2,442 results match your criteria traction force


FM-Track: A fiducial marker tracking software for studying cell mechanics in a three-dimensional environment.

SoftwareX 2020 Jan-Jun;11. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

James T. Willerson Center for Cardiovascular Modeling and Simulation, Oden Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX, United States.

Tracking the deformation of fiducial markers in the vicinity of living cells embedded in compliant synthetic or biological gels is a powerful means to study cell mechanics and mechanobiology in three-dimensional environments. However, current approaches to track and quantify three-dimensional (3D) fiducial marker displacements remain ad-hoc, can be difficult to implement, and may not produce reliable results. Herein, we present a compact software package entitled "FM-Track," written in the popular Python language, to facilitate feature-based particle tracking tailored for 3D cell micromechanical environment studies. Read More

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February 2020

Enhenced cell adhesion on collagen I treated parylene-C microplates.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2021 Jul 21:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for Nano-biomaterials & Regenerative Medicine, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, PR China.

On account of unique mechanical property and inertia, parylene-C has become a promising material for microdevices especially in three-dimensional microstructures loaded with cells. However, parylene-C is not favorable for cell adhesion, and a routine procedure is to modify it with a new adhesive layer. Herein, the parylene-C substrates with or without collagen I (Col-I) coating were adopted to estimate the influence of micro-environment change on cell attachment and spreading. Read More

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Elastomer-Grafted iPSC-Derived Micro Heart Muscles to Investigate Effects of Mechanical Loading on Physiology.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Jul 21;7(7):2973-2989. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in Saint Louis, University City, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, United States.

Mechanical loading plays a critical role in cardiac pathophysiology. Engineered heart tissues derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allow rigorous investigations of the molecular and pathophysiological consequences of mechanical cues. However, many engineered heart muscle models have complex fabrication processes and require large cell numbers, making it difficult to use them together with iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes to study the influence of mechanical loading on pharmacology and genotype-phenotype relationships. Read More

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Characterize traction-separation relation and interfacial imperfections by data-driven machine learning models.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 12;11(1):14330. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, 76207, USA.

Interfacial mechanical properties are important in composite materials and their applications, including vehicle structures, soft robotics, and aerospace. Determination of traction-separation (T-S) relations at interfaces in composites can lead to evaluations of structural reliability, mechanical robustness, and failures criteria. Accurate measurements on T-S relations remain challenging, since the interface interaction generally happens at microscale. Read More

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Experimental comparative assay of tensile resistance of greater saphenous vein from ankle and groin.

J Vasc Bras 2021 25;20:e20190117. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Universidade Federal do Paraná - UFPR, Hospital de Clínicas, Unidade de Cardiologia e Pneumologia, Curitiba, PR, Brasil.

Background: The great saphenous vein is used as patch material in several types of arterial reconstruction, including trauma and carotid and femoral endarterectomy. There have been reports of saphenous patch blowout, particularly of patches constructed with veins harvested from the ankle. There is a need for objective measurement of the resistance of saphenous vein tissues. Read More

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Free the Bun: Prevalence of Alopecia Among Active Duty Service Women, Fiscal Years 2010-2019.

Mil Med 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Introduction: Active duty service women (ADSW) constitute 16% of the force. The prevalence of alopecia, a dermatologic condition characterized by hair loss, is understudied in regard to hairstyle regulations across the U.S. Read More

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Use of an Intraoperative Limb Positioner for Adjustable Distraction in Acetabulum Fractures with Femoral Head Protrusion: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 07 8;11(3). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle WA.

Case: Anatomic reduction of acetabular fractures with femoral head protrusion requires lateralization of the medialized femoral head to facilitate reduction and definitive fixation. In this case of a 71-year-old man with an associated both column acetabular fracture with femoral head medialization after a fall from a 10 foot ladder, we present the successful use of a novel reduction technique involving a modified arthroscopic limb positioner to provide adjustable distraction and counteract the deforming force in this injury pattern.

Conclusion: A limb positioner can provide appropriate on-table traction in pelvis and acetabular surgery to neutralize deforming forces and facilitate reduction and fixation. Read More

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Editorial Commentary: Hip Joint Venting Prior to Initiating Traction Reduces Postoperative Complications.

Arthroscopy 2021 Jul;37(7):2171-2172

Chicago, Illinois.

Hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome requires access to the central compartment of the hip, which is more easily obtained with hip distraction. However, surgeons must balance improved surgical access with the risks of postoperative complications. Hip joint venting describes the disruption of the suction seal by introducing a large-gauge needle into the joint space and injecting air or fluid into the joint. Read More

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Adsorption Force of Fibronectin: A Balance Regulator to Transmission of Cell Traction Force and Fluid Shear Stress.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, and Lab for Smart & Bioinspired Materials, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030, China.

Osteoblasts actively generate cell traction force (CTF) to sense chemical and mechanical microenvironments. Fluid shear stress (FSS) is a principle mechanical stimulus for bone modeling/remodeling. FSS and CTF share common interconnected elements for force transmission, among which the role of the protein-material interfacial force () remains unclear. Read More

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Traction force microscopy by deep learning.

Biophys J 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Cells interact mechanically with their surroundings by exerting and sensing forces. Traction force microscopy (TFM), purported to map cell-generated forces or stresses, represents an important tool that has powered the rapid advances in mechanobiology. However, to solve the ill-posed mathematical problem, conventional TFM involved compromises in accuracy and/or resolution. Read More

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Probing mechanobiological role of filamin A in migration and invasion of human U87 glioblastoma cells using submicron soft pillars.

Nano Converg 2021 Jul 2;8(1):19. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), 16419, Suwon, Korea.

Filamin A (FLNa) belongs to an actin-binding protein family in binding and cross-linking actin filaments into a three-dimensional structure. However, little attention has been given to its mechanobiological role in cancer cells. Here, we quantitatively investigated the role of FLNa by analyzing the following parameters in negative control (NC) and FLNa-knockdown (KD) U87 glioma cells using submicron pillars (900 nm diameter and 2 μm height): traction force (TF), rigidity sensing ability, cell aspect ratio, migration speed, and invasiveness. Read More

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Periodontal ligament repair after active splinting of replanted dogs' teeth.

Dent Traumatol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background/aim: The high rate of root resorption resulting from tooth replantation represents a serious clinical problem. In order to prevent ankylosis and replacement resorption, the contemporary literature highlights the importance of using a flexible stabilization for traumatized teeth. For this purpose, orthodontic devices may be promising for obtaining a better prognosis and periodontal repair. Read More

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Influence of insertion depth on stress distribution in orthodontic miniscrew and the surrounding bone by finite element analysis.

Dent Mater J 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School.

We aimed to elucidate stress distribution in miniscrews and the surrounding bone when miniscrews inserted at different depths were implanted vertically or obliquely. The distributions of the equivalent stress on the screw surface and the minimum principal stress in the surrounding bone were calculated using finite element models. When the miniscrews were inserted vertically and obliquely, screw head displacement, greatest equivalent stress on the miniscrew surface, and absolute value of minimum principal stresses in the surrounding bone decreased with increasing insertion depth. Read More

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Aligned forces: Origins and mechanisms of cancer dissemination guided by extracellular matrix architecture.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2021 Jun 26;72:63-71. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA; University of Minnesota Physical Sciences in Oncology Center, USA; Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, USA; Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA; Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, USA. Electronic address:

Organized extracellular matrix (ECM), in the form of aligned architectures, is a critical mediator of directed cancer cell migration by contact guidance, leading to metastasis in solid tumors. Current models suggest anisotropic force generation through the engagement of key adhesion and cytoskeletal complexes drives contact-guided migration. Likewise, disrupting the balance between cell-cell and cell-ECM forces, driven by ECM engagement for cells at the tumor-stromal interface, initiates and drives local invasion. Read More

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Dynamic force decay evaluation of latex and non-latex orthodontic elastics.

J Orofac Orthop 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Division of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, 6-320 Moos Health Science Tower, 515 Delaware Street S.E., 55455, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the force decay over time of latex and non-latex orthodontic elastics subjected to either static or dynamic stretching under simulated intraoral conditions.

Materials And Methods: Four types of elastics (1/4-inch 4.5 ounces and 1/4-inch 6. Read More

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Microfluidic chip grafted with integrin tension sensors for evaluating the effects of flowing shear stress and ROCK inhibitor on platelets.

Lab Chip 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Iowa State University, Ames, USA50011.

Integrins are key players in platelet adhesion and aggregation. Integrin molecular tensions, the forces transmitted by integrin molecules, are regulated by both mechanical and biochemical cues, and the outside-in and inside-out signaling has been extensively studied. While the mechanical properties of platelets at static status have been studied by atomic force microscopy, traction force microscopy and tension sensors, the biomechanical properties of flowing platelets remain elusive. Read More

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An overview of bio-actuation in collagen hydrogels: a mechanobiological phenomenon.

Biophys Rev 2021 Jun 20;13(3):387-403. Epub 2021 May 20.

Centre for Biomaterials Cellular and Molecular Theranostics, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014 India.

Due to their congruity with the native extracellular matrix and their ability to assist in soft tissue repair, hydrogels have been touted as a matrix mimicking biomaterial. Hydrogels are one of the prevalent scaffolds used for 3D cell culture. They can exhibit actuation in response to various stimuli like a magnetic field, electric field, mechanical force, temperature, or pH. Read More

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Mechanical stimulation activates Piezo1 to promote mucin2 expression in goblet cells.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background And Aim: Studies on the regulation of mucin2 expression in intestinal goblet cells by the endocrine system and the immune system have been comprehensive, but the effects of abundant mechanical factors in the intestinal microenvironment on goblet cells are not clear.

Methods: We constructed mechanical stimulation models in vivo and in vitro to explore the effect of mechanical stimulation on intestinal goblet cells. Piezo1 expression and function were regulated through model mouse and drugs to explored whether Piezo1 mediated mechanical stimulation. Read More

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Optimization and assessment of a novel gastric electrode anchoring system designed to be implanted by minimally invasive surgery.

Med Eng Phys 2021 Jun 8;92:93-101. Epub 2021 May 8.

Bio, Electro and Mechanical Systems Department (BEAMS), Ecole Polytechnique de Bruxelles, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

A novel electrode anchoring design and its implantation procedure, aiming for a minimally invasive solution for gastric electrical stimulation, are presented. The system comprises an anchor made of a flexible body embedding two needle-shaped electrodes. The electrodes can easily switch from a parallel position - to pierce the stomach - to a diverging position - enabling them to remain firmly anchored into the muscular layer of the stomach. Read More

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Stress-Distribution Pattern Across the Glenohumeral Joint in Collegiate and Professional Baseball Players: A Computed Tomography Osteoabsorptiometry Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Jun 3;9(6):23259671211009185. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: The influence of long-term loading conditions on the articular surfaces of the glenohumeral joint can be determined by measuring stress-distribution patterns. Long-term pitching activity changes the stress distribution across the glenohumeral joint surface; however, the influence of competitive level on stress-distribution patterns remains unclear.

Purpose: To use computed tomography (CT) osteoabsorptiometry (CTOAM) to evaluate the distribution of subchondral bone density across the glenohumeral joint in collegiate and professional baseball players as well as to determine the effects of pitching activity on the articular surfaces. Read More

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pyTFM: A tool for traction force and monolayer stress microscopy.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 21;17(6):e1008364. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Cellular force generation and force transmission are of fundamental importance for numerous biological processes and can be studied with the methods of Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) and Monolayer Stress Microscopy. Traction Force Microscopy and Monolayer Stress Microscopy solve the inverse problem of reconstructing cell-matrix tractions and inter- and intra-cellular stresses from the measured cell force-induced deformations of an adhesive substrate with known elasticity. Although several laboratories have developed software for Traction Force Microscopy and Monolayer Stress Microscopy computations, there is currently no software package available that allows non-expert users to perform a full evaluation of such experiments. Read More

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Effective elastic modulus of an intact cornea related to indentation behavior: A comparison between the Hertz model and Johnson-Kendall-Roberts model.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Jun 12;209:108670. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Biomedical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, China; State Key Lab. of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a macro-indentation test on the submillimeter scale was performed to analyze the indentation behavior of an intact cornea under physiological pressures. The Hertz and Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) models were employed to solve the elastic modulus (E) of the intact cornea. The relevant detailed analysis showed that the JKR model, which accounted for the contribution from the adhesion energy, could be used to obtain the E values that were more than two-folds of those obtained from the Hertz model, which only considered the external force. Read More

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy β-cardiac myosin mutation (P710R) leads to hypercontractility by disrupting super relaxed state.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(24)

Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology), Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304;

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited form of heart disease, associated with over 1,000 mutations, many in β-cardiac myosin (MYH7). Molecular studies of myosin with different HCM mutations have revealed a diversity of effects on ATPase and load-sensitive rate of detachment from actin. It has been difficult to predict how such diverse molecular effects combine to influence forces at the cellular level and further influence cellular phenotypes. Read More

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Modeling and simulation of static component generation of Lamb wave propagation in a layered plate.

Ultrasonics 2021 May 28;116:106473. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Modeling of the acoustic-radiation-induced static component (SC) generation of primary Lamb wave tone burst propagating in a layered plate is conducted. Accompanying the propagation of primary Lamb wave tone burst, there are the finite-duration SC bulk driving force in the interior of the layered plate, and the finite-duration SC traction stress on each surface/interface. According to the modal analysis approach for waveguide excitation, the function of the finite-duration SC bulk driving force and traction stress is to generate the finite-duration SC of primary Lamb wave tone burst. Read More

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Dose-dependent threshold illumination for non-invasive time-lapse fluorescence imaging of live cells.

Extreme Mech Lett 2021 Jul 3;46. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Fluorescent microscopy employs monochromatic light for excitation, which can adversely affect the cells being observed. We reported earlier that fibroblasts relax their contractile force in response to green light of typical intensity. Here we show that such effects are independent of extracellular matrix and cell lines. Read More

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Treatment of femur pseudoarthrosis using wave plate: Evaluation of consolidation and its relationship with graft type.

Injury 2021 Jul 1;52 Suppl 3:S18-S22. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Senior Counselor of the Pedriatic Trauma Group of Santa Casa de São Paulo.

Introduction: In the pathogenesis of femoral pseudoarthrosis, the arched shape of the bone is important when determining traction force on the anterolateral plane and posteromedial compression. In plate osteosynthesis, flexion forces affect the implant and can determine its breakdown and osteosynthesis failure. The wave plate seeks to solve the problem by transferring the support to the cortex under the plate or creating the resistance of a leaf spring. Read More

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Biomechanical evaluation of intraosseous distal radioulnar joint prosthesis: A prosthesis designed based on Sauvé-Kapandji procedure.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Jun 1:102975. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Orthopedic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Introduction: To avoid the DRUJ surgical procedures disadvantages, a new intraosseous distal radioulnar prosthesis designed on Sauvé-Kapandji procedure has been introduced. Stability of the prosthesis and biomechanics are to be evaluated in this article.

Materials And Methods: On a cadaveric study, during placement of the prosthesis, biometry of the bones, prosthesis stability (in axial and lateral tractions, wrist pronation and supination, and squeeze test), wrist range of motion before and after implantation, and radiographic evaluation were done on 16 cadavers. Read More

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The precision of macroscale mechanical measurements is limited by the inherent structural heterogeneity of human stratum corneum.

Acta Biomater 2021 Aug 1;130:308-316. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Binghamton University, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, Binghamton, NY 13902, United States. Electronic address:

Biological tissues are structurally heterogenous mosaics at cellular and sub-cellular length scales. Some tissues, like the outermost layer of human skin, or stratum corneum (SC), also exhibit a rich topography of microchannels at larger mesoscopic length scales. Although this is well understood, modern studies continue to characterize the mechanical properties of biological tissues, including the SC, using macroscale techniques that assume these materials are homogenous in structure, thickness, and composition. Read More

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Contracted joint capsule affects labral and chondral lesions in patients with frozen shoulder.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Aug 3;29(8):2640-2647. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan.

Purpose: Intra-articular pathologies, such as labral and chondral lesions, are common in patients with frozen shoulder. This study evaluated the correlations between the range of motion and labral and chondral lesions in patients with frozen shoulder and investigated their pathophysiologies.

Methods: In total, 125 individuals (53 men and 72 women) who underwent arthroscopic pan-capsular release between 2014 and 2020 were included in the study. Read More

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Mechanical Fingerprint of Senescence in Endothelial Cells.

Nano Lett 2021 06 3;21(12):4911-4920. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

Endothelial senescence entails alterations of the healthy cell phenotype, which accumulate over time and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Mechanical aspects regulating cell adhesion, force generation, and the response to flow contribute to the senescence-associated drift; however, they remain largely unexplored. Here, we exploit force microscopy to resolve variations of the cell anchoring to the substrate and the tractions generated upon aging in the nanonewton (nN) range. Read More

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