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Utility of Preoperative Electrodiagnosis Together with Peripheral Nerve High-Resolution Ultrasound: A Complex Case Report of Neurofibromatosis Type I.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona, Verona, Veneto, Italy.

Our case report underscores the importance of electroneuromyography (ENMG) combined with peripheral nerve high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) in the evaluation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). A 49-year-old woman affected by NF1 came to our attention because of new-onset left arm weakness and atrophy. Debulking of a cervicothoracic C7-T1 neurofibroma had been performed 8 years earlier. Read More

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On-cell saturation transfer difference NMR for the identification of FimH ligands and inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Mar 29;112:104876. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

BioOrg NMR Lab, Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza, 2, 20126 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

We describe the development of an on-cell NMR method for the rapid screening of FimH ligands and the structural identification of ligand binding epitopes. FimH is a mannose-binding bacterial adhesin expressed at the apical end of type 1 pili of uropathogenic bacterial strains and responsible for their d-mannose sensitive adhesion to host mammalian epithelial cells. Because of these properties, FimH is a key virulence factor and an attractive therapeutic target for urinary tract infection. Read More

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Quantifying the effect of trypsin and elastase on in vitro SARS-CoV infections.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 9:198423. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX.

The SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has the potential to cause serious disease that can spread rapidly around the world. Much of our understanding of SARS-CoV pathogenesis comes from in vitro experiments. Unfortunately, in vitro experiments cannot replicate all the complexity of the in vivo infection. Read More

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[Development and validation of a diagnostic model of antimicrobial resistance by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in community-acquired urinary tract infections. How to adjust the prediction in variable outcome prevalences? The usefulness of contracting predictors with LASSO regression].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2020 Dec;37(6):683-689

Departamento de Epidemiología Clínica, Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia.

Background: In the case of community-acquired urinary tract infection, the identification of Enterobacteriaceae with extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) can optimize treatment, control and follow-up strategies, however the effect of variable prevalences of this resistance pattern has affected the external validity of this type of models.

Aim: To develop a diagnostic predictive model that adjusts the prediction error in variable prevalences using the LASSO regression.

Methods: A diagnostic predictive model of community-acquired urinary tract infection by infection by ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae was designed. Read More

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December 2020

Case Report: Atypical Presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Two Cases from Northwest Ethiopia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

4Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Leishmania donovani complex. Atypical cases of leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection have been documented in case reports, mostly associated with gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and skin involvement. We report two VL cases with atypical localizations not reported from east Africa before, both diagnosed and treated at the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center, Gondar, Ethiopia. Read More

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Multimodal brain imaging connectivity analyses of emotional and motivational deficits in depression among women.

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2021 Apr 12;46(2):E303-E312. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

From the EA 4712 Comportement et noyaux gris centraux, Université de Rennes 1, France (Robert, Batail, Drapier); the Psychiatry Department, Centre Hospitalier Guillaume Régnier, 108 Boulevard Général Leclerc, 35000, Rennes, France (Robert, Domain, Batail, Drapier); the Radiology Department, CHU Rennes, 2 Rue Henri le Guilloux, 35000 Rennes, France (Bannier, Ferre); the University of Rennes, CNRS, Inria, Inserm, IRISA UMR 6074, Empenn-ERL U 1228, 35000 Rennes, France (Bannier, Corouge, Ferre, Barillot); the Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Campus Santé Timone, 27, Bd Jean Moulin 13005 Marseille, France (Comte); the University of Lille & CHU Lille, Inserm, U1171, Degenerative and Vascular Cognitive Disorders, 59000, Lille, France (Dondaine); and the Psychiatry Department, CHU Saint-Etienne, Team PsyR2-Centre de Recherche en Neuroscience de Lyon, (CRNL) CNRS UMR 5292-Inserm U1028, University of Lyon and Saint Etienne, France (Fakra).

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impaired cortical-subcortical functional connectivity. Apathy adds to functional impairment, but its cerebral basis in MDD remains unknown. Our objective was to describe impairments in functional connectivity during emotional processing in MDD (with varying levels of congruency and attention), and to determine their correlation with apathy. Read More

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Antimicrobial drug resistance profile of isolated bacteria in dogs and cats with urologic problems at Chiang Mai University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Thailand (2012-2016).

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

The present study aimed to estimate the proportion of bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and cats, assess risks associated with bacterial UTI, and to determine bacterial isolates' antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance pattern from the urinary tract of dogs and cats with urologic problems. The medical records from animals visiting Chiang Mai University Small Animal Veterinary Teaching Hospital between January 2012 and December 2016 were reviewed. In total, 203 dogs and 49 cats with urinary tract diseases that had samples submitted for bacterial culture were identified;198 and 24 bacterial isolates were recovered from dogs' and cats' submitted samples, respectively. Read More

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Porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres attenuate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice via downregulation of oxidative stress.

J Dig Dis 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common digestive tract disease caused by gall stone obstruction, alcoholism and other factors. Pancreatitis may develop into severe pancreatitis, which has a relatively high mortality rate. Thus, effective methods for treating it need to be developed. Read More

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Expert Perspective: Management of refractory inflammatory myopathy.

Authors:
Ingrid E Undberg

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.

The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are chronic disorders characterized by inflammation in skeletal muscle but also in other organs like the skin, lungs, joints, gastro-intestinal tract and the heart. The effect of immunosuppressive treatment varies between individual patients and between organ manifestations within the same individual. Many patients respond poorly to first line treatment with glucocorticoids and another immunosuppressive agent such as methotrexate or azathioprine, with persistent symptoms from muscles, skin and lungs thus becoming refractory. Read More

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Complication profile of augmentation cystoplasty in contemporary paediatric urology: a 20-year review.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Paediatric Urology, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: The aim of this study was to describe the complication profile of augmentation cystoplasty in contemporary paediatric urology as well as its effect on bladder metrics.

Methods: Consecutive operative cases were retrospectively reviewed at a single institution over 20 years (1999-2019). Short- and long-term outcomes and complications following augmentation cystoplasty were defined. Read More

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Biliary tract exploration via left hepatic duct stump versus the common bile duct incision in left-sided hepatolithiasis: a meta-analysis.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou, Lanzhou, China.

Background: Left lateral hepatic resection is the preferred surgical approach for treating left hepatolithiasis. However, it is not clear whether cholangioscopy via left hepatic duct (LHD) orifice can replace conventional common bile duct (CBD) approach during laparoscopic procedures.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search by screening medical databases, then compared perioperative outcomes and occurrence of recurrent stones between LHD and CBD approaches. Read More

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Outcomes after cervical vertebral interbody fusion using an interbody fusion device and polyaxial pedicle screw and rod construct in 10 horses (2015-2019).

Equine Vet J 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523, USA.

Background: Further development of surgical techniques for equine cervical stabilisation is necessary to make the procedure less technically demanding, reduce complications, and improve outcomes.

Objective: To describe clinical outcomes and owner reports in horses undergoing placement of an interbody fusion device and polyaxial pedicle screw and rod construct for cervical vertebral fusion in horses with cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy.

Study Design: Retrospective case series. Read More

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Posterior drooling in children with cerebral palsy and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injections, submandibular gland excision (SMGE), and bilateral submandibular duct ligation (2DL) for the control of posterior drooling in children with neurological impairment.

Method: In a retrospective cohort, children with neurological impairment (e.g. Read More

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Predictors of poor neonatal outcomes in fetuses diagnosed with congenital urinary tract anomalie.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Niš, Serbia.

Objectives: Urinary tract anomalies account for approximately one-quarter of all antenatally detected anomalies. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with severe adverse neonatal outcomes of a prenatally diagnosed urinary tract anomaly.

Material And Methods: A retrospective-prospective study included 101 pregnant women with prenatally diagnosed fetal urinary tract anomalies presented to the Council for Fetal Anomalies. Read More

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The Urogynecology Section of the Polish Society of Gynecologists and Obstetricians Guideline on the use of urodynamic testing in gynecological practice.

Ginekol Pol 2021 ;92(3):230-235

Department of Operative Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology, I Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.

Objectives: The aim was to present an interdisciplinary Guideline of the Urogynecology Section of the Polish Society of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (PSGO) for the use of urodynamics (UDS) in the diagnostic process of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) based on the available literature, expert knowledge, and everyday practice.

Material And Methods: A review of the literature concerning the use of UDS in women, including current international guidelines and earlier recommendations of the PSGO Urogynecology Section, was conducted.

Results: Urodynamic testing allows to make the urodynamic diagnosis which, nevertheless, remains to be the preliminary diagnosis. Read More

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January 2021

Synovial sarcoma of the stomach: a case report and a systematic review of literature.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Comprehensive Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan.

Worldwide, 5-10% of soft tissue sarcoma cases in adults have been attributed to synovial sarcoma. It is often reported to occur near the joints of the arm, neck, and leg but rarely in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we report a case of synovial sarcoma arising in the stomach of a 59-year-old woman. Read More

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Vascular endothelial cell specification in health and disease.

Angiogenesis 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, 22908, USA.

There are two vascular networks in mammals that coordinately function as the main supply and drainage systems of the body. The blood vasculature carries oxygen, nutrients, circulating cells, and soluble factors to and from every tissue. The lymphatic vasculature maintains interstitial fluid homeostasis, transports hematopoietic cells for immune surveillance, and absorbs fat from the gastrointestinal tract. Read More

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The impact of asynchronous e-visits on clinical outcomes and healthcare delivery: A systematic review.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 USF Magnolia Drive, MRC-CANCONT, Tampa, US.

Background: E-visits involve asynchronous communication between clinicians and patients through a secure web-based platform, such as a patient portal, to elicit symptoms and determine a diagnosis and treatment plan. E-visits are now reimbursable through Medicare due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The state of evidence regarding e-visits, such as the impact on clinical outcomes and healthcare delivery, is unclear. Read More

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Tribolium castaneum defensin 1 kills Moraxella catarrhalisin an in vitro infection model but does not harm commensal bacteria.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):1003-1010

Institute for Lung Research, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

is a bacterial pathogen that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains has created a demand for alternative treatment options. We therefore tested 23 insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for their activity against in a human infection model with primary macrophages, and against commensal bacteria. Read More

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December 2021

Isaac Newton's 'De gravitatione et aequipondio fluidorum': its purpose in historical context.

Authors:
Dmitri Levitin

Ann Sci 2021 Apr 11:1-29. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

All Souls College, Oxford, UK.

Few texts in the history of science and philosophy have achieved the level of interpretative indeterminacy as a short manuscript tract by Isaac Newton, known as 'De gravitatione'. On the basis of some new evidence, this article argues that it is an introductory fragment of some lectures on hydrostatics delivered in the of spring 1671. Taking seriously the possibility of a pedagogical purpose, it is then argued that the famous digression on space, far from articulating a sophisticated metaphysics that may have owed something to Henry More, was a simple piece of mixed-mathematical prolegomena designed to facilitate the subsequent geometrical argumentation. Read More

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Efficiency of Topical Rifampin on Infection in Open Neural Tube Defects: A randomized controlled trial.

Int J Neurosci 2021 Apr 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Yuzuncu Yıl University Faculty of Medicine, division of neonatology, Van, Turkey.

Neural tube defects are the second most common congenital malformation in humans. Despite significant decreases in neural tube defects and related mortality and morbidity with recent developments, infections remain an important problem. Research on the role of topical therapy for managing neural tube defects and associated infections in the neonatal period has been limited. Read More

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Effects of Angular Resolution and Value on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Knee Joint.

Cartilage 2021 Apr 10:19476035211007909. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Objective: To investigate the influences of the diffusion gradient directions (angular resolution) and the strength of the diffusion gradient ( value) on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and tractography of various connective tissues in knee joint.

Design: Two rat knee joints were scanned on a preclinical 9.4-T system using a 3-dimensional diffusion-weighted spin echo pulse sequence. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 on serum melatonin levels and sleep parameters in children.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Background/aim: This study aimed to analyze the serum melatonin levels and changes in sleep patterns in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Materials And Methods: This study was designed as a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Serum melatonin levels and sleep parameters of children with the diagnosis of COVID-19 who had mild and moderate disease (i. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and plasma antibody titer of patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang, China.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2020 Dec.;21(12):955-960

Research Center of Blood Transfusion Medicine, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Blood Transfusion, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which first affected humans in China on December 31, 2019 (Shi et al., 2020). Coronaviruses generally cause mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections in humans, such as the common cold, pneumonia, and gastroenteritis (To et al. Read More

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Pregnancy outcomes in women with a hemoglobinopathy trait: a multicenter, retrospective study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Antenatal Care, University Hospital Basel, Spitalstrasse 21, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: To determine the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with a hemoglobinopathy trait.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes between pregnant women with a hemoglobinopathy trait (study group; n = 172), and without a hemoglobinopathy trait (control group; n = 360). The medical data were extracted from clinical records of pregnant women attending antenatal care and delivering at the University Hospital Basel or University Hospital Zurich between 2015 and 2018. Read More

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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial of inhaled and intranasal niclosamide: A broad spectrum antiviral candidate for treatment of COVID-19.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Apr 6:100084. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

UNION therapeutics, Tuborg Havnevej 18, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark.

Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is spreading globally and treatment options remain limited. A formulation of niclosamide, a potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent and a broad-spectrum antiviral treatment candidate, optimized for inhalation and intranasal administration (UNI91104) was developed.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-centre, dose-ascending Phase 1 trial to assess the safety of UNI91104 in Denmark (NCT04576312). Read More

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The Unfolding Palette of COVID-19Multisystemic Syndrome and its Neurological Manifestations.

Brain Behav Immun Health 2021 Apr 3:100251. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Institute of Biomedical Research (BIOMED), UCA-CONICET, Av. Alicia Moreau de Justo 1600, C1107AFF, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Although our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of COVID-19 is still fragmentary, the information so far accrued on the tropism and life cycle of its etiological agent SARS-CoV-2, together with the emerging clinical data, suffice to indicate that the severe acute pulmonary syndrome is the main, but not the only manifestation of COVID-19. Necropsy studies are increasingly revealing underlying endothelial vasculopathies in the form of micro-haemorrhages and micro-thrombi. Intertwined with defective antiviral responses, dysregulated coagulation mechanisms, abnormal hyper-inflammatory reactions and responses, COVID-19 is disclosing a wide pathophysiological palette. Read More

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Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Causes Acute Airway Obstruction Following Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: A Case Report.

Spine Surg Relat Res 2021 10;5(2):114-116. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.

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Feasibility of a second-generation colon capsule in visualization of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):411

Division of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Capsule endoscopy for visualization of the entire gastrointestinal tract is a challenge. A second-generation colon capsule endoscopy system (CCE-2) performed well in the colon and small intestine, but its utility in the upper gastrointestinal duct is not clear. We evaluated the use of the CCE-2 in the visualization of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Read More

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Respiratory Tract Infections and Antibiotic Resistance: A Protective Role for Vitamin D?

Front Nutr 2021 25;8:652469. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Human Development and Health, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Upper and lower respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections globally, and in the United Kingdom, they account for about half of all oral antibiotics prescribed. Antibiotic overuse and the emergence of "superbugs" that are resistant to their effects is a global problem that is becoming a serious concern. Considering this, the potential role of immunonutrition as a "prehabilitation" in helping to tackle bacterial infections and reduce over-reliance on antibiotic usage is gaining interest. Read More

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