19,030 results match your criteria toxicity ld50

Lethal and sublethal effects of thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid molecule, on colony performance of A. mellifera.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Entomology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Prashad, 173230, India.

Among insect pollinators, honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are universally acknowledged, most important managed pollinators that also provide honey production. In recent years, neonicotinoids are widely used against a broad spectrum sucking pests. However, they also pose a major threat to the beekeeping industry. Read More

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September 2021

Fruits of sweet: toxicity profile, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and quantification of one of its bioactive constituents oleanolic acid.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 2;7(9):e07910. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: Sweet fruit, an under-utilised crop specie of Ghana, has not been validated for its ethnomedical use in managing inflammatory conditions. Therefore, the study sought to investigate its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as well as isolate and quantify one of its active constituents.

Materials And Methods: anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol fruit extract was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced oedema model in chicks. Read More

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September 2021

Lethal and behavioural effects of a green insecticide against an invasive polyphagous fruit fly pest and its safety to mammals.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 31;287(Pt 2):132089. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Plant essential oil-based insecticides, with special reference to those that may be obtained from largely available biomasses, represent a valuable tool for Integrated Pest Management. However, the sublethal effects and the potential effects on aggressive insect traits of these green insecticides are understudied. Herein, the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the carlina oxide, constituting more than 97% of the whole Carlina acaulis (Asteraceae) root essential oil (EO), were determined against an invasive polyphagous tephritid pest, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). Read More

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An approach to chimeric subunit immunogen provides efficient protection against toxicity, type III and type v secretion systems of Shigella.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 8;100:108132. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Shigellosis is one of the infectious diseases causing severe intestinal illness in human beings. Development of an effective vaccine against Shigella is a key to deal with this bacterium. The present study aimed at evaluation of the antibody response as well as the protection of the recombinant chimeric protein containing IpaD, IpaB, StxB, and VirG against Shigella dysentery and flexneri. Read More

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September 2021

Fatty ethanolamide of Bertholletia excelsa triglycerides (Brazil nuts): anti-inflammatory action and acute toxicity evaluation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Curso de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Rod. JK, km 02, Macapá, Amapá, 68902-280, Brazil.

Fatty amides (N-alkylamides) are bioactive lipids that are widely distributed in microorganisms, animals, and plants. The low yield in the extraction process of spilantol, a fatty amide, which is mainly related to its diverse biological effects, compromises its application on a large scale. Thus, this study proposes an alternative method to synthesise fatty amides from Bertholletia excelsa (AGBe) oil, with a chemical structure similar to that of spilantol. Read More

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September 2021

Antiplasmodial Activity and Toxicological Analyses of the Ethanolic Leaf and Twig Extract of Welw. (Proteaceae).

J Parasitol Res 2021 29;2021:7347532. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

In Africa, medicinal plants are commonly used to treat malaria and other diseased conditions. The ethanolic leaf and twig extract of has been shown to possess promising antiplasmodial properties. This present study was aimed at investigating its antiplasmodial effect . Read More

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(-)-Carveol Prevents Gastric Ulcers via Cytoprotective, Antioxidant, Antisecretory and Immunoregulatory Mechanisms in Animal Models.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:736829. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Postgraduate Program in Natural and Synthetic Bioactive Products, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), João Pessoa, Brazil.

(-)-Carveol (-Mentha-6,8-dien-2-ol) is a monocyclic monoterpenic alcohol, present in essential oils of plant species such as , and in spices such as (cumin). Pharmacological studies report its antitumor, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, vasorelaxant, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute non-clinical oral toxicity, gastroprotective activity of monoterpene (-)-Carveol in animal models and the related mechanisms of action. Read More

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Testing new compounds for efficacy against Varroa destructor and safety to honey bees (Apis mellifera).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Varroa destructor is among the greatest threats to honey bee health worldwide. Acaricides used to control Varroa are becoming increasingly ineffective due to resistance issues, prompting the need for new compounds that can be used for control purposes. Ideally, such compounds would exhibit high toxicity to Varroa while maintaining relatively low toxicity to bees and beekeepers. Read More

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Elevated pulmonary levels of Axin2 in mice exposed to herbicide 2,4-D with or without endotoxin.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Aug 30:e22912. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a member of the phenoxy family of herbicides is commonly used in agriculture for controlling broadleaf weeds but its uncontrolled and incoherent use has been linked to incidences of lung toxicity. The present study aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the 2,4-D alone or in combination with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) induced pulmonary toxicity. Blood and lung samples were collected from Swiss albino mice (n = 48) following chronic exposure to high (37 mg/kg; 1/10th of LD ) and low (18. Read More

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New 2,3-Benzodiazepine Derivative: Synthesis, Activity on Central Nervous System, and Toxicity Study in Mice.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Aug 19;14(8). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Chemistry, Materials Science Division, University of Helsinki, 00560 Helsinki, Finland.

We report the design and synthesis of a new diazepine derivative, 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2,3-benzodiazepin-1-one (VBZ102), and the evaluation of its anxiolytic-like profile, memory impairment effect, and toxicity in Swiss mice. VBZ102 was evaluated for central nervous system effects in an open field, light-dark box, and novel object recognition tests under oral administration for acute and sub-acute treatment. We tested the VBZ102 toxicity in mice through a determination of LD values and examination of the biochemical and histopathological parameters. Read More

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New Insights on L. (): Polyphenol Profile and Biological Properties of Hydroalcoholic Extracts from Aerial Parts.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Aug 6;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d'Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy.

L. is a rounded shrub commonly found in the Mediterranean area well-known, since ancient times, for its traditional use. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical profile as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of flower (FE), leaf (LE), fruit (FrE), and branch (BE) hydroalcoholic extracts. Read More

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Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of sinomenine derivatives on rings A and C: Novel compounds screening for aplastic anemia targeting on cytotoxic T lymphocyte.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Aug 19;225:113791. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), a key effector cell in aplastic anemia (AA) immune injury, is shown to be a potential target for AA drug therapy. However, there is no candidate for this target till now. Oriented by the inhibition activity of CTL and macrophage derived nitric oxide (NO), a series of novel sinomenine derivatives on rings A and C are designed, synthesized and screened. Read More

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Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in liver of male albino rats after exposing to sub-chronic intoxication of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and imidacloprid.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Oct 20;178:104938. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Laboratory of Bioenergetics and Membrane Toxicology, Faculty of Agriculture, 21545-El-Shatby, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

The adverse effects of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and imidacloprid on mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress biomarkers were studied in rat liver. The liver deficiency was also confirmed by histological analysis and gel electrophoresis. Each insecticide was administered orally with five doses per week for 28 days to male albino rats at 1/50 of the LD per insecticide. Read More

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October 2021

Antihypertensive Effect of Galegine from in Rats.

Molecules 2021 Aug 11;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810007, China.

The aerial part of Maxim. (Geraniaceae Biebersteiniaceae) known as in Chinese, has been traditionally used in Tibetan folk medicine for treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of galegine obtained from an ethanol extract of the entire plant on the rat's cardiovascular system in order to characterize its contributions as an antihypertensive agent. Read More

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Biological Evaluation of a New Sodium-Potassium Silico-Phosphate Glass for Bone Regeneration: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 13;14(16). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Turin, Italy.

In vitro and in vivo studies are fundamental steps in the characterization of new implantable materials to preliminarily assess their biological response. The present study reports the in vitro and in vivo characterizations of a novel experimental silicate bioactive glass (BG) (47.5B, 47. Read More

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Discovery of pyrazole N-aryl sulfonate: A novel and highly potent cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Aug 12;46:116344. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University; Research Unit of Peptide Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 2019RU066, Lanzhou 730000, China.. Electronic address:

Based on a new pyrazole sulfonate synthetic method, a novel class of molecules with a basic structure of pyrazole N-aryl sulfonate have been designed and synthesized. The interest in conducting intensive research stems from quite evident anti-inflammatory effects exhibited by the compounds in preliminary animal experiments. A series of compounds were synthesized by different substitutions of the R, R, and R groups. Read More

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and studies of essential oil reveal the potential harmful effects of habitual consumption of the plant seed.

Toxicol Rep 2021 2;8:1488-1497. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

G. Baker (Annonaceae), is a plant with nutritional, social economy, and medicinal values. Its rising medicinal profile makes this plant a prospect in drug discovery. Read More

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Determination of Cleaning Limits Considering Toxicological Risk Evaluation to Minimize the Risk of Cross Contamination.

Iran J Pharm Res 2021 ;20(1):175-185

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Islamic Azad University of Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Tehran, Iran.

The historical approaches that have been used to establish cleaning validation acceptance limits should be updated to recent approaches to prevent cross contamination. In the present investigation, a cleaning method was validated using high performance liquid chromatography. Method modification critical parameters including spiking, swab sampling from PVC, Stainless Steel, and Polyethylene, extraction technique from swab, solubility, potency, toxicity (LD50), and improvement of limit of detection (LOD) of the method through analytical method validation were studied. Read More

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January 2021

A novel sulfur mustard (HD) vapor inhalation exposure model of pulmonary toxicity for the efficacy evaluation of candidate medical countermeasures.

Inhal Toxicol 2021 Aug 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Objective: To develop a novel inhalation exposure system capable of delivering a controlled inhaled HD dose through an endotracheal tube to anesthetized rats to investigate the lung pathophysiology and evaluate potential medical countermeasures.

Materials And Methods: Target HD vapor exposures were generated by a temperature-controlled vapor generator, while concentration was monitored near real-time by gas chromatography. Animal breathing parameters were monitored real-time by in-line EMKA/SciReq pulmonary analysis system. Read More

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Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Chemical Characterization, and Safety Assessment of Fruit Shell Extract from South-Western Morocco.

Biomed Res Int 2021 3;2021:5536030. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Laboratory of Agri-Food, Biotechnology and Valorization of Plant Resources, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants Unit, Semlalia Faculty of Sciences, Cadi Ayyad University, P.O.B. 2390, 40000 Marrakech, Morocco.

(L.) plays an important role in the Moroccan agroeconomy, providing both employment and export revenue. Argan oil production generates different by-products with functionalities that are not yet investigated, in particular, the shell fruit. Read More

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Safety evaluation and hypolipidemic effect of aqueous-ethanol and hot-water extracts from E Se tea in rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Oct 11;156:112506. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500, China. Electronic address:

E Se tea, processed by the fresh leaves of Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes, is a traditional herbal tea with various human benefits. The present study was aimed to evaluate the toxicity and hypolipidemic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract (EE) and hot-water extract (WE) from E Se tea. Read More

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October 2021

Resistance-Breaking Insecticidal Activity of New Spatial Insecticides against .

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 13;69(33):9684-9692. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, United States.

The use of N-aryl amide derivatives as spatially acting insecticides remains relatively unexplored. To expand this knowledge, we synthesized eighty-nine N-aryl amide analogues and screened them for mortality against an insecticide-susceptible strain of mosquitoes, Orlando (OR), using a vapor exposure glass tube assay. Of the screened compounds, twenty-two produced >92% mortality at 24 h and warranted further investigation to determine LC values. Read More

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Safety studies of Nexrutine, bark extract of through repeated oral exposure to rats for 28 days.

Heliyon 2021 Jul 24;7(7):e07654. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Food Toxicology Laboratory, Food, Drug and Chemical Toxicology Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Vishvigyan Bhawan, 31 Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Nexrutine (NX), a marketable herbal extract from a traditional Chinese herbal plant, , is majorly used for the resolution of inflammation, gastroenteritis, and some tissue-specific cancer. Strategies for the identification of the safety of anticancer solutions of plant origin are an important area of study. The present investigation assesses the single and repeated dose (28 days) toxicity of NX following OECD guidelines 425 and 407, respectively. Read More

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Acute toxicity assessment for TiO2 photocatalyst (GST) made from wastewater using TiCl4 in rat.

Environ Anal Health Toxicol 2021 Sep 12;36(3):e2021019-0. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Division of Environment & Health, Korea Testing & Research Institute, 98, Gyoyukwon-ro, Gwacheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13810, Republic of Korea.

TiO2 was a photocatalyst that used to the most common product because of the high efficiency. TiO2 (P-25, commercial nanomaterial product) is the most typical photocatalyst product and TiO2 (GST) was a sludge recycling product. This study was reported to evaluate an acute toxicity of TiO2 (P-25 and GST) according to OECD test guideline 402 and 423 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats via route of oral and dermal. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of antibacterial and acute oral toxicity of Impatiens tinctoria A. Rich root extracts.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(8):e0255932. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

School of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The high prevalence of morbidity and mortality from bacterial infections, together with the growing threat of antibacterial resistance, necessitated the development of alternative new drugs from traditional medicine. In Ethiopia, Impatiens tinctoria A. Rich has been traditionally used for the treatment of fungal infections such as ringworms that cause tinea pedis and it have also different medical values. Read More

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Inferring pesticide toxicity to honey bees from a field-based feeding study using a colony model and Bayesian inference.

Ecol Appl 2021 Aug 9:e02442. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Office of Research and Development, Center for Computational Toxicology and Exposure, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Durham, North Carolina, 27709, USA.

Honey bees are crucial pollinators for agricultural crops but are threatened by a multitude of stressors including exposure to pesticides. Linking our understanding of how pesticides affect individual bees to colony-level responses is challenging because colonies show emergent properties based on complex internal processes and interactions among individual bees. Agent-based models that simulate honey bee colony dynamics may be a tool for scaling between individual and colony effects of a pesticide. Read More

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Mitigation of oxidative stress with dihydroactinidiolide, a natural product against scopolamine-induced amnesia in Swiss albino mice.

Neurotoxicology 2021 Sep 8;86:149-161. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Biotechnology, Alagappa University (Science Campus), Karaikudi, 630003, TN, India. Electronic address:

The present work describes the neuroprotective efficacy of DHAc under escalated oxidative stress condition in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. During the toxicity test of DHAc in mice, the acute dose (LD) is found to be 3.468 mg/kg bw and the sub-acute dose is 0. Read More

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September 2021

Dying for change: A roadmap to refine the fish acute toxicity test after 40 years of applying a lethal endpoint.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 5;223:112585. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Toxicology, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental, Hazards Public Health England, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ, UK.

The fish acute toxicity test (TG203; OECD, 2019) is frequently used and highly embedded in hazard and risk assessment globally. The test estimates the concentration of a chemical that kills 50% of the fish (LC) over a 96 h exposure and is considered one of the most severe scientific procedures undertaken. Over the years, discussions at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have resulted in changes to the test which reduce the number of fish used, as well as the development of a (potential) replacement test (TG236, OECD, 2013). Read More

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October 2021

Toxicity and protein composition of venoms of Hottentotta saulcyi, Hottentotta schach and Androctonus crassicauda, three scorpion species collected in Iran.

Vet Med Sci 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Ph.D. Clinical Immunology, Nobel Medical Laboratory, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Scorpion stings comprise a serious problem throughout the globe, especially in regions where they are more frequent. Despite a recent upsurge of interest in scorpion venoms by various research groups, there remain many challenges.

Objective: Therefore, in this study, we aimed to study the toxicity and protein composition of venoms of Hottentotta saulcyi, Hottentotta schach and Androctonus crassicauda, three scorpion species collected in Iran. Read More

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Evaluation of Antibacterial Drugs Using Silkworms Infected by .

Insects 2021 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Microbiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose 204-8588, Tokyo, Japan.

is a causative agent of inflammatory skin diseases and systemic infections. Systemic infections caused by are difficult to treat, and the development of a systemic infection model for would be useful for elucidating the mechanisms of infection and searching for therapeutic agents. In this study, we established a silkworm infection model as a new experimental system to evaluate the interaction between and the host, and the efficacy of antibacterial drugs. Read More

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