard frameworks prove nosologically unspecific (as they reveal deficits that also emerge across other epilepsy subtypes), possess low ecological validity, and are rarely supported by multimodal neuroimaging assessments. To bridge these gaps, we examined naturalistic action and non-action text comprehension, combined with structural and functional connectivity measures, in 19 FLE patients, 19 healthy controls, and 20 posterior cortex epilepsy (PCE) patients. Read More

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A brain-inspired compact cognitive mapping system.

Cogn Neurodyn 2021 Feb 30;15(1):91-101. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

School of Systems Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 China.

In many simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) systems, the map of the environment grows over time as the robot explores the environment. The ever-growing map prevents long-term mapping, especially in large-scale environments. In this paper, we develop a compact cognitive mapping approach inspired by neurobiological experiments. Read More

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February 2021

Comparing Long-Acting Antipsychotic Discontinuation Rates Under Ordinary Clinical Circumstances: A Survival Analysis from an Observational, Pragmatic Study.

CNS Drugs 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health and Service Evaluation; Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Section of Psychiatry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: Recent guidelines suggested a wider use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) than previously, but naturalistic data on the consequences of LAI use in terms of discontinuation rates and associated factors are still sparse, making it hard for clinicians to be informed on plausible treatment courses.

Objective: Our objective was to assess, under real-world clinical circumstances, LAI discontinuation rates over a period of 12 months after a first prescription, reasons for discontinuation, and associated factors.

Methods: The STAR Network 'Depot Study' was a naturalistic, multicentre, observational prospective study that enrolled subjects initiating a LAI without restrictions on diagnosis, clinical severity or setting. Read More

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Control of aperture closure during reach-to-grasp movements in immersive haptic-free virtual reality.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Physical Therapy, Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Virtual reality (VR) has garnered much interest as a training environment for motor skill acquisition, including for neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities. While the focus has been on gross upper limb motion, VR applications that involve reaching for, and interacting with, virtual objects are growing. The absence of true haptics in VR when it comes to hand-object interactions raises a fundamentally important question: can haptic-free immersive virtual environments (hf-VEs) support naturalistic coordination of reach-to-grasp movements? This issue has been grossly understudied, and yet is of significant importance in the development and application of VR across a number of sectors. Read More

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Self-reported strategy generation and implementation in the multiple errands test: A qualitative description.

Neuropsychol Rehabil 2021 Mar 25:1-20. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

The Multiple Errands Test (MET) is a naturalistic assessment of executive function. Strategy use during the MET can provide useful information for the development of a cognitive profile and intervention plan in patients with brain injury. However, while observed external strategy use in the MET is well-documented, information about internal strategy use and reference data with healthy controls is limited. Read More

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Psychological structure and neuroendocrine patterns of daily stress appraisals.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Mar 13;127:105198. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Heidelberg University, University Hospital, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Institute of Medical Psychology, Bergheimer Str. 20, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany.

Threat and challenge are two fundamental appraisal concepts of psychological stress theories, determined by the mismatch between demands and resources. Previous research has predominantly investigated the neuroendocrine correlates of stress appraisal in laboratory contexts during acute demanding situations. We tested whether the psychoneuroendocrinology of stress appraisals can also be investigated in naturalistic trans-contextual everyday life settings. Read More

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Social acceptance of death and its implication for end-of-life care.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Medicine, University of Almería, Almería, Spain.

Aims: To understand how the social patterns about death influence end-of-life care from the perspective of healthcare professionals.

Design: A qualitative study according to the theory of Glaser and Strauss.

Methods: A purposeful sample of 47 participants with different roles (nurses, physicians and clinical psychologists) were involved in four focus groups and 17 interviews in 2017-2019. Read More

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From convolutional neural networks to models of higher-level cognition (and back again).

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Computer Science, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.

The remarkable successes of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in modern computer vision are by now well known, and they are increasingly being explored as computational models of the human visual system. In this paper, we ask whether CNNs might also provide a basis for modeling higher-level cognition, focusing on the core phenomena of similarity and categorization. The most important advance comes from the ability of CNNs to learn high-dimensional representations of complex naturalistic images, substantially extending the scope of traditional cognitive models that were previously only evaluated with simple artificial stimuli. Read More

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Emotional valence sensing using a wearable facial EMG device.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 11;11(1):5757. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Shimadzu Corporation, 3-9-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto, 619-0237, Japan.

Emotion sensing using physiological signals in real-life situations can be practically valuable. Previous studies have developed wearable devices that record autonomic nervous system activity, which reflects emotional arousal. However, no study determined whether emotional valence can be assessed using wearable devices. Read More

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Does peer group membership relate to sociodramatic play engagement? A social ethological approach.

Caitlin Malloy

Int J Psychol 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Lynch School of Education and Human Development, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA.

Engagement in sociodramatic play has been shown to positively impact young children's learning and development. By definition, this type of social play occurs in groups; however, research to date has primarily sought to understand sociodramatic play engagement by focusing on individual factors. Little work has considered the role of the peer group in sociodramatic play engagement. Read More

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Evidence of objective sleep impairment in nonepileptic attack disorder: A naturalistic prospective controlled study using actigraphy and daily sleep diaries over six nights.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Apr 5;117:107867. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Psychology, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Electronic address:

Poor sleep is reported by many with nonepileptic attack disorder (NEAD) with correlations evident between self-reported sleep quality and mood and functional impairment. However, it is contended that self-reported sleep impairment in NEAD is a subjective phenomenon, which represents a general tendency to over-report symptoms or misinterpret bodily states in those with NEAD. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the extent of subjective and objective sleep impairments in those with NEAD. Read More

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Two-photon calcium imaging of seizures in awake, head-fixed mice.

Cell Calcium 2021 Feb 22;96:102380. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Division of Neurology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; The Neuroscience Graduate Group, The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Neurology, The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Neuroscience, The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder defined by spontaneous seizures. Current treatment options fail in a large proportion of patients, while questions as to the basic mechanisms of seizure initiation and propagation remain. Advances in imaging of seizures in experimental model systems could lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of seizures and epilepsy. Read More

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February 2021

Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use and Hard Braking Events in Older Drivers.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2021 Feb 20;6(1). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) identified by the American Geriatrics Society should generally be avoided by older adults because of ineffectiveness or excess risk of adverse effects. Few studies have examined the effects of PIMs on driving safety measured by prospectively and objectively collected driving data. Data for this study came from the Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers study, a multisite naturalistic driving study of older adults. Read More

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February 2021

STEPPS for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pragmatic Trial and Naturalistic Comparison With Noncompleters.

J Pers Disord 2021 Mar 4:1-16. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Valdecilla Biomedical Research Institute (IDIVAL), Santander.

Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group psychotherapy approach that is effective for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a public health care setting. The sample in this study comprised 118 outpatients with BPD who were asked to participate in a Spanish-adapted version of STEPPS for 18 months, a psychotherapy program that could be added to their usual psychiatric intervention. They were divided into an experimental group who participated in STEPPS, and a control group, who received treatment as usual. Read More

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The Recorded Interaction Task: A Validation Study of a New Observational Tool to Assess Mother-Infant Bonding.

J Midwifery Womens Health 2021 Mar 2;66(2):249-255. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Discipline of Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Introduction: Mother-infant bonding describes the early emotional connectedness between a mother and her infant. The quality of the mother-infant bond early in life is related to the subsequent quality of the child's attachment, the quality of further mother-infant interactions, and various other social outcomes across the child's life span. The Recorded Interaction Task (RIT) was developed to assess mother-infant bonding using observational methods in a naturalistic but standardized setting, thus addressing shortcomings of previous self-report tools. Read More

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From Genome-Wide to Environment-Wide: Capturing the Environome.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2021 Mar 1:1745691620979803. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Education, University of York.

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have shown that genetic influences on individual differences in affect, behavior, and cognition are driven by thousands of DNA variants, each with very small effect sizes. Here, we propose taking inspiration from GWA studies for understanding and modeling the influence of the environment on complex phenotypes. We argue that the availability of DNA microarrays in genetic research is comparable with the advent of digital technologies in psychological science that enable collecting rich, naturalistic observations in real time of the environome, akin to the genome. Read More

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Naturalistic evaluation of preschoolers' spontaneous interactions: The Autism Peer Interaction Observation Scale.

Autism 2021 Feb 24:1362361321989919. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Bar-Ilan University, Israel.

Lay Abstract: Peer interaction can be challenging in autism spectrum disorder, but naturalistic peer-observation scales for preschoolers are limited. This study examined the newly developed Autism Peer Interaction Observation Scale, with 17 subcategories, which evaluate naturalistic peer interaction processes in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder and typical development. We tested the Autism Peer Interaction Observation Scale to (a) characterize peer interactions of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder who were cognitively able versus typical age-mates, (b) explore each group's hierarchical pattern of peer interaction behaviors, and (c) identify Autism Peer Interaction Observation Scale's links with standard reports for assessing social-communication functioning (Vineland Behavior Scales, 2nd ed. Read More

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February 2021

Understanding nurses' perspectives of physical restraints during mechanical ventilation in intensive care: A qualitative study.

J Clin Nurs 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.

Aims And Objectives: This study explored the experiences of nurses using physical restraints on mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care.

Background: Physical restraints are frequently used to prevent treatment interference and maintain patient safety in intensive care units worldwide. However, physical restraints are found to be ineffective in preventing treatment interference and cause negative outcomes for patients. Read More

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February 2021

Wrist-worn alcohol biosensors: Applications and usability in behavioral research.

Alcohol 2021 May 18;92:25-34. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, The University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Wrist-worn alcohol biosensor technology has developed rapidly in recent years. These devices are light, easy to wear, relatively inexpensive, and resemble commercial fitness trackers. As a result, they may be more suitable for a wide range of clinical and research applications. Read More

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Pragmatic Profiles of Toddlers With Autism Spectrum Disorder at the Onset of Speech.

Front Neurol 2020 18;11:612314. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

The Pediatric Neurology and Developmental Unit, Loewenstein Rehabilitation Medical Center, Raanana, Israel.

Using speech to communicate pragmatic functions is challenging among individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Given the role language plays in developing everyday skills, we traced the unique pragmatic profile of early words, seeking comparison to typically developing (TD) toddlers at similar lexical stages. Twenty-four mother-toddler dyads participated (9 ASD and 15 TD). Read More

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January 2021

MacaquePose: A Novel "In the Wild" Macaque Monkey Pose Dataset for Markerless Motion Capture.

Front Behav Neurosci 2020 18;14:581154. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Human Intelligence Systems, Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan.

Video-based markerless motion capture permits quantification of an animal's pose and motion, with a high spatiotemporal resolution in a naturalistic context, and is a powerful tool for analyzing the relationship between the animal's behaviors and its brain functions. Macaque monkeys are excellent non-human primate models, especially for studying neuroscience. Due to the lack of a dataset allowing training of a deep neural network for the macaque's markerless motion capture in the naturalistic context, it has been challenging to apply this technology for macaques-based studies. Read More

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January 2021

The Safe pilot study: A prospective naturalistic study with repeated measures design to test the psychosis - violence link in and after discharge from forensic facilities.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 9;298:113793. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Regional Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Oslo University Hospital, Norway; Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Vancover, Canada; Regional Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

The research evidence is very strong for high recidivism rates of violence after discharge from forensic facilities. Big data research has found that a substantial proportion of the forensic population with relapse into violence has a psychosis diagnosis and a criminal record. However, more research on the association between psychotic symptoms and violence may inform and enhance risk assessment, prevention, and treatment. Read More

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