272,630 results match your criteria toxic dosage

Drug-induced Myopathies.

Z Orthop Unfall 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Professional Association for Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery (BVOU), Berlin, Germany.

Differential diagnosis of muscle pain and weakness is extensive, including neurological, vertebral, arthrogenic, vascular, traumatic, immunological, endocrine, genetic and infectious aetiologies, as well as medication or toxin-related causes. Muscles are highly sensitive to a large number of drugs, especially with high doses. Although many drug classes can cause toxic myopathy, a significant number of cases are caused by lipid-lowering drugs, long-term use of corticosteroids, and, most often, alcohol misuse. Read More

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Assessing Lead Exposure in Free-ranging Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 1300 West Clairmont Ave., Eau Claire, Wisconsin 54701, USA.

The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is both an apex predator and a scavenger in Minnesota. Monitoring the health of Minnesota's gray wolf population is an important component of wolf management. Concern regarding whether wolves are being exposed to lead through scavenging viscera of hunter-harvested cervids left on the landscape, led to our study to determine lead-exposure rates. Read More

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Reasons PAs leave their jobs.

JAAPA 2021 Aug;34(8):43-47

Harrison Reed practices critical care medicine at George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C., is an assistant professor in the PA program at George Washington University, and is a clinical editor for JAAPA. Kari Bernard is a child and adolescent psychiatry PA with Orion Behavioral Health Network in Eagle River, Ala. Noël Smith is research director at the American Academy of PAs in Alexandria, Va. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Purpose: Employee turnover is an important indicator that carries a heavy financial cost for healthcare organizations. Although previous research has highlighted some factors associated with turnover, the reasons physician assistants (PAs) leave their jobs are not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the most common reasons behind PA turnover. Read More

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Infusion of aerial parts of Salvia chudaei Batt. & Trab. from Algeria: Chemical, toxicological and bioactivities characterization.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 25:114455. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Salvia chudaei Batt. & Trab. from Algeria is traditionally used to relieve several dysfunctions, including inflammatory and pain-related situations. Read More

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Operating characteristics are needed to properly evaluate the scientific validity of phase I protocols.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jul 25:106517. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Division of Translational Research & Applied Statistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Purpose: Operating characteristics for proposed clinical trial designs provide insight into performance regarding safety and accuracy, allowing the study team and review entities to determine the design's suitability to achieve the study's proposed objectives. Advances in cancer therapeutics have augmented the needs of early phase clinical trial design. Additionally, advances in research on early-phase trial design have led to the availability of a wide range of methods that show vast improvement over outdated approaches. Read More

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RalA and PLD1 promote lipid droplet growth in response to nutrient withdrawal.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(4):109451

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA; University of Virginia Cancer Center, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA. Electronic address:

Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic organelles that undergo dynamic changes in response to changing cellular conditions. During nutrient depletion, LD numbers increase to protect cells against toxic fatty acids generated through autophagy and provide fuel for beta-oxidation. However, the precise mechanisms through which these changes are regulated have remained unclear. Read More

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Use of Artificial Intelligence for Optimizing Biosorption of Textile Wastewater using Agricultural waste.

Environ Technol 2021 Jul 28:1-35. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India - 247667, Email:

Most of the dyes are toxic and non-biodegradable in textile industry wastewaters. Therefore, removal of textile dye using agriculture waste becomes crucial for the environment. This can be accomplished by the biosorption process which is passive uptake of pollutants by agricultural waste. Read More

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Hepatotoxic Effect of Tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in HepG2 cells and Potential role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR.

Xenobiotica 2021 Jul 28:1-23. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University , Egypt.

The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxic effect of tramadol and M1 metabolite in HepG2 cell line, the underlying mechanism, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR as potential target. Concentrations representing therapeutic level for tramadol (2 µM) and M1 metabolite (0.5 µM) were used. Read More

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Emerging role of nutritional short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) against cancer via modulation of hematopoiesis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 28:1-18. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence, University of Limpopo, Mankweng, South Africa.

The understanding of gut microbiota has emerged as a significant frontier in development of strategies to maintain normal human body's homeostasis and preventing the disease development over the last decade. The composition of the gut microbiota influences the clinical benefit of immune checkpoints in patients with advanced cancer, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Cancer is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Read More

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Further Insights into the Oxidative Pathway of Thiocarbonyl-Type Antitubercular Prodrugs: Ethionamide, Thioacetazone, and Isoxyl.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, LCC, UPR 8241, 205 Route de Narbonne, BP 44099, F-31077 Toulouse, Cedex 4, France.

A chemical activation study of the thiocarbonyl-type antitubercular prodrugs, ethionamide (ETH), thioacetazone (TAZ), and isoxyl (ISO), was performed. Biomimetic oxidation of ethionamide using HO (1 equiv) led to ETH-SO as the only stable -oxide compound, which was found to occur in solution in the preferential form of a sulfine (ETH═S═O vs the sulfenic acid tautomer ETH-S-OH), as previously observed in the crystal state. It was also demonstrated that ETH-SO is capable of reacting with amines, as the putative sulfinic derivative (ETH-SOH) was supposed to do. Read More

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The Disease-Modifying Therapies of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis and Liver Injury: A Narrative Review.

CNS Drugs 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

In this narrative review, we analyze pre-registration and post-marketing data concerning hepatotoxicity of all disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) available for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, including beta interferon, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, cladribine, natalizumab, alemtuzumab, and ocrelizumab. We review the proposed causal mechanisms described in the literature and we also address issues like use of DMTs in patients with viral hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Most data emerged in the post-marketing phase by reports to national pharmacovigilance agencies and published case reports or case series. Read More

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Hypersensitivity and Immune-related Adverse Events in Biologic Therapy.

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Biologic medications are an expanding field of therapeutics for various medical conditions including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Due to their targeted approach to therapy, biologics can be less toxic than traditional systemic medications. However, as use becomes more widespread, adverse effects from biologic administration have also become apparent. Read More

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Innate immunity to prions: anti-prion systems turn a tsunami of prions into a slow drip.

Curr Genet 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Genetics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892-0830, USA.

The yeast prions (infectious proteins) [URE3] and [PSI+] are essentially non-functional (or even toxic) amyloid forms of Ure2p and Sup35p, whose normal function is in nitrogen catabolite repression and translation termination, respectively. Yeast has an array of systems working in normal cells that largely block infection with prions, block most prion formation, cure most nascent prions and mitigate the toxic effects of those prions that escape the first three types of systems. Here we review recent progress in defining these anti-prion systems, how they work and how they are regulated. Read More

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A Multidisciplinary Collaborative Approach to Retinal Toxic Effects Screening for Dermatology Patients Taking Antimalarials.

JAMA Dermatol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Clinical Question: What are the roles of antimalarial therapy prescribers and eye care specialists in regard to antimalarial dosing, screening for retinal toxic effects, and antimalarial treatment cessation?

Bottom Line: Antimalarial prescribers should prescribe antimalarial dosages at 5 mg/kg/d or less of actual body weight. A baseline retinal examination with optical coherence tomography should be performed within 6 months of starting antimalarial therapy to rule out confounding disease. Patients at low risk for retinopathy do not require annual screening until 5 years of antimalarial use. Read More

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Towards a comprehensive understanding of malathion degradation: theoretical investigation of degradation pathways and related kinetics under alkaline conditions.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180, USA.

Malathion is a commercially available insecticide that functions by acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Of more significant concern, if left in the environment, some of the products observed from the degradation of malathion can function as more potent toxins than the parent compound. These compounds may threaten human life if they are present in high quantities during operation in contaminated or industrial areas. Read More

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Moderating hypoxia and promoting immunogenic photodynamic therapy by HER-2 nanobody conjugate nanoparticles for ovarian cancer treatment.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 27;32(42). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, People's Republic of China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and immunotherapy have been often adopted for ovarian cancer therapy, yet their application is limited by the high recurrence rate and toxic side effects. Intriguingly, nanoparticles contribute to enhancing the performance of PDT. Here, we investigated the synthesis of HER-2-Nanobody (Nb)-conjugated human serum albumin (HSA) incorporated with chlorin (Ce6) and catalase (CAT) ([email protected]), and analyzed the synergic effect of [email protected] PDT and immunotherapy for SK-OV-3 tumors. Read More

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Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of lichen substances from . Ethyl lactate, a better extracting agent than methanol toxic organic solvent?

Nat Prod Res 2021 Jul 28:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Departmento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

For the first time, we report a green extraction of lichen substances assisted by high power ultrasounds from using ethyl lactate. This sustainable alternative was comparable, both in isolation and detection of lichen substances, to methanol. In the metabolomic analysis, a total of 77 lichen substances were detected comprising depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans, organic acids, and lipids. Read More

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Characterization of the Glutathione -Transferases Involved in Styrene Degradation in Gordonia rubripertincta CWB2.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Jul 28:e0047421. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Microbial Biotechnology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

The glutathione -transferases carried on the plasmid for the styrene-specific degradation pathway in the Gordonia rubripertincta CWB2 were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Both enzymes were purified via affinity chromatography and subjected to activity investigations. StyI and StyJ displayed activity toward the commonly used glutathione -transferase model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) with values of 0. Read More

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Transition Phase Regulator AbrB Positively Regulates the Gene Expression in Bacillus thuringiensis.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Jul 28:e0007521. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Bacillus thuringiensis secreted insecticidal proteins (Sip) are a secretion that is toxic to coleopteran pests. However, the transcriptional mechanism of genes is still unknown. The transcriptional regulation of the gene and the expression of the Sip1Ab1 protein were investigated in this study. Read More

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Staphylococcal TSST-1 Association with Eczema Herpeticum in Humans.

mSphere 2021 Jul 28:e0060821. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Allergy/Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Healthgrid.240341.0, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition affecting 30 million persons in the United States. AD patients are heavily infected with Staphylococcus aureus on the skin. A particularly severe form of AD is eczema herpeticum (ADEH), where the patients' AD is complicated by S. Read More

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Anti-Proliferative Effect of Doxorubicin-Loaded AS1411 Aptamer on Colorectal Cancer Cell.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 1;22(7):2209-219. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Biochemistry, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.

Background: Doxorubicin (Dox) inhibits DNA replication and causes DNA damage resulting in cell death. It is a common drug for treatment of many cancers. Treatment efficacy and side effects of Dox are critical issues in using it because the drug lacks of specificity. Read More

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Self-Cycling Free Radical Generator from LDH-Based Nanohybrids for Ferroptosis-Enhanced Chemodynamic Therapy.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jul 28:e2100539. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, P. O. Box 98, Beisanhuan East Road 15, Beijing, 100029, P. R. China.

Nonapoptotic ferroptosis has been a novel form of programmed cell death, which provides a new solution to enrich the anticancer treatment efficacy of traditional apoptotic therapeutic modality. Herein, a novel nanohybrid is designed by loading the PEG-encapsulated Artemisinin (denoted as [email protected]) on the ultrathin MgFe-LDH nanosheets (denoted as uLDHs) for improved chemodynamic therapy (CDT). The [email protected]/uLDHs cannot only realize the self-assembly between the Art and carrier but also be regarded as free radical generator. Read More

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Automated treatment planning of prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy with focal boosting on a fast-rotating O-ring linac: Plan quality comparison with C-arm linacs.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: The integration of auto-segmentation and automated treatment planning methods on a fast-rotating O-ring linac may improve the time efficiency of online adaptive radiotherapy workflows. This study investigates whether automated treatment planning of prostate SBRT with focal boosting on the O-ring linac could generate plans that are of similar quality as those obtained through manual planning on clinical C-arm linacs.

Methods: For 20 men with prostate cancer, reference treatment plans were generated on a TrueBeam STx C-arm linac with HD120 MLC and a TrueBeam C-arm linac with Millennium 120 MLC using 6 MV flattened dual arc VMAT. Read More

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Spatial-temporal variation, ecological risk, and source identification of nutrients and heavy metals in sediments in the peri-urban riverine system.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, No.26, Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, People's Republic of China.

A great deal of attention has been directed to the toxicity, enrichment, and accumulation of urban river sediment pollution. To understand the spatial-temporal variation, ecological risk and source of nutrients, and heavy metals in sediments from the Weihe River, the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic matter (OM), and 10 heavy metals (Cd, Sb, As, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, and Mn) in sediments at 14 sampling sites along the river were investigated. The results showed that nutrients and heavy metals had an interannual decreasing trend, and that the high-value regions were concentrated in urban locations within the study area. Read More

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Parkinsonism and chronic manganese exposure: Pilot study with clinical, environmental and experimental evidence.

Clin Park Relat Disord 2020 6;3:100057. Epub 2020 May 6.

Laboratory of Bio-Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Marrakech, Morocco.

Parkinsonism related to chronic Manganese exposure is notably due to focal lesions of the basal ganglia. Our study focused on epidemiological, clinical, toxicological and experimental aspects of Manganese-induced Parkinsonism in south of Morocco. It is a prospective study concerning the workers and the residents bordering on the 2 mines in the south of Morocco. Read More

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Antioxidant Properties and Protective Effects of Aerial Parts from Makino on Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Cell Death.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2021 Jun;26(2):200-208

Division of Applied Food System, College of Natural Science, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 01797, Korea.

The rhizomes of Makino have been used as a traditional medicine for many purposes, however, use of its aerial parts is very limited. We investigated the antioxidant properties and protective effects of the aerial parts (leaves and stems) from on HO-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma. methanol extracts (70%) were sequentially fractionated using hexane (non-polar fraction, NF), ethyl acetate (intermediate polar fraction, IF), and water (polar fraction, PF). Read More

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Sepsis: Evidence-based pathogenesis and treatment.

Jay Pravda

World J Crit Care Med 2021 Jul 9;10(4):66-80. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Inflammatory Disease Research Centre, Therashock LLC, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410, United States.

Sepsis can develop during the body's response to a critical illness leading to multiple organ failure, irreversible shock, and death. Sepsis has been vexing health care providers for centuries due to its insidious onset, generalized metabolic dysfunction, and lack of specific therapy. A common factor underlying sepsis is the characteristic hypermetabolic response as the body ramps up every physiological system in its fight against the underlying critical illness. Read More

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Phytochemicals With Anti 5-alpha-reductase Activity: A Prospective For Prostate Cancer Treatment.

F1000Res 2021 18;10:221. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE1410, Brunei.

Prostate cancer (CaP) is one of the leading causes of death in men worldwide. Much attention has been given on its prevention and treatment strategies, including targeting the regulation of 5-alpha-Reductase (5αR) enzyme activity, aimed to limit the progression of CaP by inhibiting the conversion of potent androgen dihydrotestosterone from testosterone that is thought to play a role in pathogenesis of CaP, by using the 5-alpha-Reductase inhibitors (5αRis) such as finasteride and dutasteride. However, 5αRis are reported to exhibit numerous adverse side effects, for instance erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and loss of libido. Read More

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An Ion Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Chromate, Arsenate, Selenate, Perchlorate, and Other Inorganic Anions in Environmental Media.

Environ Eng Sci 2021 Jul 22;38(7):626-634. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Chromium (Cr) (VI) is a toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic water pollutant. The standard ion chromatography (IC) method for quantification of Cr (VI) in water samples is Environmental Protection Agency Method 218.7, which requires postcolumn derivatization with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide and UV-Vis spectroscopy detection. Read More

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Anti-HIV activity of new pyrazolobenzothiazine 5,5-dioxide-based acetohydrazides.

Med Chem Res 2015 Oct 19;24(10):3671-3680. Epub 2015 Jul 19.

Center for AIDS Research, Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine/Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1760 Haygood Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

A series of fifteen new 2-[3-(3-chlorophenyl)-5,5-dioxidobenzo[e]pyrazolo[4,3-c][1,2]thiazin-4(2H)-yl]-'-arylmethyleneacetohydrazides () were synthesized and screened for their anti-HIV-1 and cytotoxicity activity. Out of fifteen pyrazolobenzothiazine-based hydrazones, thirteen were found to be active inhibitors of HIV with EC values <20 μM. Moreover, the cytotoxicity results showed that most of the compounds were toxic to PBM, CEM and Vero cell lines. Read More

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October 2015