23,131 results match your criteria total extracellular


Next generation risk assessment (NGRA): Bridging in vitro points-of-departure to human safety assessment using physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) modelling - A case study of doxorubicin with dose metrics considerations.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Apr 10:105171. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

Using the chemical doxorubicin (DOX), the objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of dose metrics selection in the new approach method of integrating physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) modelling and relevant human cell-based assays to inform a priori the point of departure for human health risk. We reviewed the literature on the clinical consequences of DOX treatment to identify dosing scenarios with no or mild cardiotoxicity observed. Key concentrations of DOX that induced cardiomyocyte toxicity in vitro were derived from studies of our own and others. Read More

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Enhancement degree of brain metastases: correlation analysis between enhanced T2 FLAIR and vascular permeability parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Objectives: To investigate the correlation between enhancement degrees of brain metastases on contrast-enhanced T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-T2 FLAIR) and vascular permeability parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).

Methods: Thirty-nine patients with brain metastases were prospectively collected. They underwent non-enhanced T2 FLAIR, DCE-MRI, CE-T2 FLAIR, and contrast-enhanced three-dimensional brain volume imaging (CE-BRAVO). Read More

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Metabolic and functional impairment of CD8 T cells from the lungs of influenza-infected obese mice.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Obesity is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in response to influenza infection. However, the underlying mechanisms by which obesity impairs immunity are unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of diet-induced obesity on pulmonary CD8 T cell metabolism, cytokine production, and transcriptome as a potential mechanism of impairment during influenza virus infection in mice. Read More

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Photobiomodulation Therapy on Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Implications to Cardiac Remodeling.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro 249, Liberdade, São Paulo, SP, 01504-001, Brazil.

Background And Objectives: Induction of myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery is an experimental model used in research to elucidate functional, structural, and molecular modifications associated with ischemic heart disease. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has become a therapeutic alternative by modulating various biological processes eliciting several effects, including anti-inflammatory and pro-proliferative actions. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of PBMT in the modulation of transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes that occurred in myocardium signal transduction pathways after MI. Read More

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Serum sodium variation is a major determinant of peridialytic blood pressure trends in haemodialysis outpatients.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7882. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

UCL Department of Nephrology, Royal Free Hospital, University College London, London, UK.

Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) and peridialytic blood pressure (BP) trends are associated with morbidity and mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. We aimed to characterise the respective influence of volume status and small solutes variation on peridialytic systolic BP (SBP) trends during HD. We retrospectively analysed the relative peridialytic SBP decrease in 647 prevalent outpatients attending for their mid-week session with corresponding pre- and post-HD bioelectrical impedance analysis. Read More

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Fusion and fission events regulate endosome maturation and viral escape.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7845. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Endosomes are intracellular vesicles that mediate the communication of the cell with its extracellular environment. They are an essential part of the cell's machinery regulating intracellular trafficking via the endocytic pathway. Many viruses, which in order to replicate require a host cell, attach themselves to the cellular membrane; an event which usually initiates uptake of a viral particle through the endocytic pathway. Read More

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Effects of lid debris debridement combined with meibomian gland expression on the ocular surface MMP-9 levels and clinical outcomes in moderate and severe meibomian gland dysfunction.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 12;21(1):175. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, South Korea.

Background: To evaluate the effects of lid debris debridement and meibomian gland expression (MGX) on extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels and clinical outcomes of moderate and severe MGD.

Methods: In this retrospective case series study, a total 48 eyes of 24 patients with moderate and severe MGD underwent one session of lid debris debridement using the BlephEx combined with MGX. We evaluated the tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, Schirmer 1 test, biomicroscopic examination of lid margins and meibomian gland (MG), ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire score, and extracellular MMP-9 levels using a point-of-care MMP-9 immunoassay device before and 4 weeks after lid debris debridement and MGX. Read More

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Characterization of subclinical diastolic dysfunction by cardiac magnetic resonance feature-tracking in adult survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with anthracyclines.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Apr 12;21(1):170. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Napoleão de Barros 800, Vila Clementino, São Paulo, 04024-002, Brazil.

Background: The use of anthracycline-based chemotherapy is associated with the development of heart failure, even years after the end of treatment. Early detection of cardiac dysfunction could identify a high-risk subset of survivors who would eventually benefit from early intervention. Cardiac magnetic resonance feature-tracking (CMR-FT) analysis offers a practical and rapid method to calculate systolic and diastolic strains from routinely acquired cine images. Read More

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Halotolerant bacteria mitigate the effects of salinity stress on soybean growth by regulating secondary metabolites and molecular responses.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 12;21(1):176. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

Background: Salinity is a major threat to the agriculture industry due to the negative impact of salinity stress on crop productivity. In the present study, we isolated rhizobacteria and evaluated their capacities to promote crop growth under salt stress conditions.

Results: We isolated rhizospheric bacteria from sand dune flora of Pohang beach, Korea, and screened them for plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits. Read More

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Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis for the Quantification and Size Determination of Extracellular Vesicles.

J Vis Exp 2021 Mar 28(169). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health;

The physiological and pathophysiological roles of extracellular vesicles (EVs) have become increasingly recognized, making the EV field a quickly evolving area of research. There are many different methods for EV isolation, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages that affect the downstream yield and purity of EVs. Thus, characterizing the EV prep isolated from a given source by a chosen method is important for interpretation of downstream results and comparison of results across laboratories. Read More

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High-Throughput and Automated Acoustic Trapping of Extracellular Vesicles to Identify microRNAs With Diagnostic Potential for Prostate Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:631021. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Molecular profiling of extracellular vesicles (EVs) offers novel opportunities for diagnostic applications, but the current major obstacle for clinical translation is the lack of efficient, robust, and reproducible isolation methods. To bridge that gap, we developed a microfluidic, non-contact, and low-input volume compatible acoustic trapping technology for EV isolation that enabled downstream small RNA sequencing. In the current study, we have further automated the acoustic microfluidics-based EV enrichment technique that enables us to serially process 32 clinical samples per run. Read More

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Chemical, microbial, and metabolic analysis of Taisui cultured in honey solution.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 18;9(4):2158-2168. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Food Science and Engineering Jinan University Guangzhou 510632 China.

Taisui, a special substance occasionally found in China, can now be artificially cultured. In order to evaluate the safety of an artificially cultured Taisui (acTS) and develop it into fermented, functional food or oral liquid, the macronutrients, trace elements, microbial community, and extracellular metabolites of Taisui have been investigated in this study. Results showed that the concentrations of total carbohydrates, protein, fat, total ash, and moisture of wet acTS were 2. Read More

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Potential targets identified in adenoid cystic carcinoma point out new directions for further research.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1085-1108. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jinan Stomatological Hospital Jinan, China.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) of the head and neck originates from salivary glands, with high risks of recurrence and metastasis that account for the poor prognosis of patients. The purpose of this research was to identify key genes related to AdCC for further investigation of their diagnostic and prognostic significance. In our study, the AdCC sample datasets GSE36820, GSE59702 and GSE88804 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used to explore the abnormal coexpression of genes in AdCC compared with their expression in normal tissue. Read More

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Glial Cell-Based Vascular Mechanisms and Transplantation Therapies in Brain Vessel and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 26;15:627682. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) with severe neurological/psychiatric symptoms, such as cerebrovascular pathology in AD, CAA, and chronic stroke, have brought greater attention with their incidence and prevalence having markedly increased over the past few years. Causes of the significant neuropathologies, especially those observed in neurological diseases in the CNS, are commonly believed to involve multiple factors such as an age, a total environment, genetics, and an immunity contributing to their progression, neuronal, and vascular injuries. We primarily focused on the studies of glial involvement/dysfunction in part with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the neurovascular unit (NVU) changes, and the vascular mechanisms, which have been both suggested as critical roles in chronic stroke and many other NDDs. Read More

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Identification of small extracellular vesicle-linked miRNA specifically derived from intrafollicular cells in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Reprod Biomed Online 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Reproductive Medicine Center, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Provincial People's Hospital of Henan University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; Henan Joint International Research Laboratory of Reproductive Bioengineering, Zhengzhou Henan Province, China. Electronic address:

Research Question: This study aimed to identify small extracellular vesicle (sEV)-linked microRNAs (miRNA) specifically derived from intrafollicular cells in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to investigate their biological functions.

Design: A total of 120 women were recruited from September 2017 to October 2018. To investigate miRNA profiles in sEV derived from follicular fluid and serum, 30 women with PCOS and 30 without PCOS were included for a miRNA microarray containing probes interrogating 2549 human miRNA. Read More

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February 2021

Coagulation removal of phosphorus from a southern China reservoir in different stages of algal blooms: Performance evaluation and AlP matching principle analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 1;782:146849. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18, Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Due to excessive nutrient discharge, many reservoirs in southern China suffer from eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. Several methods for phosphorus (P) removal have been proposed, including coagulation, adsorption, and biological methods. Among these methods, coagulation is preferable because of its quick effect, simple operation, and low cost. Read More

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Fasting-mediated metabolic and toxicity reprogramming impacts circulating microRNA levels in humans.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 8:112187. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center of Basic Research, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Athens, 11527, Greece. Electronic address:

It is well-established that long-term fasting improves metabolic health, enhances the total antioxidant capacity and increases well-being. MicroRNAs oversee energy homeostasis and metabolic processes and are widely used as circulating biomarkers to identify the metabolic state. This study investigated whether the levels of twenty-four metabolism-associated microRNAs are significantly altered following long-term fasting and if these changes correlate with biochemical and redox parameters in the plasma. Read More

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Zinc transporter mutations linked to acrodermatitis enteropathica disrupt function and cause mistrafficking.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 8;296:100269. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. Electronic address:

ZIP4 is a representative member of the Zrt-/Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporter family and responsible for zinc uptake from diet. Loss-of-function mutations of human ZIP4 (hZIP4) drastically reduce zinc absorption, causing a life-threatening autosomal recessive disorder, acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). These mutations occur not only in the conserved transmembrane zinc transport machinery, but also in the extracellular domain (ECD) of hZIP4, which is only present in a fraction of mammalian ZIPs. Read More

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January 2021

Phytochemical analysis of medicinal plants of Nepal and their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Apr 9;21(1):116. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biotechnology, National College, Tribhuvan University, Naya Bazar, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: A biofilm is an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composed of polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids that impede antibiotics and immune cells, thus providing a shielded environment for bacterial growth. Due to biofilm formation, some microbes can show up to 1000 fold increased resistance towards the antibiotics than the normal planktonic forms. The study was conducted to screen the crude extracts of medicinal plants used in Nepal for their in vitro antibiofilm activities. Read More

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Hippocampal and Septal 5-HT Receptor Expression in Two Rat Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Neuroscience 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Experimental and clinical data suggest an impact of serotonergic signaling on seizure susceptibility and epilepsy-associated psychiatric comorbidities. Previous µPET studies revealed increased binding of 5-HT receptor ligand [F]MPPF in two rat models with spontaneous recurrent seizures. These findings raised the question whether these alterations are due to altered 5-HT receptor expression or a modification of extracellular serotonin concentrations. Read More

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Fatty Acid Methyl Esters From the Coral-Associated Bacterium Inhibit Virulence and Biofilm Phenotypes in Multidrug Resistant : An Approach.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:631853. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India.

In an attempt to study the antibacterial, antivirulence and antibiofilm potentials of bacteria residing the tissue and surface mucus layers of the pristine corals, we screened a total of 43 distinct bacterial morphotypes from the coral sp. Among the isolates, strain CBMGL12 with showed antibacterial, antivirulence and antibiofilm activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic strains of (reference strain: MTCC96; community-acquired methicillin resistant strain: CA-MRSA). Extracellular products (ECP) from the coral-associated bacterium were solvent extracted, fractionated by chromatographic techniques such as silica column and HPLC-UV with concomitant bioassays guiding the fractionation of metabolites. Read More

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In vitro and in vivo relaxation and anti-inflammation of Natural Flavonoids from Elaeagnus pungens leaf via L-type Calcium channel and Targeting MAPK signal pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 5:114071. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Pharmaceutical Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the leaf of Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. (Family Elaeagnaceae) is an herb documented as an antiasthmatic remedy to treat the severe asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases in the early material medica "Bencao Gangmu" (Ming dynasty, about 442 years ago).

Aim Of The Study: This work is purposed to investigate the pharmacological effects and mechanism of total flavonoids from Elaeagnus pungens leaves (FLA) on asthma in vivo and vitro. Read More

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Exosome-delivered CD44v6/C1QBP complex drives pancreatic cancer liver metastasis by promoting fibrotic liver microenvironment.

Gut 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai, China

Objective: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) shows a remarkable predilection for liver metastasis. Pro-oncogenic secretome delivery and trafficking via exosomes are crucial for pre-metastatic microenvironment formation and metastasis. This study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of how PDAC-derived exosomes (Pex) modulate the liver microenvironment and promote metastasis. Read More

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Validation of α-Synuclein in L1CAM-Immunocaptured Exosomes as a Biomarker for the Stratification of Parkinsonian Syndromes.

Mov Disord 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Parkinson's disease is characterized by intraneuronal α-synuclein aggregation. Currently there is no α-synuclein-based blood test in clinical practice.

Objectives: Our aim was to assess by means of further testing and analysis whether α-synuclein measurements in serum L1CAM-immunocaptured exosomes can differentiate Parkinson's disease from related movement disorders. Read More

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