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Real-World Evidence for Control of Chronic Migraine Patients Receiving CGRP Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Added to OnabotulinumtoxinA: A Retrospective Chart Review.

Pain Ther 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Allergan, an AbbVie Company, Irvine, CA, USA.

Introduction: Combination use of onabotulinumtoxinA and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has the potential to be more effective than either therapy alone for migraine prevention.

Methods: This retrospective, longitudinal chart review included adults with chronic migraine treated at one clinical site with ≥ 2 consecutive cycles of onabotulinumtoxinA and ≥ 1 month of subsequent combination treatment with CGRP mAbs. Charts at time of mAb prescription (baseline) and up to four visits ~ 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-baseline were reviewed for safety, tolerability, and outcome measures (monthly headache days [MHDs], headache intensity, and migraine-related disability [MIDAS]). Read More

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Getting stoned: Characterisation of the coagulotoxic and neurotoxic effects of reef stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa) venom.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Venom Evolution Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

The reef stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa) is a venomous fish which causes excruciatingly painful envenomations. While some research on the pathophysiology and functions of the venom has been conducted, there are still some gaps in the understanding of the venom effects due to the extreme lability of fish venom toxins and the lack of available testing platforms. Here we set out to assess new functions of the venom whilst also attempting to address some unclear pathophysiological effects from previous literature. Read More

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High resolution mass spectrometry workflow for the analysis of food contaminants: Application to plant toxins, mycotoxins and phytoestrogens in plant-based ingredients.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 Apr 16:1-19. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Nestlé Research, Société des Produits Nestlé SA, Lausanne, Switzerland.

An analytical workflow including mass spectral library, generic sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was developed to gain insight into the occurrence of plant toxins, mycotoxins and phytoestrogens in plant-based food. This workflow was applied to 156 compounds including 90 plant toxins (pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tropane alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, isoquinoline alkaloids and aristolochic acids), 54 mycotoxins (including ergot alkaloids and toxins) and 12 phytoestrogens (including isoflavones, lignans and coumestan) in plant-based protein ingredients, cereal and pseudo-cereal products. A mass spectral library was built based on fragmentation spectra collected at 10 different collision energies in both positive and negative ionisation modes for each toxin. Read More

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Erythrocyte haemotoxicity profiling of snake venom toxins after nanofractionation.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Feb 16:122586. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Amsterdam Institute of Molecular and Life Sciences, Division of BioAnalytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081HV Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Centre for Analytical Sciences Amsterdam (CASA), 1098 XH Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Snakebite is classified as a priority Neglected Tropical Disease by the World Health Organization. Understanding the pathology of individual snake venom toxins is of great importance when developing more effective snakebite therapies. Snake venoms may induce a range of pathologies, including haemolytic activity. Read More

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February 2021

Efficacy of short-synthetic antifungal peptides on pathogenic Aspergillus flavus.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 27;174:104810. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Biochemistry, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana State, India. Electronic address:

The efficacies of three short synthetic antifungal peptides were tested for their inhibitory action on pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus flavus. The sequences of the short synthetic peptides are PPD1- FRLHF, 66-10-FRLKFH, 77-3- FRLKFHF, respectively. These test peptides inhibited fungal growth and showed a membranolytic activity. Read More

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Characterization of staphylococci sampled from diabetic foot ulcer of Jordanian patients.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Aims: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize staphylococcal isolates from diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) in Jordanian patients.

Methods And Results: Selected aerobic pathogens recovered from DFU specimens and patients' nares with a focus on staphylococci were investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) were determined. Read More

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Adaptation of in a Medium Mimicking a Diabetic Foot Environment.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Virulence Bactérienne et Infections Chroniques, INSERM U1047, Université de Montpellier, Department of Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, CHU Nîmes, Univ Montpellier, 30908 Nîmes, France.

is the most prevalent pathogen isolated from diabetic foot infections (DFIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate its behavior in an in vitro model mimicking the conditions encountered in DFI. Four clinical strains were cultivated for 16 weeks in a specific environment based on the wound-like medium biofilm model. Read More

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Assessing the Single and Combined Toxicity of Chlorantraniliprole and (GO33A) against Four Selected Strains of (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), and a Gene Expression Analysis.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Plant Protection, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Concerns about resistance development to conventional insecticides in diamondback moth (DBM) (L.) the most destructive pest of vegetables, have stimulated interest in alternative pest management strategies. The toxicity of subsp. Read More

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The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite at Point-of-Use to Remove Microcystins from Water Containers.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Environmental Health, Tshwane University of Technology, Staatsartillerie Road, Pretoria West, P/Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.

Most conventional water treatment plants are not sufficiently equipped to treat both intracellular and extracellular Microcystins in drinking water. However, the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite in removing Microcystin in containers at the point-of-use is not yet known. This study aimed to assess point-of-use water container treatment using bleach or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and to assess the health problems associated with microcystins. Read More

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Dietary Fibre Intake Is Associated with Serum Levels of Uraemic Toxins in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Nephrology Section, Department of Internal Medicine and Paediatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Imbalanced colonic microbial metabolism plays a pivotal role in generating protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs), which accumulate with deteriorating kidney function and contribute to the uraemic burden of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dietary choices impact the gut microbiome and metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between dietary fibre and gut-derived PBUTs in paediatric CKD. Read More

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Field Monitoring of Aflatoxins in Feed and Milk of High-Yielding Dairy Cows under Two Feeding Systems.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón-IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA), Facultad de Veterinaria, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain.

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that can be excreted in milk of cows after consuming contaminated feed. The aim of this study consisted of a field monitoring to assess the contamination levels of AFB1 in 60 feed samples from two feeding systems for high-yielding dairy cows and of AFM1 in the corresponding raw milk samples. The aflatoxins were analyzed by in-house validated methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Read More

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Distinct Solute Removal Patterns by Similar Surface High-Flux Membranes in Haemodiafiltration: The Adsorption Point of View.

Blood Purif 2021 Mar 31:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Nephrology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: Haemodialysis (HD) allow depuration of uraemic toxins by diffusion, convection, and adsorption. Online haemodiafiltration (HDF) treatments add high convection to enhance removal. There are no prior studies on the relationship between convection and adsorption in HD membranes. Read More

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Highest risk abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 30;11(1):7195. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, USA.

Derelict abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear have profound adverse effects. We assessed gear-specific relative risks from derelict gear to rank-order fishing methods based on: derelict gear production rates, gear quantity indicators of catch weight and fishing grounds area, and adverse consequences from derelict gear. The latter accounted for ghost fishing, transfer of microplastics and toxins into food webs, spread of invasive alien species and harmful microalgae, habitat degradation, obstruction of navigation and in-use fishing gear, and coastal socioeconomic impacts. Read More

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Quercetin Nanoparticle Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Triggered Renal Inflammatory Impairment by Regulation of Sirt1/NF-KB Pathway.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Feb;17(2):230-241

Medical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, PR China.

As a conventional complication of sepsis, acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by high incidence and mortality. Effective management methods are still lacking. Quercetin belongs to a kind of flavonoids that exerts many functions, for example anti-inflammation and anti-fibrosis. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of a medium cut-off dialyzer on protein-bound uremic toxins and mineral metabolism markers in patients on hemodialysis.

Hemodial Int 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Nephrology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia.

Introduction: Hemodialysis (HD) with medium cut-off (MCO) dialyzers may expand molecular clearance, predominantly larger middle molecules (molecular weight 25-60 kDa). However, the impact of MCO dialyzers on long-term clearance of various other components of the uremic milieu is unknown. The tRial Evaluating Mid cut-Off Value membrane clearance of Albumin and Light chains in HemoDialysis patients (REMOVAL-HD) provided an opportunity to assess the effect of MCO dialyzers on protein-bound uremic toxins and novel markers of mineral metabolism. Read More

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Investigation of feedstuff contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi species in the semi-arid region in northeast of Iran.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Mar 24;193(4):214. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

There is a close relationship between human health and the quality of the ration used by domestic animals. Also, molds, like genus of Aspergillus, infect animal and human food products with dangerous toxic substances, i.e. Read More

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Proteolytic activity of saliva associated with PAR-2 activation and vasodilation.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2021 Mar 8;27:e20200098. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a hematophagous insect and the main vector of (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). In the present study, the authors investigated whether a serine protease activity from the saliva of has a role in vasomotor modulation, and in the insect-blood feeding by cleaving and activating protease-activated receptors (PARs).

Methods: saliva was chromatographed as previously reported for purification of triapsin, a serine protease. Read More

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An innovative role for luteolin as a natural quorum sensing inhibitor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 10;274:119325. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Biological Colloids, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

Aims: The emergence of antibiotic tolerance was a tricky problem in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected cystic fibrosis and burn victims. The quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor may serve as a new tactic for the bacterial resistance by inhibiting the biofilm formation and the production of virulence factors. This study explored the potential of luteolin as a QS inhibitor against P. Read More

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Cysteine-based crosslinking approach for characterization of oligomeric pore-forming proteins in the mitochondrial membranes.

Methods Enzymol 2021 12;649:371-396. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States; Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States. Electronic address:

Mitochondria are important not only to healthy but also dying cells. In particular, apoptotic cell death initiates when the mitochondrial outer membrane is permeabilized by Bax, a protein of the Bcl-2 family. Bax shares a structural fold with some α-helical bacterial pore-forming toxins before these proteins actively engage membranes. Read More

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February 2021

Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli in Animals: Detection, Characterization, and Virulence Assessment.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2291:19-86

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut/Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Jena, Germany.

Cattle and other ruminants are primary reservoirs for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains which have a highly variable, but unpredictable, pathogenic potential for humans. Domestic swine can carry and shed STEC, but only STEC strains producing the Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e variant and causing edema disease in piglets are considered pathogens of veterinary medical interest. In this chapter, we present general diagnostic workflows for sampling livestock animals to assess STEC prevalence, magnitude, and duration of host colonization. Read More

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Trends in Clostridioides difficile diagnosis before and after a change in testing algorithm.

J Microbiol Methods 2021 May 6;184:106189. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Clostridioides difficile (Clostridium difficile) (CD) infection remains a challenging diagnosis in hospitalized patients given the myriad of testing procedures and array of alternative causes for diarrhea. We identified 100 consecutive inpatients with positive CD testing in a single tertiary center before and after changing from nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) alone to a two-step algorithm involving Glutamate Dehydrogenase enzyme immunoassays (GDHEIA) followed by an enzyme immunoassay for CD toxins (EIA). Detailed clinical information was obtained retrospectively to assess for risk factors, clinical features, and treatment outcomes to correlate test results with clinical cases. Read More

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Stereotaxic Intracranial Delivery of Chemicals, Proteins or Viral Vectors to Study Parkinson's Disease.

J Vis Exp 2021 02 18(168). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Cell Biology and Gene Expression Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive disorder traditionally defined by resting tremor and akinesia, primarily due to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Affected brain areas display intraneuronal fibrillar inclusions consisting mainly of alpha-synuclein (asyn) proteins. No animal model thus far has recapitulated all characteristics of this disease. Read More

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February 2021

Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxin-Producing in Market-Bought Peruvian Cereals: A Food Safety Threat for Andean Populations.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

INRAE, MycSA, F-33882 Villenave d'Ornon, France.

Consumption of cereals contaminated by mycotoxins poses health risks. For instance, Fumonisins B, mainly produced by and , and the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol, typically produced by are highly prevalent on cereal grains that are staples of many cultural diets and known to represent a toxic risk hazard. In Peru, corn and other cereals are frequently consumed on a daily basis under various forms, the majority of food grains being sold through traditional markets for direct consumption. Read More

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February 2021

Real Impact of Novel Immunotherapy Drugs in Cancer. The Experience of 10 Last Years.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Feb 15;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

1st Oncology Department, "Saint Savas" Anticancer-Oncology Hospital, 11522 Athens, Greece.

Intense research on immunotherapy has been conducted during recent years. As advances in the field have started changing the landscape of cancer therapy, it is necessary to assess the impact of immunotherapeutic modalities in the treatment of various cancers. Ten years ago, in 2011, ipilimumab was the first of the newest immunotherapeutic drugs against cancer to be approved by the FDA. Read More

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February 2021

The Impact of Alkaloid-Producing Endophyte on Forage Ryegrass Breeding: A New Zealand Perspective.

Colin Eady

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Feb 18;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Barenbrug, New Zealand Ltd., 2547 Old West Coast Road, Courtenay, Christchurch 7671, New Zealand.

For 30 years, forage ryegrass breeding has known that the germplasm may contain a maternally inherited symbiotic endophyte. These endophytes produce a suite of secondary alkaloid compounds, dependent upon strain. Many produce ergot and other alkaloids, which are associated with both insect deterrence and livestock health issues. Read More

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February 2021

Isolated from Ruminants with Mastitis in Northern Greece Dairy Herds: Genetic Relatedness and Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Feb 25;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Hellenic Agricultural Organisation-DEMETER, Veterinary Research Institute of Thessaloniki, Campus of Thermi, 57001 Thermi, Greece.

is the most common mastitis-related pathogen in dairy cattle, goats, and sheep worldwide. However, the population structure and genomic characteristics of mastitis-associated in small ruminants are limited. Furthermore, the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics involved in the pathogenicity of . Read More

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February 2021

The analysis of GSTA1 promoter genetic and functional diversity of human populations.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 3;11(1):5038. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Research Platform for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Avenue de la Roseraie 64, 1205, Geneva, Switzerland.

GSTA1 encodes a member of a family of enzymes that function to add glutathione to target electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins, and products of oxidative stress. GSTA1 has several functional SNPs within its promoter region that are responsible for a change in its expression by altering promoter function. This study aims to investigate distributions of GSTA1 promoter haplotypes across different human populations and to assess their impact on the expression of GSTA1. Read More

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Multi-mycotoxin contamination of green tea infusion and dietary exposure assessment in Moroccan population.

Food Res Int 2021 Feb 8;140:109958. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Team of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnologies, BioMare Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Chouaib Doukkali University, El Jadida 24000, Morocco.

Green tea infusion is one of the most widely drunk beverages worldwide due to its health benefits associated with microelements, essential oils, and polyphenols, etc. Several studies have reported that green tea is subjected to contamination by various toxigenic fungi. Thus, this work aims to investigate the co-occurrence of 15 mycotoxins [four aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), beauvericin (BEA), four enniatins (ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1), zearalenone (ZEN), alternariol (AOH), tentoxin (TENT), T-2 and HT-2 toxins] in green tea samples available in Morocco by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Read More

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February 2021

Invasive clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) are better equipped to deal with harmful algal blooms toxins than native species (R. decussatus): evidence of species-specific toxicokinetics and DNA vulnerability.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;767:144887. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Biology Department and CESAM, Aveiro University, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

This study aims to assess and compare the kinetics (accumulation/elimination) of the marine biotoxins okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), between native (Ruditapes decussatus) and invasive (Ruditapes philippinarum) clam species, and their genotoxic effects and DNA recover capacity after, exposure to toxic dinoflagellates Prorocentrum lima. Clams were fed with P. lima for 5 days and then to non-toxic algae (post-exposure) during other 5 days. Read More

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REVIEW: Assessing North Atlantic right whale health: threats, and development of tools critical for conservation of the species.

Dis Aquat Organ 2021 Feb 25;143:205-226. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole MA 02543, USA Co-authors' addresses given in a supplement; www.int-res.com/articles/suppl/d143p205_supp.pdf.

Whaling has decimated North Atlantic right whales Eubalaena glacialis (NARW) since the 11th century and southern right whales E. australis (SRW) since the 19th century. Today, NARWs are Critically Endangered and decreasing, whereas SRWs are recovering. Read More

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February 2021