377,058 results match your criteria toxin

Epidemiology of the Staphylococcus aureus CA-MRSA USA300 in Belgium.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Microbiology, Laboratoire Hospitalier Universitaire de Bruxelles (LHUB-ULB), CNR Staphylocoques, Route de Lennik 808, 1070, Brussels, Belgium.

The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type (ST) 8 Panton-Valentine toxin (PVL)-positive USA300 clone has a worldwide distribution. The USA300 North American (NA) variant, harbouring the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), is predominant in the USA while the Latin American (LV) variant is predominant in Northern South America. Both variants have failed to become endemic in Europe. Read More

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Cys183 and Cys258 in Cry49Aa toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus are essential for toxicity to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

College of Life Sciences, Gannan Normal University, Shida South Road 1, Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province, 341000, People's Republic of China.

The two-component Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa toxin produced by Lysinibacillus sphaericus shows specifically toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. Cry49Aa C-terminal domain is responsible for specific binding to the larval gut cell membrane, while its N-terminal domain is required for interaction with Cry48Aa. To investigate functional role of cysteine in Cry49Aa, four cysteine residues at positions 70, 91, 183, and 258 were substituted by alanine. Read More

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Long-term stable efficacy of botulinum toxin A in facial movement disorders with no need for increasing dose.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26481

Department of Neurosurgery, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Abstract: Botulinum toxin A is considered an effective treatment for involuntary facial movements. We examined whether treatment efficacy maintained or changed over time with two products, Botox and Dysport, in patients with hemifacial spasm, facial synkinesis and benign essential blepharospasm.We retrospectively investigated 87 consecutive patients (51 women, 36 men) who had undergone treatment for ≥6 years. Read More

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Cortical somatosensory processing after botulinum toxin therapy in post-stroke spasticity.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26356

Department of Neurology, Palacký University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc.

Abstract: In dystonic and spastic movement disorders, abnormalities of motor control and somatosensory processing as well as cortical modulations associated with clinical improvement after botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) treatment have been reported, but electrophysiological evidence remains controversial. In the present observational study, we aimed to uncover central correlates of post-stroke spasticity (PSS) and BoNT-A-related changes in the sensorimotor cortex by investigating the cortical components of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Thirty-one chronic stroke patients with PSS of the upper limb were treated with BoNT-A application into the affected muscles and physiotherapy. Read More

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Pyloric distensibility in health and disease.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Physiology, INSERM Unit 1073 and CIC-CRB 1404, Rouen University Hospital, grid.10400.35University of Rouen, Normandie University, Rouen, France.

Until recently, gastric motility measurements in Humans were mostly limited to accommodation (using barostat or 3-dimensional imaging studies of gastric volume) and gastric emptying tests, the latter being the only one performed in routine clinical care. Accurate and easy to use techniques were lacking to assess pyloric function in health and disease. Recently, pyloric distensibility has been developed and validated to assess pyloric opening. Read More

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Harefuah 2021 Jun;160(6):382-385

Department of Urology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Introduction: Botulinum toxin has been at the center of attention in the last decades as a treatment option in several urologic diseases related to lower urinary tract function. Intravesical injection of the toxin is recommended for two main indications: neurogenic detrusor over-activity and idiopathic detrusor over-activity, resistant to oral therapy. In certain cases, clinical response to treatment is less than ideal, despite previous response. Read More

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Bacillus cereus food intoxication and toxicoinfection.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Food Technology, Safety and Health, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Bacillus cereus is one of the leading etiological agents of toxin-induced foodborne diseases. Its omnipresence in different environments, spore formation, and its ability to adapt to varying conditions and produce harmful toxins make this pathogen a health hazard that should not be underestimated. Food poisoning by B. Read More

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Evidence of Cylindrospermopsin uptake and clearance in fish (Oreochromis niloticus) under laboratory conditions.

J Fish Biol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundão, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin that has raised serious concerns about public health in many parts of the world. It can bioaccumulate and affect the health of aquatic organisms, but despite this, few studies have been conducted on CYN uptake and clearance in fish. In this paper, we evaluate the uptake and clearance of CYN in the muscle tissue and viscera of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after exposure to aqueous extracts and whole -cells of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (CYN-producer). Read More

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Occurrence of aflatoxin M in human breast milk in Bangladesh.

Mycotoxin Res 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, 3114, Bangladesh.

Breast milk is the best, most complete form of nutrition for newborns and infants. However, human milk can contain aflatoxin M (AFM) upon ingestion of dietary mycotoxin contaminants, namely, aflatoxin B (AFB), by lactating mothers. AFB and its hydroxylated metabolite AFM are potent carcinogens and thus an important issue in food safety and public health. Read More

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The use of phosphorescence oxygen analyzer to measure the effects of rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium on striatal cellular respiration in C57BL6 mice.

Heliyon 2021 Jun 5;7(6):e07219. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Pediatrics, UAE University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Alain, P.O. Box 17666, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Background: We have previously reported on the use of the phosphorescence oxygen analyzer for measuring spinal cord cellular respiration. This analytical tool is used here to investigate the effects of two inhibitors of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, on cellular respiration in striatal tissue. Both neurotoxins can induce Parkinson's disease-like symptoms, and have been used to study this disease in animals. Read More

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Botulinum toxin A improves neurogenic bladder fibrosis by suppressing transforming growth factor β1 expression in rats.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 May;10(5):2000-2007

Department of Urology, Xuanwu Hospital Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Beijing, China.

Background: Intradetrusor botulinum toxin A injection is recommended for the treatment of refractory detrusor overactivity (DO) in patients with neurogenic bladder, however, whether it could inhibit neurogenic bladder fibrosis is uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the effect of botulinum toxin A on neurogenic bladder fibrosis and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: Forty eight Female Wistar rats were evenly randomized into 4 groups: Sham, T10 transection, Early and Late groups. Read More

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Anthrax toxin translocation complex reveals insight into the lethal factor unfolding and refolding mechanism.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 22;11(1):13038. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA.

Translocation is essential to the anthrax toxin mechanism. Protective antigen (PA), the binding component of this AB toxin, forms an oligomeric pore that translocates lethal factor (LF) or edema factor, the active components of the toxin, into the cell. Structural details of the translocation process have remained elusive despite their biological importance. Read More

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Intratracheal inoculation of AHc vaccine induces protection against aerosolized botulinum neurotoxin A challenge in mice.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Jun 22;6(1):87. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by Clostridium botulinum, is generally known to be the most poisonous of all biological toxins. In this study, we evaluate the protection conferred by intratracheal (i.t. Read More

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[Colonic Mass Secondary to Sevelamer-associated Rectal Ulcer].

Korean J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun;77(6):305-308

Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

The phosphorous balance is clinically important in increasing the long-term outcomes and preventing complications of end-stage renal disease. Sevelamer is a phosphate binder used widely to regulate hyperphosphatemia. On the other hand, gastrointestinal side effects increase with increasing sevelamer intake. Read More

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Botulinum toxin type a intralesional monotherapy for treating human hypertrophic scar in a dose-dependent manner: In an animal model.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

Background: The effect of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in treating or preventing a hypertrophic scar (HS) had been reported in clinical studies. However, the dose-effect relationship remains unclear.

Objective: To study the dose-effect relationship of BTX-A intralesional monotherapy treating human HS. Read More

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Phototransformation of an emerging cyanotoxin (Aerucyclamide A) in simulated natural waters.

Water Res 2021 Jun 7;201:117339. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, PR China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, 200092, PR China. Electronic address:

Aerucyclamide A (ACA) is an emerging cyanopeptide toxin produced by cyanobacteria, and its transformation pathway has rarely been reported. In the present study, ACA was purified from cyanobacterial extracts, and photodegradation processes were investigated in dissolved organic matter (DOM) solutions. Under simulated solar irradiation, the photodegradation of ACA was dominated by OH oxidation, accounting for ~72% of the indirect photodegradation. Read More

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In-house tooth-supported guide for the injection of botulinum toxin into the lateral pterygoid muscle using Blue Sky Plan software: A technical note.

J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Institute of the Face and Neck, University Hospital of Nice, 31 Avenue de Valombrose, 06100 Nice, France. Electronic address:

Hyperactivity of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) is one of the theories postulated to explain anterior disc displacement, which can result in difficulty in jaw opening, jaw protrusion, or jaw-deviation dystonias and interferes with mastication, speech, and swallowing. Injection of botulinum toxin of the LPM is considered a conservative therapeutic modality for this condition. The LPM is a deep facial structure and several techniques have been described that use magnetic resonance imaging, arthroscopic, or electromyographic guidance to perform intramuscular botulinum toxin injection safely this to prevent incorrect injection or complications, such arterial bleeding. Read More

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A mouse model of microglia-specific ablation in the embryonic central nervous system.

Neurosci Res 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Functional Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

Microglia, which migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) during the early embryonic stages, are considered to play various roles in CNS development. However, their embryonic roles are largely unknown, partly due to the lack of an effective microglial ablation system in the embryo. Here, we show a microglial ablation model by injecting diphtheria toxin (DT) into the amniotic fluid of Siglech mice, in which the gene encoding DT receptor is knocked into the microglia-specific gene locus Siglech. Read More

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Trigone as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for bladder-centric interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, 125 Paterson Street, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA.

The pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) may be bladder-centric, with afferent nerve hyperexcitability and/or due to neural central sensitization. In bladder-centric disease, the trigone's unmyelinated nociceptive C-fibers are thought to be upregulated, suggesting this as a potential target for diagnostic modalities and for treatment with local anesthetics and chemodenervation. We propose that the transvaginal trigone treatment (T3) route of administration of such treatments should be considered in women with IC/BPS, as this approach is easier and less invasive than cystoscopy. Read More

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Eliglustat prevents Shiga toxin 2 cytotoxic effects in human renal tubular epithelial cells.

Pediatr Res 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Fisiología Renal, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiológicas, IFIBIO-Houssay CONICET-UBA, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is responsible for post-diarrheal (D+) hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is a cause of acute renal failure in children. The glycolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) is the main receptor for Shiga toxin (Stx) in kidney target cells. Eliglustat (EG) is a specific and potent inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, first step of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, actually used for the treatment of Gaucher's disease. Read More

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Phenotypic and genomic hallmarks of a novel, potentially pathogenic rapidly growing Mycobacterium species related to the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 21;11(1):13011. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Unit of Typing & Genetics of Mycobacteria, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Vaccinology, and Biotechnology Development, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.

Previously, we have identified a putative novel rapidly growing Mycobacterium species, referred to as TNTM28, recovered from the sputum of an apparently immunocompetent young man with an underlying pulmonary disease. Here we provide a thorough characterization of TNTM28 genome sequence, which consists of one chromosome of 5,526,191 bp with a 67.3% G + C content, and a total of 5193 predicted coding sequences. Read More

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Structure of AMH bound to AMHR2 provides insight into a unique signaling pair in the TGF-β family.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(26)

Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267;

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), or Müllerian-inhibiting substance, is a protein hormone that promotes Müllerian duct regression during male fetal sexual differentiation and regulation of folliculogenesis in women. AMH is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family, which has evolved to signal through its own dedicated type II receptor, AMH receptor type II (AMHR2). Structures of other TGF-β family members have revealed how ligands infer specificity for their cognate receptors; however, it is unknown how AMH binds AMHR2 at the molecular level. Read More

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Daphnia populations are similar but not identical in tolerance to different protease inhibitors.

Harmful Algae 2021 Jun 10;106:102062. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Cologne, Institute for Zoology, Zülpicherstraße 47b, 50674 Cologne, Germany.

Cyanobacterial blooms often produce different classes and chemical variants of toxins such as dietary protease inhibitors (PIs) that affect the keystone grazer Daphnia. However, it has been shown that Daphnia populations are able to locally adapt to frequently occurring dietary PIs by modulating their digestive proteases. Up until now, local adaptation has exclusively been tested by making use of single cyanobacterial strains and by measuring average population tolerance. Read More

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Diversity and distribution of harmful microalgae in the Gulf of Thailand assessed by DNA metabarcoding.

Harmful Algae 2021 Jun 11;106:102063. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, China. Electronic address:

Information on the diversity and distribution of harmful microalgae in the Gulf of Thailand is very limited and mainly based on microscopic observations. Here, we collected 44 water samples from the Gulf of Thailand and its adjacent water (Perhentian Island, Malaysia) for comparison in 2018. DNA metabarcoding was performed targeting the partial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA D1-D3) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2). Read More

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Biodiversity, phylogeny and toxin production profile of cyanobacterial strains isolated from lake Latyan in Iran.

Harmful Algae 2021 Jun 5;106:102054. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Energy and environmental sustainability for megacities (E2S2), NUS Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE), 1 Create Way, 138602 Singapore; Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E1A-07-03, 1 Engineering 2, Singapore 117576, Singapore. Electronic address:

Monitoring toxigenic cyanobacteria in freshwaters is of great importance due to the adverse health impacts on humans and aquatic organisms. Here we studied cyanobacterial occurrence and biodiversity in a drinking water reservoir in Tehran province, Iran. In total, nine different species representing three orders of Synechococcales, Oscillatoriales and Nostocales were isolated and classified into six families and seven genera ranging from 92. Read More

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Risk factors associated with mechanical ventilation, autonomic nervous dysfunction and physical outcome in Vietnamese adults with tetanus.

Trop Med Health 2021 Jun 21;49(1):50. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Background: Tetanus remains common in many low- and middle-income countries, but as critical care services improve, mortality from tetanus is improving. Nevertheless, patients develop severe syndromes associated with autonomic nervous system disturbance (ANSD) and the requirement for mechanical ventilation (MV). Understanding factors associated with worse outcome in such settings is important to direct interventions. Read More

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Albumin Neutralizes Hydrophobic Toxins and Modulates Pathogenicity.

mBio 2021 Jun 22:e0053121. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Junior Research Group Adaptive Pathogenicity Strategies, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knöll Institute, Jena, Germany.

Albumin is abundant in serum but is also excreted at mucosal surfaces and enters tissues when inflammation increases vascular permeability. Host-associated opportunistic pathogens encounter albumin during commensalism and when causing infections. Considering the ubiquitous presence of albumin, we investigated its role in the pathogenesis of infections with the model human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Read More

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Simultaneous determination of ten paralytic shellfish toxins and tetrodotoxin in scallop and short-necked clam by ion-pair solid-phase extraction and hydrophilic interaction chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

Naoki Ochi

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jun 9;1651:462328. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Yokohama City Institute of Public Health, 2-7-1 Tomiokahigashi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0051, Japan. Electronic address:

Paralytic shellfish toxins and tetrodotoxin (puffer-fish toxin), the latter of which was recently found in bivalves from Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, are potent neurotoxins. A simple and effective clean-up procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten paralytic shellfish toxins (gonyautoxins 1-6, decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3, and N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3) and tetrodotoxin in the scallop, Mizuhopecten (Patinopecten) yessoensis, and the short-necked clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. To reduce matrix effects, 1% aqueous acetic acid extracts of the bivalves were cleaned up by ion-pair solid-phase extraction using a graphite carbon cartridge with tridecafluoroheptanoic acid as the volatile ion-pair reagent, followed by fourfold dilution. Read More

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Widespread circulation of pertussis in Finland during 1968-1972 when the whole cell vaccine was in use.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Research Center for Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Medical Microbiology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

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How important is dietary management in chronic kidney disease progression? A role for low protein diets.

Korean J Intern Med 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Harold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Orange, CA, USA.

High dietary protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration, which in the long-term can lead to de novo or aggravating preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 to 0. Read More

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