83 results match your criteria toxicity procymidone


Analysis for data-derived extrapolation factors for procymidone.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Aug 11;124:104972. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority, Sydney, Australia.

The derivation of Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAFs) (IPCS, 2005; U.S. EPA, 2014) depends on the choice of appropriate dose metric. Read More

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Perinatal exposure to known endocrine disrupters alters ovarian development and systemic steroid hormone profile in rats.

Toxicology 2021 06 27;458:152821. Epub 2021 May 27.

Division of Diet, Disease Prevention and Toxicology, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, DK-2800, Denmark.

Disrupted ovarian development induced by chemical exposure may impair fertility later in life. Since androgens are essential for early ovarian development, we speculated that perinatal exposure to a binary mixture of the known anti-androgens DEHP and procymidone could alter steroid synthesis, disrupt ovarian follicle recruitment and ultimately maturation in female rat offspring. Wistar rat dams were exposed by oral gavage from gestation day 7 to postnatatal day 22 to two mixture doses known to alter reproductive development in male offspring (low: 10 mg/kg bw/day of procymidone and 30 mg/kg bw/day of DEHP; high: 20 mg/kg bw/day of procymidone and 60 mg/kg bw/day of DEHP). Read More

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Developmental toxicity of procymidone to larval zebrafish based on physiological and transcriptomic analysis.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Oct 15;248:109081. Epub 2021 May 15.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:

As a broad-spectrum with low toxicity, procymidone (PCM), is widely used in agriculture and frequently observed in aquatic system, which may cause some impacts on aquatic organisms. Here, to determine the developmental toxicity of PCM, embryonic and larval zebrafish were exposed to PCM at 0, 1, 10, 100 μg/L in dehydrogenated natural water containing 0.01% acetone for 7 days. Read More

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October 2021

A mixture of 15 phthalates and pesticides below individual chemical no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) produces reproductive tract malformations in the male rat.

Environ Int 2021 11 14;156:106615. Epub 2021 May 14.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research & Development/Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment/Public Health and Integrated Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, United States. Electronic address:

Humans carry residues of multiple synthetic chemicals at any given point in time. Research has demonstrated that compounds with varying molecular initiating events (MIE) that disrupt common key events can act in concert to produce cumulative adverse effects. Congenital defects of the male reproductive tract are some of the most frequently diagnosed malformations in humans and chemical exposures in utero can produce these effects in laboratory animals and humans. Read More

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November 2021

Toxicity effects of procymidone, iprodione and their metabolite of 3,5-dichloroaniline to zebrafish.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 7;272:129577. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pesticide Science, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, State & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Green Pesticide Invention and Application, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Dicarboximide fungicides mainly including procymidone, iprodione, vinclozolin, and dimethachlon are often applied as protective fungicides, 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is their common metabolite in plant and environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of procymidone, iprodione and their metabolite of 3,5-DCA toward zebrafish was evaluated by semi-static method. The enrichment and metabolism of procymidone and iprodione in zebrafish were also clarified. Read More

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Effects of chlorothalonil, prochloraz and the combination on intestinal barrier function and glucolipid metabolism in the liver of mice.

J Hazard Mater 2021 05 21;410:124639. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:

Chlorothalonil (CHL) and procymidone (PRO) are fungicides that exhibit low toxicity and are widely used in many countries. And both fungicides are frequently detected in the food chain. However, the health risk posed by these fungicides is still unclear. Read More

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Quantitative to Extrapolation (QIVIVE) for Predicting Reduced Anogenital Distance Produced by Anti-Androgenic Pesticides in a Rodent Model for Male Reproductive Disorders.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 11 25;128(11):117005. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Division of Diet, Disease Prevention and Toxicology, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

Background: Many pesticides can antagonize the androgen receptor (AR) or inhibit androgen synthesis but their potential to cause reproductive toxicity related to disruption of androgen action during fetal life is difficult to predict. Currently no approaches for using data to anticipate such effects exist. Prioritization schemes that limit unnecessary testing are urgently needed. Read More

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November 2020

Grouping of endocrine disrupting chemicals for mixture risk assessment - Evidence from a rat study.

Environ Int 2020 09 24;142:105870. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Division of Diet, Disease Prevention and Toxicology, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet Building 202, Kgs. Lyngby DK-2800, Denmark.

Exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals may contribute to the rising incidence of hormone-related diseases in humans. Real-life mixtures are complex, comprised of chemicals with mixed modes of action, and essential knowledge is often lacking on how to group such chemicals into cumulative assessment groups, which is an essential prerequisite to conduct a chemical mixture risk assessment. We investigated if mixtures of chemicals with diverse endocrine modes of action can cause mixture effects on hormone sensitive endpoints in developing and adult rat offspring after perinatal exposure. Read More

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September 2020

Toxicological effects of comercial formulations of fungicides based on procymidone and iprodione in seedlings and root tip cells of Allium cepa.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jul 22;26(20):21013-21021. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Agronomy, Center for Agricultural and Engineering Sciences (Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Engenharias, CCAE), Federal University of Espírito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Alegre, ES, 29500-000, Brazil.

In this study the phytotoxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of two commercial fungicide-active compounds, procymidone (PR) and iprodione (IP), were determined. The parameters evaluated were germination and root growth, mitotic index, chromosomal and nuclear aberrations, and molecular analyses were also performed in the model plant Allium cepa L. The results demonstrated that the active compounds PR and IP were phytotoxic, delaying germination and slowing the development of A. Read More

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A Conflicted Tale of Two Novel AR Antagonists In Vitro and In Vivo: Pyrifluquinazon Versus Bisphenol C.

Toxicol Sci 2019 04;168(2):632-643

Reproductive Toxicology Branch, Toxicology Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

Chemicals that disrupt androgen receptor (AR) function in utero induce a cascade of adverse effects in male rats including reduced anogenital distance, retained nipples, and reproductive tract malformations. The objective of this study was to compare the in vitro and in utero activities of two novel AR antagonists, bisphenol C (BPC) and pyrifluquinazon (PFQ). In vitro, BPC was as potent an AR antagonist as hydroxyflutamide. Read More

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Analysis of exposure to pesticide residues from Traditional Chinese Medicine.

J Hazard Mater 2019 03 20;365:857-867. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

School of Plant Protection, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui Province 230036, China; Provincial Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Safety, Anhui Province 230036, China. Electronic address:

The safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is of concern worldwide. Herein, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Chaenomelis Fructus and Moutan Cortex, representing three medicinal components, were subjected to toxicological analysis to investigate possible pesticide contamination. Exposure using a point estimate model identified 47 residues that were simultaneously validated by the QuEChERS-UPLC-MS/MS method, which is sufficiently reliable for measuring residue concentrations. Read More

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Lack of human relevance for procymidone's developmental toxicity attributable to species difference in its kinetics and metabolism.

J Pestic Sci 2018 May;43(2):114-123

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.

The agricultural fungicide procymidone can cause external genitalia abnormalities in rats but not monkeys or rabbits. To investigate the relevance of developmental findings in rats to humans, we conducted plasma protein binding studies, metabolism (biotransformation) studies using liver S9 fractions and hepatocytes, and metabolism and excretion studies using chimeric mice with humanized hepatocytes. On the basis of these results, we concluded that the metabolic and excretion profiles of procymidone in humans are similar to those in monkeys and rabbits but differ from those in rats. Read More

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Species differences in the developmental toxicity of procymidone-Placental transfer of procymidone in pregnant rats, rabbits, and monkeys.

J Pestic Sci 2018 May;43(2):79-87

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical, Co., Ltd.

To clarify species differences in the developmental toxicity of procymidone (Sumilex®, a fungicide for agricultural use), placental transfer studies were conducted using C-labeled procymidone in pregnant rats, rabbits, and monkeys. These studies demonstrated that maternal-to-fetal transfer of the parent compound and its hydroxylated metabolite, which are both weak anti-androgenic agents, occurred more easily than that of other metabolites, with much higher absolute concentrations achieved in the fetal circulation of rats than of rabbits or monkeys. Notably, in rats, the fetal plasma concentration of the hydroxylated metabolite was higher than that of procymidone, especially after repeated oral administration of procymidone. Read More

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Mixed "Antiandrogenic" Chemicals at Low Individual Doses Produce Reproductive Tract Malformations in the Male Rat.

Toxicol Sci 2018 07;164(1):166-178

National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Toxicity Assessment Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

Biomonitoring efforts have clearly shown that all humans are exposed to chemical mixtures. Of concern is whether or not exposure to mixtures during pregnancy contributes to congenital abnormalities in children even when each chemical is at an individual dose that does not affect the fetus. Here, we hypothesized that in utero exposure to a mixture of chemicals covering multiple "antiandrogenic" mechanisms of action at doses that individually have no adverse effect would result in permanent reproductive tract alterations in the male rat after birth. Read More

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Identification of Metabolism and Excretion Differences of Procymidone between Rats and Humans Using Chimeric Mice: Implications for Differential Developmental Toxicity.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Feb 15;66(8):1955-1963. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd , 1-98, Kasugade-Naka 3-Chome, Konohana-Ku, Osaka 554-8558, Japan.

A metabolite of procymidone, hydroxylated-PCM, causes rat-specific developmental toxicity due to higher exposure to it in rats than in rabbits or monkeys. When procymidone was administered to chimeric mice with rat or human hepatocytes, the plasma level of hydroxylated-PCM was higher than that of procymidone in rat chimeric mice, and the metabolic profile of procymidone in intact rats was well reproduced in rat chimeric mice. In human chimeric mice, the plasma level of hydroxylated-PCM was less, resulting in a much lower exposure. Read More

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February 2018

Editor's Highlight: Structure-Based Investigation on the Binding and Activation of Typical Pesticides With Thyroid Receptor.

Toxicol Sci 2017 Dec;160(2):205-216

Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, P.R. China.

A broad range of pesticides have been reported to interfere with the normal function of the thyroid endocrine system. However, the precise mechanism(s) of action has not yet been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, 21 pesticides were assessed for their binding interactions and the potential to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. Read More

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December 2017

Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 09 23;13(10). Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech/ULg-Laboratoire de Phytopharmacie, Passage des Déportés 2, Gembloux 5030, Belgium.

In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. Read More

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September 2016

The ability of the YAS and AR CALUX assays to detect the additive effects of anti-androgenic fungicide mixtures.

Toxicol Lett 2016 Jan 19;241:193-9. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany.

Actual risk assessment only takes single pesticides into account, although about one third of the analyzed food samples in the European Union was contaminated with pesticide mixtures in 2013. A cumulative approach would group pesticides that share the same mechanism of toxicity. We evaluated the combination effects of low effect concentrations of binary and ternary mixtures of six anti-androgenic fungicides (procymidone, vinclozolin, tebuconazole, propiconazole, fenarimol and prochloraz) antagonizing the human androgen receptor (hAR) in the Yeast-based Androgen Screen assay (YAS) as well as in the AR Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (AR CALUX) assay by means of concentration addition and nonlinear regression. Read More

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January 2016

Distribution and risk assessment of 82 pesticides in Jiulong River and estuary in South China.

Chemosphere 2016 Feb 23;144:1177-92. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen, 361005, China.

To discover the distribution and risk of pesticides in Jiulong River and estuary, the residues of 102 pesticides were analyzed in water, sediment and clam samples collected from 35 sites in different seasons. A total number of 82 pesticides were detected and the occurrence and the risk to human and fish were assessed. Most of pesticides with high frequency were medium or low toxic except for DDTs. Read More

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February 2016

Environmental chemicals active as human antiandrogens do not activate a stickleback androgen receptor but enhance a feminising effect of oestrogen in roach.

Aquat Toxicol 2015 Nov 26;168:48-59. Epub 2015 Sep 26.

University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Sexual disruption is reported in wild fish populations living in freshwaters receiving discharges of wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluents and is associated primarily with the feminisation of males by exposure to oestrogenic chemicals. Antiandrogens could also contribute to the feminisation of male fish, but there are far less data supporting this hypothesis and almost nothing is known for the effects of oestrogens in combination with antiandrogens in fish. We conducted a series of in vivo exposures in two fish species to investigate the potency on reproductive-relevant endpoints of the antiandrogenic antimicrobials triclosan (TCS), chlorophene (CP) and dichlorophene (DCP) and the resin, abietic acid (AbA), all found widely in WwTW effluents. Read More

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November 2015

Estimation of in vivo dose of dermally applied chemicals leading to estrogen/androgen receptor-mediated toxicity from in vitro data--Illustration with four reproductive toxicants.

Reprod Toxicol 2015 Aug 15;55:50-63. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

The Procter & Gamble Company, 1853 Strombeek-Bever, Belgium.

We present a quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation framework enabling the estimation of the external dermal exposure dose from in vitro experimental data relevant to a toxicity pathway of interest. The framework adapts elements of the biological pathway altering dose (BPAD) method [Judson et al. Chem Res Toxicol 2011;24:451] to the case of dermal exposure. Read More

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Screening of hormone-like activities in bottled waters available in Southern Spain using receptor-specific bioassays.

Environ Int 2015 Jan 27;74:125-35. Epub 2014 Oct 27.

Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Granada, E-18071, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada, E-18012, Spain; CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada, E-18071, Spain.

Bottled water consumption is a putative source of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Research has been conducted on the presence of chemicals with estrogen-like activity in bottled waters and on their estrogenicity, but few data are available on the presence of hormonal activities associated with other nuclear receptors (NRs). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of endocrine activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in water in glass or plastic bottles sold to consumers in Southern Spain. Read More

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January 2015

Assessment of combined antiandrogenic effects of binary parabens mixtures in a yeast-based reporter assay.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014 May 28;21(10):6482-94. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

To date, toxicological studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have typically focused on single chemical exposures and associated effects. However, exposure to EDCs mixtures in the environment is common. Antiandrogens represent a group of EDCs, which draw increasing attention due to their resultant demasculinization and sexual disruption of aquatic organisms. Read More

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A computational approach to mechanistic and predictive toxicology of pesticides.

ALTEX 2014 14;31(1):11-22. Epub 2013 Sep 14.

Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark;

Emerging challenges of managing and interpreting large amounts of complex biological data have given rise to the growing field of computational biology. We investigated the applicability of an integrated systems toxicology approach on five selected pesticides to get an overview of their modes of action in humans, to group them according to their modes of action, and to hypothesize on their potential effects on human health. We extracted human proteins associated to prochloraz, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, procymidone, and mancozeb and enriched each protein set by using a high confidence human protein interactome. Read More

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September 2014

Ultraviolet degradation of procymidone--structural characterization by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and potential toxicity of photoproducts using in silico tests.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2013 Jul;27(13):1505-16

Laboratoire des Mécanismes Réactionnels UMR-7651, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France.

Rationale: Procymidone is a dicarboximide fungicide mainly used for vineyard protection but also for different crops. The structural elucidation of by-products arising from the UV-visible photodegradation of procymidone has been investigated by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The potential toxicities of photoproducts were estimated by in silico tests. Read More

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Effects of single pesticides and binary pesticide mixtures on estrone production in H295R cells.

Arch Toxicol 2013 Dec 26;87(12):2201-14. Epub 2013 May 26.

Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173, Hannover, Germany.

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R can be used as an in vitro test system to investigate the effects of binary pesticide combinations on estrone production as biological endpoint. In the first step ten pesticides selected according to a tiered approach were tested individually. The anilinopyrimidines cyprodinil and pyrimethanil as well as the dicarboximides iprodione and procymidone increased estrone concentration, while the triazoles myclobutanil and tebuconazole as well as the strobilurins azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl decreased estrone concentration in the supernatant of H295R cells. Read More

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December 2013

The effect of perinatal exposure to ethinyl oestradiol or a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides on kisspeptin neurons in the rat hypothalamus.

Neurotoxicology 2013 Jul 6;37:154-62. Epub 2013 May 6.

Neurobiology Research Unit, University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Building 9201, Juliane Maries Vej 24, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Early life exposure to endocrine disruptors is considered to disturb normal development of hormone sensitive parameters and contribute to advanced puberty and reduced fecundity in humans. Kisspeptin is a positive regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and plays a key role in the initiation of puberty. In the adult, Kiss1 gene expression occurs in two hypothalamic nuclei, namely the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC), which are differentially regulated by peripheral sex steroid hormones. Read More

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Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides.

Food Chem Toxicol 2013 May 16;55:113-20. Epub 2013 Jan 16.

National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg, Denmark.

The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Read More

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Pesticide residues in raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) and dietary risk assessment.

Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2012 15;5(3):165-71. Epub 2012 May 15.

a Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Plant Protection Institute-National Research Institute Regional Experimental Station , Bialystok , Poland.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of 140 pesticides in raspberries from north-eastern Poland (2005-2010). Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD) was used. Among the 128 samples, 66 (51. Read More

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December 2014

Persistent developmental toxicity in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

Reprod Toxicol 2012 Sep 4;34(2):237-50. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg, Denmark.

There is growing concern of permanent damage to the endocrine and nervous systems after developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this study the permanent reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of combined exposure to five endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, were examined. Pregnant and lactating rat dams were dosed with a mixture of the five pesticides at three different doses, or with the individual pesticides at one of two doses. Read More

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September 2012